Harmonizing to Perlman, Hopkins and Jonsson ( 1998 ) , research has shown that urban population in developing states has tripled over the last 30 old ages, particularly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Faced by decreasing economic chances, people migrate from their rural places to urban countries in hunt for new chances. They barely win and are frequently trapped in a downward poorness rhythm without entree to proper sanitation, clean H2O, proper waste direction, good drainage system and adequate nutrient. They end up life in informal colonies that make it hard for them to get away from poorness ( Dale 2008 ) .
Urban poorness is multi- faceted. It is characterised by illegal urban colonies, unequal income, deficiency of entree to public substructure and general deficiency of power within political systems of the hapless. Today ‘s mega metropoliss have exceeded bounds of their carrying capacity to prolong human life. Many people in the universe today live in informal urban communities where deficiency of resources leads to environmental debasement, making even more poorness ( Power and Houghton 2007 ) . While poorness has been the focal point of development enterprises in Asia, Africa and Pacific since the terminal of colonial epoch, there was small focal point on urban poorness until 1980s. UNESCAP ( 2000 ) points out absolute poorness and comparative poorness as two chief degrees of poorness confronting people today. The World Bank currency respects people gaining less than US $ 1 per twenty-four hours to be perfectly hapless, while the European Union defines the comparatively hapless people as those people whose resources are so limited such that they exclude them from minimal criterions of acceptable manner of life.
2. Types of Poverty
UNESCAP ( 2000 ) points out poorness of money, power and poorness of entree are three chief facets of poorness that make working and societal environments of the urban hapless to be highly insecure and badly limit their available options for life betterment. Breaking poverty rhythm is virtually impossible without picks and security. Poverty in urban countries has led to marginalization and disaffection of the urban hapless from the remainder of the society ( Power and Houghton 2007 ) . It is characterised by deficiency of money since most victims are unemployed and either deficiency a beginning of income or the ability to roll up assets necessary for making wealth to interrupt the rhythm of poorness.
Many urban hapless live in overcrowded illegal and informal colonies because they can non afford formal lodging. Such slums deficiency entree to substructure and basic services because they are usually located on fringy land, chiefly along river Bankss, close refuse dumping sites and along steep inclines. They are prone to manmade catastrophes since they are illegal and occupants do non hold security of term of office. They lack formal basic substructure and services such as clean safe imbibing H2O, electricity, solid waste disposal and proper drainage systems ( Power and Houghton 2007 ) . The urban hapless life in illegal colonies neither invest nor better on their lodging installations because they live in fright of eviction. Giusti de and P & A ; eacute ; rez ( 2008 ) observes that such people are exposed to many environmental jeopardies ensuing from life in crowded topographic points. Similarly, their kids lack entree to good instruction, they drop out of school earlier to seek employment and back up their households, some end up going felons and cocottes as a consequence of defeats ensuing from poorness in many states, the civilization of administration every bit good as the formal authorities constructions exclude the hapless from determination devising, despite the fact that the hapless have a great ability to act upon determination devising and make a system of administration that is participatory, consensus oriented, antiphonal to the demands of population. The urban hapless deficiency entree to information that can be used for their ain personal promotion and authorization ( UNESCAP 2000 ) .
3. Solutions to Urban Poverty
There has been diverse chorus of voices demanding for healthier, stronger and more sustainable urban communities and urban authorities. Dale ( 2008 ) and Giusti de and P & A ; eacute ; rez ( 2008 ) have clearly shown that urban poorness requires a multi sectored solutions because it is the key to be aftering inquiries for metropoliss in this millenary. It is critically of import for authoritiess to develop a policy model and low environment to advance growing and development that will relieve urban poorness and lead to better lives. Schemes adopted to relieve urban poorness should turn to the three chief facets of poorness discussed above.
3.1 Alleviating Poverty of Money
The spread between the rich and hapless has greatly been increased by globalisation. Both the authorities and civil societies should take specific intercessions to control this job. UNESCAP ( 2000 ) argues that this can be achieved through support and integrating of economic systems of the hapless into formal economic system at metropolis degree, national degree and planetary degree. Government and non- governmental organisations should supply necessary substructure and increase both e-literacy and literacy degrees in order to make a footing for cognition based economic system. Dale ( 2008 ) further adds that community trade should be promoted to help the hapless in get the better ofing the cyclical economic ruins that are likely to increase as a consequence of states reconstituting of economic systems in order to increase their degree of integrating to planetary market. Through incorporating the economic systems of the hapless, authoritiess guarantee that microenterprises of the urban hapless are encouraged to supply unbelievable services to higher income groups. Cities have ever excluded and discriminated against the hapless and the vulnerable market in many states.
E- Commerce could supply major chances that straight link the micro- fabrication of the urban hapless to consumers and concern in developed economic systems. UNESCAP ( 2000 ) high spots that the hapless should be provided with entree to recognition at market rates because many community and trade nest eggs and recognition establishments have frequently exploited them by imparting at higher involvements.
Investing in cognition based economic system can greatly lend to relief of urban poorness ( Dale 2008 and UNESCAP 2000 ) . This involves creative activity of human resources base and substructure for sustainable growing of cognition. There should be monolithic investings in information and communicating substructure every bit good as power distribution webs to liberalise and advance a competitory environment in telecommunication and power coevals distribution markets. E- Literacy should be promoted and be made accessible to the urban hapless because it will open up international trade chances. Community – based safety cyberspaces should be promoted as a agency of relieving urban poorness. Research has shown that many authorities subordinate plans established for the exclusive intent of protecting the hapless ne’er reach them. Such people should be provided with community based safety cyberspaces such as scholarships, low-cost wellness attention and unemployment insurance.
3.2 Relieving the Poverty of Access
Both Dale ( 2008 ) and Power and Houghton ( 2007 ) are of the sentiment that the urban hapless should be provided with entree to knowledge and proficient accomplishments on how to better their lodging and substructure. This can be achieved if governmental and nongovernmental organisations initiate plans that recognize investings that urban hapless brand in building their houses and promote them to better on their colonies by supplying security of term of office. Low income lodging should be put in topographic point for the rural hapless migrating to urban countries. Such undertakings should affect communities at grassroots in their planning, design and execution to vouch their success.
3.3 Relieving the Poverty of Power
Experience has shown that when the hapless are united and are in ownership of some proficient accomplishments, they have high opportunities of bettering their ain life conditions. Both UNESCAP ( 2000 ) and Giusti de P & A ; eacute ; rez and P & A ; eacute ; rez ( 2008 ) concur that nongovernmental administrations can catalyze alliances of the urban hapless to beef up their bargaining places and construct good partnerships that lead to poverty obliteration. Community based organisations such as community nest eggs and recognition strategies should be developed on long term concern to continuously and sustainably prosecute the hapless because such strategies have a great potency for success in authorising the urban hapless to interrupt the rhythm of poorness. Such community organisations should be empowered with operational and fiscal direction accomplishments in group interaction, consensus edifice and dialogue.
Access to knowledge and the ability to set the acquired cognition and information into usage is a cardinal constituent of power and wealth creative activity ( UNESCAP 2000 ) . Program enterprises should be put in topographic point to supply the urban hapless with such cognition and information because this will authorise them. Free flow of information encourages transparence in determination devising and gives a opportunity to the hapless to take part and act upon determination devising. To guarantee that there is equal engagement of the hapless in determination devising, they should be provided with appropriate resources to construe the information provided. Both nongovernmental and academic establishments should work together to make full this spread.
This paper started by discoursing different types and causes of urban poorness. High degrees of unemployment in Africa, Asia and Pacific can be blamed for increased rates of rural urban in-migration that has contributed to urban poorness. Most people migrating from their rural places to urban countries end up life in slums and deficiency entree to basic societal comfortss. Poverty in Urban countries can be alleviated if both governmental and nongovernmental organisations work together to turn to the factors that contribute to poverty through support and integrating of economic systems of the hapless into formal economic system, Investing in cognition based economic system and through alliances that strengthen dickering places of the urban hapless, while constructing good partnerships that lead to poverty obliteration for both the present and future coevalss.