The biopsychosocial model is the way to explicate health and illness through biological , psychological and social factor , represent by American Psychiatrist Gorge Engel. He said that “To provide a basis for understanding the determinants of disease and arriving at a rational treatments and patterns of health care, a medical model must also take into account the patient, the social context in which he lives and the complementary system devised by society to deal with the disruptive effects of illness, that is, the physician role and the health care system. This requires a biopsychosocial model.” However, the biopsychosocial model, in contrast to the medical model, conceptualizes disease as a multilevel phenomenon. It rejects the reductionistic bias of the medical model. To embrace reductionism means important data will be excluded.
Engel has develop this model ,He knows that the essential of this model provide a basis for the understanding and treatment of disease, while taking into account the patient, his or her social context and the impact of illness on that individual from a societal perspective .The biopsychosocial model indicates a health care concept that have involve with current pain theory. It has sought coexistence with the dominant biomedical model of health care ,which can describe ???disase??™ that result from infection , injury or inheritance. The model is base on between mind and body.
The relative roles of biological, psychological, or social factors also may vary across individuals and across stages of the life span. It can explain how all these factors work together. So, the biopsychosocial factors of depression for one person could be the combination of genetics and neurotransmitter levels, negative thoughts, and an abusive family environment.
The biological aspect of the biopsychosocial model refers to the physiological of body. It also refers to genetic traits, and the brain functioning that we “inherit.” More specifically, what is passed down is a genetic vulnerability expressed as a “personality type” that can describe a person who is more reactive, more sensitive, and more easily excitable in the presence of stress. Acceptance of the fact that stress is linked to cardiovascular disease or to other health problems has become commonplace. However, research also reveals many mutual links between the central nervous system, which recognizes and records experiences; the endocrine system, which produces hormones that manage body functions; and the immune system, which organizes responses to infections and other challenges.
Psychological will look for underlying psychological issues that contributed to the development of the patients condition. There are a variety of psychological influences that can contribute to an illness, including depression, negative thought patterns, and a lack of self-control.
The social influence aspect of the BPS model examines the illness from a sociological perspective. Engel deduced that considerations such as economic standing, religion, and even technology can play pivotal roles in the creation of disease. Personal belief systems are also thought to be of significant importance in the development of illness.
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