Entrepreneurship in developing countries compared to developed countries

This paper examines how entrepreneurial activity can be measured and what its indexs are. The analyses of nine OECD-Eurostat EIP datasets ensuing from a study conducted in amongst others South Korea and the United States reveal that differences, similarities and anomalousnesss in entrepreneurial activity root from cultural, national and economic evidences. A arrested development theoretical account has been created to look into the consequence of five selected factors ( function theoretical account, instruction, fiscal support, old experience, fright of failure ) on a individual ‘s pick of position: going freelance or being an employee. The findings suggest that merely a function theoretical account, old experience, and fiscal support have a important consequence on the pick of position.

Description of the research job:

Entrepreneurship is a planetary force driving growing, occupation creative activity and fight. But does an enterpriser in a underdeveloped state face more troubles than an enterpriser in a developed state, or does he perchance have even better chances than the enterpriser in a developed state? Rather than discoursing why entrepreneurship is of import, this paper will concentrate on how entrepreneurship progresses otherwise in developed/developing states. To look into on the aforesaid inquiry, the two states South Korea ( developing state ) and the United States ( developed state ) will be exhaustively compared. The ground for concentrating on these states is that they have in common that both are invention driven economic systems and both have comparatively high degrees of entrepreneurial activity. On footing of these similarities we can subtract how they differ in other facets that influence their degree of entrepreneurial activity. It is singular that South Korea is one of the states which has achieved merely a certain phase of capitalistic development that provides an institutional environment for promoting invention and entrepreneurship, whereas the United States has a superior entrepreneurial civilization that encourages hazard taking and absorbs failure ( Aydogan, 2009 ) . Even though these states differ in this position, both states have many successful enterprisers runing from United States ‘ Apple to South Korea ‘s Samsung.

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So in both states we see entrepreneurial successes even though they face different restraints and chances in their states. The purpose of this paper is to postpone the causings every bit good as the interconnectednesss between their different attitudes toward entrepreneurship. In order to measure how these variables genuinely impact each other, this research examines to what extent this is reflected in economically mensurable variables.

The purpose of the research: Research Questions

1 ) How can we mensurate entrepreneurial activity?

In order to mensurate entrepreneurial activity we need to measure the grounds why some chose to go an enterpriser and why others do non hold these aspirations. In this scene, what precisely are the facets that separate South Korea from the United States?

2 ) What are the indexs of entrepreneurial activity?

Six determiners together create the environment crucial to an enterpriser. These determiners are regulative model, civilization, entree to finance, entrepreneurial capablenesss, and market conditions. This portion contains how entrepreneurs perceive these determiners and the explanatory grounds why they differ in nature in South Korea compared to the United States. The purpose here is to do a comparative appraisal of the indexs of entrepreneurship in both states to see where true differences, similarities and possible anomalousnesss lie.

3 ) What does it connote for entrepreneurship in both states and how make these variables really postpone?

The concluding portion will dwell of the application of the aforesaid variables in the country-specific scenes of the United States and South Korea by ways of a first order additive arrested development theoretical account. This portion tries to explicate how the variables interact with each other and what the kineticss behind these variables are.

The methods and attacks to be used:

– Empirical informations research: information from the OECD-Eurostat ‘s EIP ( Entrepreneurial Indicator Program ) , the GEM and the Kaufmann Index will be used to seek for implicit in connexions and to pull on of import decisions.


01/02 – 25/02 Writing thesis proposal

25/02 – 04/04 Finish all chapters

04/04 – 18/04 Midterm rating

18/04 – 13/05 Writing concluding version

27/05 Defense unmarried man thesis

1 ) How can we mensurate entrepreneurial activity?

In assorted literatures the definition of an enterpriser varies well. In this paper an enterpriser is defined as a individual who prefers self-employment above seeking for a paid occupation. Despite the deficiency of consensus with regard to different facets of entrepreneurship bookmans appear to hold that the degree of entrepreneurial activity varies consistently both across states and over clip ( Rees and Shah, 1986 ; Blanchflower, 2000 ; Blanchflower and Meyer, 1994 ; De Wit and Van Winden, 1989 ) . Therefore, this paper will do usage of the OECD-Eurostat information to mensurate entrepreneurial activity across different states in a comparable manner.

Harmonizing to the OECD-Eurostat Entrepreneurship Indicator Program, entrepreneurial activity is defined as enterprising human action in chase of the coevals of value through the creative activity or enlargement of economic activity, by placing and working new merchandises, processes or markets. What are now the determiners to make such an entrepreneurial environment and how can we mensurate them?

In order to mensurate entrepreneurial activity we need to measure the grounds why some chose to go an enterpriser and why others do non hold these aspirations. These grounds can confirm explicating the differences in entrepreneurial activity in the United States and South Korea. Besides, related to this subject is whether people perceive entrepreneurship as an chance or as a necessity. This is a really of import impression since entrepreneurial activity can dwell of both types. Harmonizing to Reynolds et Al. ( 2002 ) , the literature frequently distinguishes chance entrepreneurship-starting a concern to take advantage of an entrepreneurial opportunity-from necessity entrepreneurship-starting a concern because other employment options are either absent or unsatisfactory. The differentiation between opportunity-driven and necessity-driven entrepreneurship will be farther explained in the following chapter.

To measure the grounds why some chose to go an enterpriser and why others have non, the following datasets have been analyzed:

Dataset 1. The pick of position: freelance or employee

Dataset 2. Preference for employee position

Dataset 3. Preference for self-employment

These datasets are based on the informations aggregation in 2010 amongst 35 states roll uping to a entire sample N of 26000 respondents, age group 18-64 old ages. Every dataset is exhaustively analyzed in such a manner that the kineticss behind these variables are explained in the state specific contexts of South Korea and the United States. The datasets show whether people instead chose for freelance or going an employee and what the grounds for their penchant is.

Dataset 1. The pick of position: freelance or employee

If people would be given the voluntary pick whether they prefer self-employment above seeking a paid occupation, this dataset represents their picks. It shows that South Korea and the United States reciprocally show a clear penchant for being freelance instead than being an employee compared to the other states.

A possible account for the penchant of self-employment over seeking a paid occupation could be that higher revenue enhancements drive a big figure of people into self-employment as a manner of avoiding high revenue enhancements on rewards and wages ( Bruce 2000, Schuetze 2000, Bruce 2002 ) . As the graph below shows, these revenue enhancements can be rather high. In this graph, the threshold means the multiple of the AW ( mean pay ) net incomes at which the top statutory personal income revenue enhancement rate first applies. In South Korea the revenue enhancement on the pay income can run up to 38,5 % and in the United States even to 41,9 % . Self-employment would therefore perchance be a good manner to avoid such high revenue enhancements on rewards.

To do self-employment even more appealing in the United States, much aid such as fiscal support via grants, extended web handiness and venture capital resources are accessible through amongst others the NGO Startup America Partnership and the Kauffman foundation. These organisations function as portals making direct entree in order to run into the demands of many startup companies.

Another of import impression that can excite entrepreneurship is related to labour contracts. Jung ( 2002 ) observed that the U.S. economic system is known to hold a high grade of labour market flexibleness, which correlates with economic dynamism. This flexibleness is besides reinforced by the comparative easiness of fire and engaging employees when necessary, which enables enterprisers to easy set the figure of needful employees with the fluctuations of the economic system. As van Stel et Al. ( 2007 ) point out, entrepreneurship tends to be higher in states where it is comparatively easy to engage and disregard employees.

On the other manus, there are besides possible grounds for non going freelance. The United States flourishes because of 1000000s of entrepreneurial companies. Since there are so many companies present already, merely low borders exist for most of these companies because of the extremely competitory nature of present markets. Knowing this may go a disincentive for possible enterprisers, since such a high figure of rivals can do it less attractive to go entrepreneurial.

In the instance of South Korea, as the Economist ( May, 2011 ) points out, “ the Korean economic system is dominated by the chaebol, immense pudding stones with tentacles in every fret. Although the chaebol have played a critical function in South Korea ‘s development, they besides suck up recognition and blockade the rise of start-ups. Parents of bright immature Koreans typically maneuver them into steady callings in the chaebol, the authorities or the professions. ” In South Korea, stableness has ever been of great importance. As the Economist further elaborates, “ widespread young person unemployment is altering that computation, nevertheless. An impressive 58 % of Koreans aged 25-34 have attended university, but 346,000 alumnuss are presently out of work, up from 268,000 two old ages ago. Some become enterprisers out of necessity: about 30,000 immature South Koreans say they want to establish their ain companies, one study found. And harmonizing to the authorities, the figure of “ one-person originative endeavors ” in the state has risen by 15 % in the past twelvemonth, to 235,000. ” This indicates that the newer coevalss are easy and bit by bit switching from traditionally working for the chaebol to going more entrepreneurial.

Jung ( 2002 ) says that a factor that is of import in lighting the latent entrepreneurial energy nowadays in the Korean people seems to be the economic and political system. He continues by claiming that in Korea, political democracy, economic liberalisation, and an open-door policy all have contributed to the development of individuality, originative thought and new concern energy. All of these facets will stay to be of import for Korean entrepreneurship to turn and boom.

This dataset will be farther explained and used in the arrested development theoretical account in the concluding portion of this paper.

Dataset 2. Preference for employee position

This dataset examines what the implicit in grounds are for people who prefer being an employee instead than freelance.

The United States has one of the lowest per centums of people preferring being an employee instead than freelance in order to hold a regular, fixed income. Besides, compared to the other states, the United States do non look to hold the demand for a stable employment or fixed on the job hours as the other states do. This can construe as a mere contemplation of their strong belief in the unseeable manus of the free market and the belief that their destiny ever lies in their ain custodies, because even without stable employment or fixed working hours they still feel in control of their ain hereafter. In other words, they perceive the possible hazards of going freelance with lesser fright. This is most likely due to their deeply rooted entrepreneurial civilization where risk-taking is a common trait among many of the American citizens.

A singular fact is that in the United States 63,4 % of the respondents chose to be an employee over self-employment for different unmentioned grounds, which is the highest per centum amongst all the other states. A possible ground for this is that the chance cost of go forthing a tenured place as an employee is high, beef uping penchants for regular employment and cut downing the inducements for entrepreneurship ( See, for example, Audretsch et Al. 2002 ) .

The United States has a really low per centum of people bespeaking being afraid of ruddy tape or jobs with public governments as a ground non to being freelance. This indicates that the authorities shows to be supportive of entrepreneurship by doing it every bit easy as possible to get down a new concern. As Storey et Al. ( 1994 ) explains, the authorities can indirectly excite entrepreneurship by easing administrative and legislative loads, thereby leting enterprisers to give more of their clip, money, and attempt to productive activities.

South Korea on the other manus, shows that a bulk of 57,2 % chose for being an employee for the ground to hold a regular, fixed income and 61,4 % respondents prefer being an employee instead than holding a stable employment. As Ho and Wong ( 2007 ) point out, low costs to get down and spread out a concern entirely will non lure an enterpriser to work an chance ; the expected wages must be big plenty to counterbalance for the chance costs and uncertainness incurred. This explains why South Korea proves to be more hazard averse and why they have a comparatively high penchant for protection by societal security and/or insurances compared to the other states. Bankruptcy or any other signifier or failure can fundamentally interpret into a societal decease in South Korea. With strong Confucian values booming in the South Korean society, failure is considered black and hence that hazard is to be avoided every bit much as possible.

Unusually, South Korea shows to hold one of the highest per centums bespeaking a deficiency of accomplishments for self-employment as a ground for preferring being an employee instead than freelance. An account why the respondents may hold indicated a deficiency of accomplishments as a ground for non being self-employed is that people may miss the assurance to get down up their ain concern, as mentioned earlier, due to fear of failure.

Besides, 19 % of the South Korean people indicate to fear the legal and societal effects if they fail. A possible ground for this comparatively high per centum is besides related to the strong Confucian political orientation nowadays in East Asia. As Park and Shin ( 2006 ) explain, the Confucian moral tradition is qualitatively different from the Western moral tradition ; the former stresses the norms of societal duties and corporate good and the pattern of esteeming the rights of other people. Consequently, being successful will derive a individual great prestigiousness, but being a failure will besides do a individual to experience a great sense of shame.

Dataset 3. Preference for self-employment

This dataset examines what the grounds are for people to be freelance over being an employee.

51,1 % of the American respondents and 56,5 % of the South Korean respondents indicate personal independence/self-fulfillment/interesting undertakings as the chief ground for going an enterpriser. These grounds can stem from different motives such as the demand for accomplishment and the venue of control. As Stokes, Wilson and Mador ( 2010 ) explain, the demand for achievement translates in pattern into the creative activity of new concerns, and the venue of control describes the extent to which an single perceives themselves in control of fortunes, or believes that fortunes are outside of their control. Stokes et Al. travel farther by stating that it is argued that entrepreneurs typically see themselves as being in control, so that they see themselves determining fortunes. They explain that this empowers them to turn to and get the better of state of affairss that others might see either as excessively demanding, or with person else ‘s control.

The demand for accomplishment and the venue of control can expose itself through different types of enterprisers. Some enterprisers, for case consecutive enterprisers, are drawn to the thought of merely making ventures and selling them immediately ; they do n’t hold the thrust to go on the company after the start-up, because after a while the exhilaration is gone. Other enterprisers, such as portfolio enterprisers, gain their fulfilment from get downing multiple new companies at the same clip and sell them to larger rivals. Still others are interested in entrepreneurship lupus erythematosus for the monetary wagess associated with establishing new venture and more for non-pecuniary wagess such as liberty and entrepreneurial individuality ( Xu and Ruef 2004 ) .

Over tierce of the South Korean respondents name better income chances and about half of them say that freedom to take topographic point and clip of working are grounds for being freelance. Many South Koreans end up working in the chaebol, which fundamentally turns them into pay slaves with small to look frontward to ( the Economist, May 2011 ) . Becoming entrepreneurial can interrupt this form and lead to better income chances. Besides, the freedom to take topographic point and clip of working is most likely related to the demand for liberty, where people have a reluctance to work for others and want to work outside of the formal constructions.

Jung ( 2002 ) gives another possible account for the penchant for self-employment in South Korea, which is related to the unemployment jurisprudence. Jung explains that here, the unemployment insurance strategy has limited benefits, in footings of both the continuance and sum. He continues by stating that this may hold influenced some unemployed Koreans in their determination to get down a new concern. In other words, going self-employed could really be a second-best response to unfavourable establishments. So sing the building of the unemployment jurisprudence, this could hold been a possible inducement to get down a company for unemployed Koreans.

2 ) What are the indexs of entrepreneurial activity?

The OECD-Eurostat references the undermentioned determiners: regulative model, civilization, R & A ; D, entree to finance, entrepreneurial capablenesss, and market conditions. These indexs lay out the basicss that can be either supportive or even working against enterprisers. To analyze how these determiners work in context, relevant datasets are used to analyse the attitudes of the United States and South Korea. By uniting these analyses with academic literature reviews on both states, the purpose here is to explicate how these indexs really defer with one another. Each of the determiners will be discussed in this chapter.

Regulatory model

The regulative model is of high importance because it can back up entrepreneurship every bit good as create barriers to it. Without any support from the authorities, it can be really hard to put up a concern. Potential barriers are for case a deficiency of fiscal support ( authoritiess can allow subsidies or advance entrepreneurship with revenue enhancement decreases ) and complex administrative processs ( long waiting times for treating the right paperss or unprecedented costs involved ) .

Two datasets are examined to look into on these possible barriers:

Dataset 4. Is it hard to get down a concern due to miss of available fiscal support

Dataset 5. Is it hard to get down a concern due to complex administrative processs.

Dataset 4: Is it hard to get down a concern due to miss of fiscal support?

In the United States we see an understanding of 82,8 % against a dissension of 14,7 % . This shows that the huge bulk finds that when there is a deficiency of fiscal support, it can go more hard to get down a concern. As the FCCISL ( 2010 ) points out, “ studies have revealed that SMEs have trouble in borrowing from formal channels of recognition in position of their inability to show bankable proposals due to limited cognition and accomplishments in fiscal direction and operational administration. Many fiscal suppliers consider SME funding as a bad activity that generates high dealing costs and/or low returns on investing. ” So unless the enterpriser already has capital of its ain or has entree to informal channels of recognition, fiscal support can be hard to obtain.

In South Korea we see an understanding of 63,6 % against a dissension of 28,5 % . These Numberss indicate that the deficiency of fiscal support is perceived a lesser barrier to get down a concern in South Korea as it is in the United States. South Korea differs from the United States in the facet that they have a national recognition warrant system. As Jung ( 2002 ) points out, possibly the most of import is the recognition warrant system, by which SMEs acquire recognition warrants from government-owned fiscal establishments in order to obtain bank loans. This window chance has been a manner of deriving entree to capital for many companies in preferable industries. Another ground for the better perceived fiscal support in South Korea compared to the United States could be related to revenue enhancement rates. Alternatively of supplying capital, take downing the financial loads is besides a manner of financially back uping entrepreneurship.

Entire revenue enhancement rate ( % of commercial net incomes )

( Beginning: World Bank Data )

The World Bank Data defines entire revenue enhancement rate as follows: Entire revenue enhancement rate measures the sum of revenue enhancements and compulsory parts collectible by concerns after accounting for allowable tax write-offs and freedoms as a portion of commercial net incomes. Taxes withheld ( such as personal income revenue enhancement ) or collected and remitted to revenue enhancement governments ( such as value added revenue enhancements, gross revenues revenue enhancements or goods and service revenue enhancements ) are excluded.

This graph clearly shows that for the past five old ages South Korea has seen a additive lessening in their revenue enhancement rate, which has ever been below the revenue enhancement rate of the United States. South Korea went even further, as Jung ( 2002 ) explains, because revenue enhancement inducements were made available to persons who invest in new ventures, and venture capital houses were besides given discriminatory intervention by the authorities. Wholly this is a possible account for the disagreement between the perceptual experiences of the grade of trouble to get down a concern due to the handiness to fiscal support in the United States compared to South Korea.

Dataset 5: Is it hard to get down a concern due to complex administrative processs?

Governmental ordinances necessitating extended administrative processs can deter people from get downing a concern. As Dean and Meyer ( 1996 ) point out, increased regulative and procedural costs raise the needed rate of return necessary for an entrepreneurial chance to be exploited. This can raise the threshold of get downing a concern, since these costs need to be taken into history as excess disbursals for the initial start-up investing, non to advert the legion personal attempts that need to be made by the enterpriser to acquire all of their paperwork done.

In the United States we see an understanding of 70,5 % and a dissension of 26,6 % . Even though the American authorities has ever been supportive of entrepreneurship, it ‘s non merely the sum of administrative processs that affairs. Harmonizing to Audretsch et Al. ( 2002 ) , more than merely the degree of the administrative load affairs, nevertheless ; equivocal and opaque legislation-including mistily formulated regulations, frequent alterations, and freedom clauses-also shackles entrepreneurial enterprises. Many enterprisers lack the resources to give their ain clip or pay an employee to get by with bureaucratic ruddy tape and unpredictable alterations and holds in relevant statute law ( Kauffman Foundation 2008 ) .

In South Korea we see an understanding of 57,2 % and a dissension of 34,3 % , bespeaking that most people find it hard to get down a concern due to complex administrative processs. These Numberss indicate that it ‘s more hard in the United States than in South Korea to acquire all the administrative processs done in order to put up a concern. However, World Bank information shows that in the United States the figure of processs necessary to get down up a concern is really lower than in South Korea.

Start-up processs to register a concern ( figure )

( Beginning: World Bank Data )

The World Bank defines these processs as follows: Start-up processs are those needed to get down a concern, including interactions to obtain necessary licenses and licences and to finish all letterings, confirmations, and presentments to get down operations. In other words, the United States may comprehend the processs as more hard or complex, but they have fewer processs to travel through than South Korea. Altogether, bureaucratic ruddy tape has two sides to it, on the one manus it is non entirely about the sum of necessary processs, but on the other manus it is besides about the trouble of these processs that can demotivate people from get downing their ain concern.


Culture is basically a set of widely shared norms, values, beliefs and behaviours within a state, part or organisation. The cultural values of a state significantly affect their attitude towards entrepreneurship. It determines how the position of an enterpriser is perceived in society and whether it is desirable to go one or non. To analyze how people think of enterprisers this portion discusses to what extent an enterpriser serves as a function theoretical account.

Dataset 6: A function theoretical account

Media can play a important function by publically portraying the success narratives of great enterprisers, by headlining newspaper narratives having entrepreneurial achievements, airing Television shows questioning successful enterprisers, magazine publications on entrepreneurship, etcetera ( GEM 2010 ) . As Audretsch et Al. ( 2002 ) puts it, a more entrepreneurial civilization generates a larger “ presentation consequence, ” a procedure in which people are exposed to ( successful ) enterprisers and are in bend stimulated to prosecute in entrepreneurial activities ; shortly more people are being stimulated, which strengthens the entrepreneurial civilization even further.

In the United States, 55,5 % of the respondents finds a function theoretical account of import for going an enterpriser. In South Korea on the other manus, 80,7 % find a function theoretical account of import for doing them take stairss to get down a new concern or to take over one. The cultural differences between these two states can be a possible account for this phenomenon. First of all, one should recognize that South Korea is a state with deeply rooted Confucianism in its history. As Park et Al. ( 2006 ) explain, “ in Confucianism the ideal ego is defined and established in footings of one ‘s relationship to other people. The ideal individual is expected to work for the good of the group and to set the ego harmonizing to others ‘ outlooks. The Confucian ideal individual is non self-serving but group seeking. ”

In other words, Confucian morality Teachs people to be less self-interested and less individualistic. The leading manner of learning people a certain manner of behavior or behaviour is by utilizing function theoretical accounts as the perfect illustrations. In other words, if a whole state continuously is being told that it is honest to be an enterpriser and associates a high position to being one, people will make a positive association to them and will desire to be merely like them. Therefore, a function theoretical account is most likely to be more valued in South Korea than in the United States. This does non implicate that function theoretical accounts are of lesser importance in the United States nevertheless. In the United States people have may hold other strong inducements ( possibly fiscal grounds instead than for position ) , intending that possibly they do non necessitate function theoretical accounts as much to lure their entrepreneurial aspirations.

Besides, when a household member is already an enterpriser, this increases the likeliness of other members of the household to go entrepreneurial as good. Blanchflower and Oswald ( 1998 ) find that the reception of an heritage seems to increase an person ‘s chance of being freelance, Therefore, South Korea is more likely to value an entrepreneurial function theoretical account than the United States is.

Research and Development:

R & A ; D is of high importance when it comes to entrepreneurship. The combined kineticss of invention and creative activity lead to new goods and services and new production techniques, which are cardinal when in chase of prehending entrepreneurial chances. As Bhide and Amar ( 2008 ) point out, for increased R & A ; D to interpret into economic growing, enterprisers must work the innovations by presenting new merchandises on the market or presenting new methods of production. Baumol ( 2002 ) specifies it as follows: enterprisers aZ? in both new and constituted ventures aZ? are responsible for acknowledging undeveloped chances in the market and distributing inventions by imitation and incremental betterments of bing engineerings.

Harmonizing to the World Bank R & A ; D is defined as follows: Outgos for research and development are current and capital outgos ( both populace and private ) on originative work undertaken consistently to increase cognition, including cognition of humanity, civilization, and society, and the usage of cognition for new applications. R & A ; D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development.

Research and Development outgo ( in % of GDP )

( Beginning: World Bank Data )

This chart shows the information for R & A ; D outgo ( % of GDP ) of South Korea, the United States and the universe. R & A ; D outgo in South Korea has mounted to a astonishing 3,2 % of their GDP ( 1,049 trillion US Dollars ) in 2007. For the United States on the other manus, R & A ; D outgo has accumulated to 2.8 % of their GDP ( 14,369 trillion US Dollars ) in 2008.

( Beginning: World Bank Data )

As this graph shows, the United States has a significantly higher GDP than South Korea. Relatively talking nevertheless, South Korea spends more on R & A ; D than the United States. Two factors that have contributed to the high outgo on R & A ; D in South Korea are that they have a extremely skilled and greatly goaded labour force and besides a enormously competitory educational system. The United States on the other manus, is the largest economic system in the universe. The United States ‘ extremely developed fiscal system has been cited as responsible for the outgrowth of its successful entrepreneurial economic system ( Kauffman Foundation, 2007:34 ) .

So even though the United States spent more on R & A ; D than South Korea, in relation to their GDP degrees, it is South Korea who spends more on R & A ; D than the United States. These R & A ; D outgos will merely excite the economic system since it enables enterprisers with the agencies to work new thoughts. As Acs et Al. ( 2009 ) explains, the successful development of research and innovations combined with the transportation and spillover of this cognition stimulates growing and prosperity in a modern economic system. Acs fundamentally emphasizes that enterprisers can non win without regenerating themselves continuously in order to remain competitory, being able to turn over clip and to remain successful. This precisely highlights the importance of why states need to continuously invest in R & A ; D.

Access to finance:

Financing is another critical component to entrepreneurship. Numerous surveies show that entree to capital is the most important obstruction for many concern launches ( See, e.g. , Parker 2004, subdivision II and van Auken 1999 ) . Without sufficient capital an enterpriser can non turn nor develop to its full potency. Despite the multiplicity of findings and sentiments sing the roots and nurturing of entrepreneurship, empirical research systematically suggests that liquidness restraints – arbitrary bounds on the sum an enterpriser can borrow – suppress the rate and growing of concern formation.

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.washingtonlifescience.com/econ_dev_reports/Milken_Barriers_Entrepreneurship.pdf

It should be noted that there is a differentiation between different types of start-ups and consequentially different demands of capital.

Hisrich and Peters ( 1995 ) divided start-ups into:

– A lifestyle house that exists chiefly to back up the proprietors. Privately owned, it achieves modest growing due to the nature of the concern and/or the motivations of the enterpriser. These are typically micro concern with up to ten employees.

– A foundation company is created from research and development and lays the foundation of a new industry. Its invention changes the nature of an full sector.

– A high possible venture achieves rapid growing because of its advanced product/service in a big market, and besides receives greatest investing and public involvement.

Many start-ups do non necessitate much capital ; fiscal restraints do non present a job for many new concerns ( Hurst and Lusardi, 2004, and Shane, 2008:79 ) . Under this class are largely ‘lifestyle houses. ‘ On the other manus, the most common manner of funding for high-voltage companies ( and besides foundation companies ) is venture capital. As already noted, many entrepreneurial houses are excessively little for venture capital support. Yet venture capital retains importance for high-performing and high-growth entrepreneurial houses ( OECD, 1998 ) . Venture capital is frequently superior to bank finance since it besides provides cardinal expertness and entree to webs of import for entrepreneurial bad houses ( Ho and Wong 2007, and Keuschnigg and Nielsen 2004 ) .

The authorities can play an active function in giving fiscal support to entrepreneurs. As Jung ( 2002 ) points out, the authorities provided several steps to advance venture start-ups and developed an institutional model for venture capital and other funding strategies for new concern.

In South Korea, legion enterprises to advance entrepreneurship exist such as the “ Youth 1,000 CEO Project ” in Seoul, to supply immature enterprisers with free office infinite and grants of up to 1m won per month ( The Economist, May 2011 ) . In the United States we have the NGO Startup America Partnership and the Kauffman Foundation which offer aid such as fiscal support via grants, entree to an extended web of enterprisers, concern angels and venture capital resources, etc. All of these elements are of import to make an environment in which the demands of new enterprisers can be met sufficiently.



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