When the Restoration occurred in England, there were virtually no new phase dramas. The authors went back to old plants, such as Anthony and Cleopatra. The paper shows how Dryden ‘s All for Love returns to analysing the romantic hero. It is Drydenaa‚¬a„?s best-known and most performed drama. It is a calamity written in clean poetry and is an effort on Dryden ‘s portion to reinvigorate serious play. Dryden trades in this drama with the same topic as that of Shakespeare ‘s Antony and Cleopatra. In this drama the abstract elements push the drama frontward instead than concrete 1s. Dryden besides shift abstract elements into the concrete by the characters environing Antony typify different emotions and roles.all the characters here are influenced by political and personal motive. It is one of the cardinal subjects of the drama. Antony has an internal struggle between taking his love or his place.
Dryden claims in his foreword to All for Love that his drama is for “ the excellence of the moral ; for the main individual presented, were celebrated forms of improper love ; and their terminal consequently was unfortunate ” . The drama does non desire to demo condemnable love punished for evildoing. It shows a surpassing love for which the universe is good lost. At the terminal of the drama the hero and the diacetylmorphine have our understanding because of their passion. We do non judge them every bit good. There was a difference between what Dryden wrote and what his existent intent was. The difference is explicable and after that a clearer image of what he intended to state would emerge, if we consider that Dryden ‘s thought of composing play was traveling through passage at this clip and the foreword to All for Love shows more consequence. Dryden in his epistle to Aureng-Zebe provinces his dissatisfaction with the phase ; ” I am weary with pulling the malformations of life, and lepers of the people, where every figure of imperfectness resembles me that it can make others.. If I ‘m condemned to rime, I should happen some easiness in my alteration of penalty. I decided to be no longer the Sisyphus of the phase, to function up a rock with eternal labour, to function up a rock with eternal labour, and which is perpetually falling down once more ” . Dryden wanted to travel off from the heroic drama with its heroic poem theory, Gallic idealism and Caroline wit.. He attacked his opposition because of their judgement of his drama by agencies of Gallic regulations of decorousness. He said about the ideal hero of Gallic play: ; ” their Hippolitus is so scrupulous in point of decency, that he will instead expose himself to decease, that accuse his measure mother t his male parent ; and my critics I am certainly will notice him for it. ; but we of grosser apprehensiveness are disposed to believe, that this surplus of generousness is non operable, but we saps and lunatics. “ Behind his onslaught on decorousness, there are of import critical premises.one of them is that the emotions raised in the audience are more of import than the formal construction of play. He believed that the major consequence of the calamity is o create commiseration for the hero.
If All for Love owes its power to techniques which gain our understanding for Antony and Cleopatra, it is in some ways less satisfactory than Dryden ‘s other dramas for the really ground. Emotion is a powerful arm for literature which must travel manus in manus with intelligence. Without intelligence art is merely soft and obscure, plot become arbitrary and characters non sufficiently motivated in their actions and passions. Intelligence here means the whole personality of the writer, his feelings, sentiments, beliefs and penetration into adult male.
When we grasp the thought that Antony ‘s love wins over his responsibility, there would be no existent struggle left to prosecute our head. Caesar ‘s function has been reduced to a reminder of the least attractive of Roman values.
O, ‘t is the coldest young person upon a charge,
The most calculated combatant! If he ventures
‘t is when he can non chuse,
When all the universe have fixed their eyes upon him ;
And so he lives on that for seven old ages after,
But, at a close retaliation he ne’er fails. ( All for Love2, I, 19. )
Octavia offered a true struggle to Antony between passion and responsibility ; but Dryden feared that she lessens the favours of the audience toward Antony and Cleopatra so he made her a puritan to whom pleasance is a wickedness.
Far be their cognition from a Roman lady,
Far from a modest married woman. Shame or our sex,
Dost thou non crimson, to have those black endearments
That makes wickedness delighting? ( All for Love 3, I, 43 )
We can non do certain which issue is truly at interest, Antony ‘s love R Cleopatra ‘s honestness. In malice of the emotional linguistic communication many scenes are non motivated plenty. After Ventidius persuaded Antony to travel to war, Cleopatra tried to derive him once more ;
How shall I plead my cause, when you, my justice
Already have condemn ‘d me? shall I convey
The love you bore me for my Advocate? That now is turned against me, that destroys me,
For love one time past, is, at the best, forgotten ;
But after sours to detest: ’twill supplications my Godhead
To destroy me, and hence I ‘ll be guilty ( All for Love 2, I, 25 )
It is necessary for her to demo an offer from Caesar that she has refused, and so his ground would be overcome once more by love. We can believe about it that why Antony needed Dollabella to give Cleopatra his farewell except the really ground that Dryden felt it was a hapless touch. These were used to pull sentiments from the audience. And they lack Dryden ‘s customary intelligence to derive emotion. There is besides material for lampoon, the sentiments of which would be quickly demolished in thee heroic dramas by dry imagination and even the suicide scene is a series of awkward mawkishnesss.
See ; see how the lovers sit in province together,
As they were giving Torahs to half world,
Th ‘ feeling of a smiling left I her face,
Shows she dy ‘d pleas ‘d with him for whom she lived,
And went to capture him in another universe ( All for Love 5, I, 45 )
By and large the drama succeeded In the laterality of passion over ground. It raises our emotions, and the understanding for the mistakes of the chief characters. If we see the rise or our emotion as Dryden ‘s purpose, so many of our confusions disappear, like the self-destruction of Ventidius, the cold virtuousness of Octavia and besides the deficiency of moral judgement attention deficit disorder to the sympathy Dryden hope to accomplish. All for Love misses illustriousness because its intent is merely to raise the emotion of the audience instead than demoing the imperfectness of life. All for Love lacks the force per unit area of intelligence upon its capable affairs, and we finally are left with a sense of being cheated. And at the terminal this inquiry remains that why Dryden said that he wrote this drama for the excellence of its moral. We can happen that this period for him was a period of passage when he had unsettled rules and he searched to happen less constrictive regulations. After he has broken up with expressions of the heroic drama he was both influenced by those elements in Rapin ‘s heroic poem theory which was a kind of justification for the romantic side of play and besides the moralising influence of Le Bossu.
Dryden wrote about Rapin ‘s observation that the intent of calamity is to foment the viewing audiences commiseration for the bad lucks of the hard-pressed ; ” when the psyche become agitated by fright for one character, or hope for another so it is that we are pleased in calamity “ his statement can be applied to All for Love. Dryden besides wrote about Le Bossu: “ the first regulation that Bossu prescribes to the author of a heroic verse form, and which hold excessively by the same ground in all dramatic poesy, is to do the lesson of the work ; that is, to put down to yourself what that percept f morality shall be, which you would insinuate into the people ; as viz. , Homer ‘s was, that brotherhood preserves a commonwealth, and strife destroys it. Sophocles in his Oedipus, that no an is to be accounted happy before his decease. ”
Despite that Dryden had Le Bossu ‘s construct of play in head but applied it to a drama which was upon a different critical theory.the really ground is clear in the paragraph quoted supra. Because “ that brotherhood preserves a commonwealth and strife destroys it, and All for Love shows the unfortunate terminals of improper lovers. This was the start of Bossu ‘s influence upon him and we can clearly see it in his other dramas after it.