May 1, 2011
The Brain Structures and Functions
What are the five major structures of the human brain They are the Myelencephalon, the Metencephalon, the mesencephalon, the Deincephalon, and the Telecephalon. In this will essay I will describe each of the five major structures and their. functions.
The first of the five major brain structures is the myelencephalon. ???This structure is also known as the medulla and is the most posterior division of the human brain. The myelencephalon is composed mostly of tracts that carry signal between the rest of the brain and the body??? (Pinel, 2009 p. 65-68 ). In this structure of the brain you will find the reticular formation, which is a complex network made up of about 100 tiny nuclei . The reticular formation is located in the central core of the brain stem and reaches from the posterior boundary of the mycelencephalon to the anterior boundary of the midbrain.
The functions of the myelencephalon are playing a role in arousal, assisting in maintaining balance and equilibrium, movement coordination and condition of sensory information, and too control the autonomic functions such as breathing, heart rate and digestion.
The second division of the brain is the metencephalon. This structure houses ascending and descending tracts and part of the reticular formation. The structures in this part of the brain create bulges called pons on the brain stems ventral surface. This section of the brain is divided in two sections; pon and cerebellum. The cerebellum is a large , convalated structure on the brain stems dorsal surface. The cerebellum is an important sensor motor structure. This section of the brain is the anterior part of the hindbrain ventral to the cerebellum (Nueroscience Information Framework,? 2010).
There are many functions of the metencephalon. This section of the brain is responsible for human arousal. Balance is controlled by the metencephalon. Cardiac reflexes are affected by this division of the brain. Other functions include circulation, fine muscle movement, muscle tone maintenance, and sleep. ???Mesencephalon is the third major section of the human brain. This section is a portion of the brain that is associated with the central nervous system. According to (2011) ???Comprises the tectum (or corpora quadrigemina), tegmentum, the ventricular mesocoelia (or “iter”), and the cerebral peduncles, as well as several nuclei and fasciculi. the mesencephalon adjoins the pons (metencephalon) and rostrally it adjoins the diencephalon (Thalamus, hypothalamus, et al.). The midbrain is located below the cerebral cortex, and above the hindbrain placing it near the center of the brain???( Midbrain ,para.2).
What are the functions of the metencephalon The metencephalon is part of the brainstem and is closely associated with the motor system. This section also plays a role in motivation and the habitation of humans. Some of the other functions within the human body include sleep, attention, movement, and various cardiac reflexes.
Diencephalon is the fourth major section of the brain. It is composed of two structures ; the thalamus and hypothalamus. The thalamus is a large two lobed structure that constitutes the top of the brain stem. There are many parts of nuceli comprised in the cortex of the brain and some of these nuceli are sensory relay . The sensory relay receives signals from the sensory receptors, processes them and transmits them to the appropriate areas of the sensory cortex.
The diencephalon or more specifacly the hypothalamus plays an important role in motivational behaviors and their regulation. The release of hormones from the pituitary gland is regulated by this part of the brain.
The last of the five major sections of the brain is the telencephalon. This is the largest division of the human brain. This is the part of the brain that mediates the brains most complex functions. The telencephalon is a large region of the brain that is attributed to many functions. According too ( 2011) ???This section is more technically refers to the cerebral hempisphere and other smaller tsructires within the brain??? ( Telencephaon). According to ( 2011) ???The telencephalon is composed of the following sub-regions; Limbic system; Cerebral cortex or cortices of the cerebral hemispheres, Basal ganglia, Olfactory bulb ( Telencephalon).
The functions of the telencephalon include initiating voluntary movement, interpreting sensory input and mediating comp[lex cognitive processes such as learning, speaking, and problem solving. This section of the brain is also responsible for determining intelligence, determining personality, motor function, planning and organization, sense of smell and touch sensation.
? (2011).? About.com,biology.? Retrieved from http://biology.about.com/od/humananatomybiology/a/anatomybrain.htm
Pinel, J. P.J. (2009). Biopsychology. Retrieved from http://www.phoenix.edu.
? (2011).? Encyuclopedia Britanica.? Retrieved from http://www.britanica.com/EBcheckedtopic/400347/myelencephalon
? (2011).? Wikepidia.? Retrieved from http://en.wikepida.org/wiki/Midbrain