The Millennium Development Goals adopted by universe leaders and the international community in 2000 is playing a cardinal function in many human development dimensions. Specifically, the focal point of these ends seeks to undertake poorness in many dimensions because the job of poorness tends to be really utmost and prevalent in everyplace, every civilization and every state. Many of the marks set by the United Nations in accomplishing these ends are to the full on class because it has received the attending and concerns of national authoritiess, concerns, and the person as a whole particularly in the development states. For case, the intercession of the ends has helped cut down the proportion of people populating in utmost poorness from 46 % to 27 % in the development states ( United Nations, 2010 ) .
The Ghana authorities for illustration is on class to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals due to the project of execution programs such as the Highly Indebted Poor Country Initiatives ( HIPC ) , Livelihood Empowerment against Poverty ( LEAP ) , the National Youth Employment Programme ( NYEP ) , Savannah Accelerated Development Authority ( SADA ) , the National Health Insurance Scheme ( NHIS ) , Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy I & A ; II among others. These policies in diverse ways have helped the state in going the middle-income position and thereby accomplishing many chances in human development and thereby hold ensured a considerable growing in the economic system. A close position of these policies shows that the policies are meant to eliminate the predicament of disadvantaged communities and the exposures prone to hapless people and ways of assisting them to come out of their predicaments in the state.
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This paper seeks to entree the success degree of the first Millennium Development Goals that is the obliteration of utmost poorness and hungriness. In the treatment, the paper will foreground on the definition and position of poorness, what features and challenges characterize the hapless people. On the 2nd note, the paper will foreground some of the intercessions and steps such as the Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy I & A ; II, Livelihood Empowerment against Poverty ( LEAP ) , Savannah Accelerated Development Authority ( SADA ) , Micro-Finance and Small-Loans Centre ( MASLOC ) , Free School Uniforms, School Feeding Programme, National Health Insurance Scheme, adopted by the Ghana authorities towards the eradicating of utmost poorness and hungriness. The paper will do analysis, and measure whether the policies and steps in topographic point are assisting to accomplish the United Nations Millennium Development Goal by eliminating utmost poorness and hungriness in 2015. Some suggestions and recommendations are likely to be drawn to guarantee its impact and success.
Poverty and the Status of the Poor
The term poorness has been conceptualized in many signifiers with significances in conformity with the position and aim of those specifying the construct. Poverty as a multi-dimensional construct is ever understood by taking the income-based step, which is widely used in most states. The World Bank ( 2003 ) for case defines poorness as an income of less than a dollar per twenty-four hours. This sum nevertheless indicates the minimal sum that is needed for the endurance of the person. The study further proves that in 2003, over 1.2 billion people were populating in utmost poorness, which constitutes about 23.3 % of a planetary population of all low and middle-income states.
The Ghana Living Standards Survey besides provides another definition from a different point of position. The study defines poorness utilizing an economic index. It states that a hapless individual is characterized as those existing on a per capita income of less than two tierces of the national norm. This means that the poorness of an person is as income below one tierce of the mean. With farther analysis of the study, half of the Ghanese public are hapless and are found in the rural countries ( Ghana Statistical Service, 1999 ) . This is because, while bulk are found in nutrient harvest productions, the minority are found in the formal sector and private sector employment in the Ghanese economic system.
The World Bank Report ( 2000 ) nevertheless provided certain conditions that explained the position of a hapless individual. Some of these include the right to nutrient and other basic necessities, entree to economic, societal and human substructures, chances for income coevals and ingestion stableness, resource allotment and societal safety and protection of life and households.
Nkum and Ghartey ( 2000 ) besides provided certain characteristics that besides characterized a hapless individual in Ghana, which is similar to the World Bank study. They specified that, the hapless have inability to afford basic demands such as nutrient, shelter, vesture, wellness attention and instruction, deficiency of economic indexs, investing chances and substructures such as H2O, sanitation, entree to roads and wellness attention bringing. This therefore explains that income degrees do non merely count as a exclusive step of mensurating poorness but many factors come to play. These factors tend to change from state to state.
Governmental Measures of Poverty Reduction
In an effort to assist work out and turn to the challenges and exposures of poorness in the state, the Government of Ghana has come out with policies and programmes in undertaking the jobs of poorness in Ghana. Some of these intercessions include the followers:
Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy I & A ; II
The Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy ( GPRS I ) is a policy model issued in 2003 that is geared towards the attainment of anti-poverty aims of the Millennium Development Goals. The GPRS II issued late between 2006 and 2009 is intended to speed up the growing of the economic system by accomplishing the middle-income position in a mensurable period of clip. The policy model looks into many developmental countries such as primary instruction, H2O supply, public wellness among others. Harmonizing to the NDCP ( 2005 ) , the authorities has allocated budgetary resources to these pro-poor services and insidious indexs of unpleasant want in some corners within the societal constructions such as low registrations in schools in both rural and savannah countries, increasing dropout of the girl-child instruction have been overcome. In regard to that that authorities has embarked on a Universal Health Insurance Project System in protecting the people against catching diseases such as malaria, TB and HIV/AIDS. Health indexs such as maternal and infant mortality and the proviso of clean H2O to deprived communities are being looked at in recent times. Harmonizing to NDCP ( 2005 ) , the authorities has established 4,000 units of new primary/JSS blocks and re-constructed 1000 of older 1s in the state. With this, many untrained instructors are under preparation, curricular are being reshaped and technological chances are besides in topographic point to assist in the authorities execution programs of achieving basic educational degrees in the state as defined in the MDG ends. The GPRS scheme has besides helped deliverance more than 3,000 street kids including immature misss who had been populating in the metropoliss of Accra in the first four old ages of the scheme ( NDCP, 2005 ) .
In current intelligence, the Minister of Employment and Social Welfare, Mr. E.T. Mensah, said “ Ghana had more than a decennary pursued policies and programmes aimed at poorness decrease under the Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategies ( GPRS I & A ; II ) . He even stressed that current statistics showed that as the consequence of the increased focal point on poorness decrease enterprises, pro-poor growing activities and increased disbursement, poorness tendencies in Ghana has declined significantly. He even stated that the Ghana Living Standard Survey ( GLSS ) study indicated that the proportion of Ghanaians defined as hapless fell from 51.7 % in 1991/92 to 39.5 % in 1998/99 and farther to 28.5 % in 2005/06 ” ( Daily Graphic, 2011 p. 51 ) . This means that the execution of the GPRS has helped work out many developmental concerns of hapless communities and people in Ghana.
Livelihood Empowerment against Poverty
In an effort to assist bridge the poorness spread, the Government of Ghana in March 2008 introduced a societal hard currency transportation programme called Livelihood Empowerment against Poverty ( LEAP ) to supply hard currency and wellness insurance to the utmost hapless families across the state to relieve short-run poorness and promote long term human capital development. The programme came into force by recognizing that there exist 880,000 utmost hapless families in Ghana stand foring about 18.2 % of the full population ( Ablo, 2009 ) . The Ghana Statistical Service indicates that these utmost hapless families find it hard in profiting from many socio-economic development activities and besides can non even run into their minimal nutritionary demands if they spend their whole income entirely on nutrient ( Ablo, 2009 ) . With this national focal point, the LEAP came into force to increase school registration among kids in hapless families, cut downing infant mortality, bettering nutrition and guaranting birth enrollment among others. The programme has besides helped better the local economic system with the enhanced buying power of the utmost hapless. Since June 2010, the programme has been able to make about 35,000 families throughout Ghana with a annual outgo of about $ 11m ( Transfer Project, 2010 ) . In current times, 8,426 beneficiary families in 54 territories have benefited from the regular LEAP programme ( Ablo, 2009 ) . Ablo farther confirmed that families dwelling of 18, 200 have besides benefited from Emergency Leap in 20 territories. There are besides so many intercessions and activities being undertaken within the LEAP programme. Some of these include enlargement from 54 territories to 80 territories, baseline study in seven territories, upgrading of individual registry for everyday monitoring, impact appraisal, operational reappraisal, and capacity edifice among others.
Savannah Accelerated Development Authority
In an effort to bridge the poorness spread between the South and the North, the authorities of Ghana initiated the Savannah Accelerated Development Authority as portion of poorness decrease schemes in turn toing the development spread between Northern Ghana and Southern Ghana. The purpose of this policy enterprise is to speed up the socio-economic development of the Savannah belt through strategic investing in resource development. Sing the transition of the measure in October 2010, there have been many enterprises undertaken by the programme including the sustainable land direction ( GNA, 2010 ) . This policy enterprise expressions at six chief concerns including the “ development of a comprehensive regional and ecological scheme, a theoretical account for agricultural modernisation, development of strategic substructure, strong linkages between the Northern Savannah and the Sahelian states, a vigorous private sector enterprise that strengthen bing private operators and active support for civil society organisations and non-governmental organisations ” ( SEND West Africa, 2010 parity. 1 ) .
Despite the immature nature of this policy enterprise, many intended undertakings set out include the design of major substructure and H2O resources development along the Pwalugu and Sissili River Basins, a major investing in sugar-cane to ethanol transition including the constitution of sugar cane estate by a South African Company. Other developmental enterprises including schemes to prosecute adult females organisations in the sensitisation of stakeholders on the challenges and the chances for gender balanced development acceleration within the Savannah, the SADA development program and outgo for the average term, partnering with civil societies and non-governmental organisations are being initiated ( GNA, 2010 ) . Many of these intercessions are feasible enterprises to cut down poorness and generate growing. In diverse, many developmental vacuities in the three Savannah parts and portion of Volta and Brong Ahafo Regions are likely to have gradual developments within a shorter period of clip.
National Health Insurance Scheme
Bridging the poorness spread besides requires a feasible measure into the wellness sector. The feasible effort to work out the wellness demands of the people led to the debut of the National Health Insurance Scheme in 2003. After five old ages, the wellness strategy in Ghana has provided for approximately 60 % of the Ghanese population, covering 95 % of the disease load ( Agyepong, 2003 ) . The wellness insurance strategy provides services such as out-patient services, in-patient services, unwritten wellness, pregnancy attention and exigencies among others. In all these countries, the registered patients pay a minimal premium fee yearly. The cardinal authorities in coaction with the Ministry of Health provides about 80 % of the support of the public sector wellness service ( Ansah and Gyapong, 2000 ) . Due to the low incomes of people within the Ghanese territories, a figure of people have been registered into the wellness insurance strategy in Ghana. In the Dangme West District Health Insurance Scheme for case, Ansah and Gyapong confirmed that a figure of 775 families consisting of a sum of 3,081 persons were registered in the strategy in 2000.
In current times, the Government of Ghana is besides bearing the cost of attention for exempt classs of patients particularly kids under five old ages, grownups over 70 old ages and besides for prenatal clients. Many intercessions are besides on class being taken by the authorities to cover for the proviso of some exposed wellness concerns in state. The wellness insurance in diverse ways has aid reduced peculiarly decease rates in the state and has provided curious wellness demands of many disadvantaged communities in the state. In all, the strategy is one of the greatest tools of assisting people to go healthy so that they can supply enviable support in many sectors of the economic system and thereby cut downing poorness in the state.
Micro-Finance and Small-Loans Centre
In the country of finance, one of the micro-finance intercessions by the authorities to assist cut down poorness in the state is the constitution of the Micro-finance and Small-Loans Centre in the state merely known as MASLOC. With the trouble of many informal sector workers such as husbandmans, fishwifes, junior-grade bargainers etc in accessing loans and other signifiers of recognition installations, the Government of Ghana brought this intercession so that persons, co-operatives and other groups in the grassroots communities can besides bring forth wealth, save and spread out their mini and medium graduated table endeavors and therefore taking to urban and rural poorness decrease in the state. Khandker ( 1988 ) even argues that micro funding intercessions have resulted from the hapless people particularly the hapless adult females in many states. This is because ; they do non hold financess to enable them to run their little concerns. This means that battling poorness requires intercessions from the different signifiers of micro crediting and other fiscal services.
The MASLOC since its origins in 2001/2002 has provided about A?230bn to over 150,000 borrowers compared with the estimated figure of 3.5m people in hunt for fiscal aid as stressed by President Kuffour ( Atafori, 2006 ) . Harmonizing to Atafori, President Kuffour noted that the latest Human Poverty Index show that poorness degree has fallen from 51.7 % in 1998/99 to 41 % in 2002/2003 bespeaking a important diminution in poorness degrees within the past five old ages in the state. The study besides revealed that since the origin of the MASLOC, about 279,000 adult females have benefited from an sum of A?17bn. The operations of the strategy have besides exposed many adult females to the banking system, increased their net incomes and expanded their concerns.
Free School Uniforms
The free school informs intercession by the Ghana authorities is besides a enormous measure to addendum of the attempt of some parents within hapless families the supply of school uniforms to many kids throughout the state. Many parts of Ghana have received their just portion of the uniforms in the state. Noteworthy among them is the Ashanti Region of Ghana. A figure of 19,310 school uniforms have been distributed to the Ashanti Region under the Free School Uniforms porgramme. In that same part, the authorities has provided 7,001,796 exercising books under the Exercise Books Scheme ( Odoom and Freiku, 2010 ) . It is extremely seen that this programme has helped reduced the loads of parent particularly hapless parents in the instruction of their kids. The authorities is besides working towards the addition of the capitation grants in most schools in the part and Ghana as a whole.
Analysis and Recommendations
Sing the above-named governmental intercessions and policies in the state, it can be seen that the authorities of Ghana is making its possible best to assist accomplish the focal point of cut downing utmost poorness and hungriness by 2015. This is because ; within all these programmes there are other impending pro-poor induction and undertakings being taking by the governments involved to assist increase governmental support in poorness decrease. Noteworthy enterprises among can the found in the many developmental enterprises of the Savannah Accelerated Development Authority, therefore doing a feasible effort to prosecute adult females organisations in the sensitisation of stakeholders on the challenges and the chances for gender balanced development acceleration within the Savannah ( GNA, 2010 ) . Additionally, the Livelihood Empowerment against Poverty ( LEAP ) besides intends to spread out their activities from 54 territories to 80 territories, everyday monitoring, and capacity edifice among others.
It is of the position that, the Ghana authorities is doing positive advancement towards poorness decrease because of other governmental enterprises including the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education ( FCUBE ) , ( an enterprise to assist inscribe all kids in the state in their basic instruction ) the National Youth Employment Programme ( NYEP ) ( an enterprise to assist use many of the unemployed young person in the assorted sectors of the Ghanaian economic system ) , the School Feeding Programme ( an enterprise that is geared towards feeding immature kids in the basic schools in the state ) among others. Despite the positive benefits derived from these intercessions, there are many facing issues and challenges that hinder the advancement of these governmental intercessions. This is because, taking into consideration the Livelihood Empowerment against Poverty ( LEAP ) , the enterprise is prone to disputing issues such as jobs of execution capacity, escape issues, uneffective communicating, supervising conditionalities and among others ( Ablo, 2009 ) . The National Youth Employment Programme for illustration tends to be unfavourable sometimes to the Ghanaian young person. It is noted that 2 % of 59, 804 of youth employment searchers had occupations between Januarys to March 2000 ( GSS, 2005 ) . Despite that, there are still unsettled wages for some workers up till now. The programme have besides been designed in such as manner that young person in the rural countries do non acquire entree to these Youth Employment Centers in the metropoliss. Most of the jobs being encountered through are due to political and economic grounds. Lack of leading committednesss, uneffective communicating among governments, deficiency of cooperation among staff members are likely factors that tend to face the advancement of these poorness decrease intercessions by the Ghana authorities. On a whole, there are many holds in the execution and executing of all these inductions.
In recommendation, the Ghana authorities demands to envision and develop more poverty decrease schemes in assorted sectors of the economic system particularly in countries such as agricultural modernisation, nutrient security and agricultural productiveness, intentionally to cover with the hungriness job in the state, general instruction, efficient wellness attention and bringing, employment coevals among others. There must be execution programs by the governments in charge to assist regenerate the already poverty decrease schemes to guarantee its cooperation and development. The authorities and its bureaus involved should assist shun their political differences and transfuse committedness and dedication towards the execution of these strategic programs. There should be peace among all the governmental functionaries and the bureaus involved towards the undertaken, execution and executing of poverty decrease schemes.
Second, all the necessary stakeholders involved in assisting in the growing and development of these intercessions must develop their committedness and involvement in the programmes. There should besides be effectual communicating adequately from all degrees of national development sing the poorness decrease enterprises. For case in the educational sector, the authorities and other governmental organisations must go on to set up more educational substructures in the rural countries and do instruction really accessible to the hapless. In position of this, the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education ( FCUBE ) needs to be re-instituted in order to hike the literacy degree of people in the state particularly among the rural inhabitants. The Youth-in Agriculture Programme instituted by the authorities through the Ministry of Food and Agriculture ( MOFA ) needs to be revived so that more young person when employed in the agricultural sector would increase in the production of nutrient harvests and farm animal production to cover with hungriness that is associated with hapless people in the state.
In the wellness sector, infirmaries and more clinics besides need to be established to hike the life anticipation degree of hapless people in the state. The National Health Insurance Scheme should besides be revived. In the micro-finance sector and peculiarly in footings of revenue enhancement inflictions, the authorities and its regulative organic structures must give revenue enhancement vacations non merely to Micro-Finance and Small-Loans Centre ( MASLOC ) but to other micro finance establishments such as the Ghana Cooperative Credit Unions Association ( CUA ) , Ghana Cooperative Susu Collectors Association ( GCSCA ) , and Ghana Microfinance Institutions Network ( GHAMFIN ) among others in order to assist increase micro funding schemes of assisting the hapless people in the state.
Third, there should be capacity appraisal, monitoring and rating and besides care and sustainability of all these poverty decrease schemes. The governments in charge have a function to play and so make the community and the people. Support and cooperation from citizens should be complemented. There is besides the demand for authorization and activism from persons so that all these poverty decrease schemes are channeled through common consent from the local degree to international degree.
To reason, the Ghana authorities is so on class in the accomplishment of the first millenary development ends by 2015. Success is evidently seen and chalked through the above-named intercessions. A close position of these intercessions by the authorities when measured can be said that the authorities is making the possible best in guaranting that every country of poorness jobs are been tackled. In position of this, many disadvantaged communities in the state have seen developments in their field of human enterprises. In per centum wise, it is of the sentiment of that the Ghana authorities has achieved 40 % of his aims in assisting eradicate utmost poorness and hungriness in the state. This because, the programmes though a gradual measure is doing a feasible advancement and betterment in the lives of many Ghanaians.
In a nutshell, if the above suggestions are taken into consideration the predicament and unpleasant conditions of many hapless people would be resolved and thereby cut downing the utmost poorness and hungriness in the state and finally assisting accomplish the millenary development ends by 2015.