1. 1. The text discusses the “Third Position.” What is the text talking about What do Third Positionists believe
Third Position is a radical autonomist political philosophy that magnifies its disagreement to communism and capitalism equally. Third Position gained some stride in Europe during the 1990s. This sweep eventually reached the United States. According to Southern Poverty Law Center (2011), ???The American Third Position exists to represent the political interests of White Americans??? (American Third Position, para. 2).
Third Positionists believe it is a third option to socialism and capitalism. Advocates of Third Position politics generally represent his or herself as far from the left and right. However, they do assert to militant ideas from both ends of the political scale. They are generally against globalization and are pro-environment. In practice, Third Positionists are patriotic and intoxicated with racism and anti-Semitism. Their perceived major enemies are Jews, African Americans, and immigrants.
2. What were the Covenant, Sword, and Arm of the Lord Who was its leader What did the organization stand for What crimes did its members commit
The formation of the Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord (CSA) went into effect in the 1970s. by an ex- San Antonio fundamentalist minister James Ellison in southern Missouri near the Arkansas border. This paramilitary survivalist group operated in disguise as a religion, prone to violence, racism, and anti-Semitism. James Ellison purchased land from the Campus Crusade For Christ church to establish his own community. The storage of large amounts of food and weapons were accumulated and training for military and survival procedures were conducted on this secluded land. CSA has been linked with other White supremacist groups inside of the United States, like the Aryan Nations. Ford (2011), “Followers of this ideology support hostility against any form of government above the county level, vilify Jews and non-whites as children of Satan, obsess about achieving religious and racial purification of the U.S., believe in a conspiracy theory that regards Jewish leaders as controlling important financial and media positions within the U.S., and advocate the overthrow of the U.S. government??? (Covenant, the Sword and the Arm of the Lord, para. 2).
In 1983, this radical Christian Identity organization set about on a road that was compiled of crime. These dirty acts consisted of the Indiana synagogue firebombing, the combustible assault on a Missouri house of worship, and the attempted bombing of a Chicago gas pipeline. On April 19, 1985, several hundreds of federal officers began a showdown on the CSA compound and demanded all residents surrender. Following four days of edgy negotiations, the CSA calmly surrendered. Inside the compound, authorities found homemade landmines, military anti-tank rockets, and a large supply of cyanide that the CSA was setting up to use in an effort to poison the water supply of an undetermined location. Many of the detained leaders and members were convicted and, imprisoned. This included James Ellison. At this point the CSA was successfully dismantled (National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism, 2011).
3. Explain how domestic terror organizations rely heavily on common criminal activities to conduct their business. What are some of the common crimes most associated with domestic terrorism Please provide examples.
Domestic terror organizations rely on common criminal activities to draw strong attention and create awareness. This is necessary for creating their desired revolution. Common criminal activities are useful for this, and they are also useful because the crimes can not necessarily be determined as terrorist crimes because they are common. If federal authorities can identify terrorist criminal activity, the domestic terrorist group faces more problems than if their crimes resemble common gang or other individual crimes. These common crimes include mass shootings, bombings, anthrax scare, hate crimes, and other crimes. An example of domestic terrorism comes from the Black Liberation Army whose group murdered 13 police officers and other acts of violence between 1970 and 1980 (Enotes, 2011).
Another way in which domestic terrorist groups rely on common crimes is to fund their movement. A common crime such as bank robbery, drug trafficking, and identify theft gives them a funding source, which helps them develop the necessary resources for terrorist movements.
4. Describe the most significant findings or information contained in the Hamm report. What is significant about the findings you have identified What implications for the criminal justice system are embedded in the findings you have identified Explain.
The Hamm report characterizes one of the key ways in identifing a terrorist group. This key way is to discover the source of its funding. In order for a terrorist group to operate, they must have funding. If this resource is cut off, the terrorism group can no longer operate. They need funding for terrorist attack resources such as bombs, weapons, and travel. As mentioned before, many of these funding sources may come from common criminal activities such as bank robbery; identify theft of stolen credit cards, and drug dealing. These activities are relied on by domestic terrorist groups for them to complete their objective. The discoveries within the Hamm report additionally imply that the criminal justice system can look for trends in common criminal activity. They should determine the culprits motives for that crime and what was done with the funding. The criminal justice system can enforce criminal activity to help reduce its occurrence, which will also reduce domestic terrorist group funding (Kelly, 2011).
5. Based on information learned in this course, as well as other courses you may have taken and other sources of information available to you, please explain which the greater threat??” both is now and in the long run–to the United States: domestic terrorism or international terrorism. In your explanation, compare and contrast domestic and international terrorism. Also, please indicate whether either type of terrorism is subject to defeat. Or, in a free society such as ours, must we simply learn to live with the annoyance and tragedies of ideological, political, and/or religiously-motivated violence
Based on the information that I have learned in this course and other courses, I believe that domestic terrorism is more of a threat than international terrorism. Domestic terrorism happens in our own backyard and it uses faint movements to generate an uprising. Although international terrorism may have more resources to construct more considerable damage on America, domestic terrorism has the possibility to change the way America operates. According to The Federal Bureau of Investigation (2009), ???As with all forms of extremism, preventing homegrown attacks before they are hatched is our overriding goal. It??™s an especially tall order given the civil liberties we all enjoy as American citizens, including the right to free speech??? (Domestic Terrorism, para. 6).
If a particular movement is created, such as religious discrimination, for example, more people may become influenced by this movement. The Nazi movement in Germany could have been considered an example of domestic terrorism. A sort of revolution occurred when Hitler enforced the idea of a ???superior race.??? After much persuasion and as more people began to agree with the movement, soon every member of “inferior races” were sent to concentration camps. This is an example of how slow and subtle domestic terrorism can do more harm on a country than international terrorism. If the people of a nation can change their belief system, a greater movement will be the outcome than if an international terrorist group uses violence on that country.
Enotes. (2011). Black Liberation Army. Retrieved from http://www.enotes.com/topic/Black_Liberation_Army#Activities
Ford, J. (2011). The Encyclopia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved from http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspxentryID=4031
Kelly, C. (2011). Domestic Terrorism. Retrieved from http://www.articlesbase.com/international-studies-articles/187741-domestic-terrorism-02- 2203161.html
National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. (2011). Covenant Sword and Arm of the Lord (CSA). Retrieved from http://www.start.umd.edu/start/data_collections/tops/terrorist_organization_profile.aspid=3226
Southern Poverty Law Center. (2011). Intelligence Files. Retrieved from http://www.splcenter.org/get-informed/intelligence-files/groups/american-third-position
The Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2009). Domestic Terrorism. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2009/september/domterror_090709