Ethical decision-making is a process of making choices through which methods or results of a certain behavior or event are systematically taken into consideration or assessed according to ethical principles (Neçare & ?ehito?lu, 2018). It also requires behaving in accordance with certain ethical rules and principles such as justice, rights, honesty, and fairness are among the most important principles of ethical decision-making. The more ethical employees perceive an organization’s culture to be, the less likely they are to make unethical decisions (Ferrell, Fraedrich, ; Ferrell, 2013).
Trevino and Nelson (2014) have developed a guide to ethical decision making that incorporates the basic ideas found in other ethical tests. It offers eight steps to sound ethical decision making in business that aim to integrate the three types of analysis (such as: Focus on consequences; Focus on duties, obligations, and principles; and Focus on integrity). The eight steps to sound ethical decision making are as below:
1. Write a report of the findings. Provide clear and relevant information on the background of the organization. Do not disclose the name of the organization unless you have obtained permission from the management.
The International Medical University (IMU) is Malaysia’s first and most established private medical and healthcare university with 25 years of dedicated focus in healthcare education. Established in 1992, the University enjoys an international reputation and provides a high standard of education at undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing professional development level. Its programmes consist of both local tracks (IMU degree), as well as international partner tracks (partner university degree).
IMU is a private, English language, health sciences university in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and Malaysia’s leading private medical and healthcare university. It was established in 1992 and is active in research and teaching within medicine and healthcare with a strong international orientation. IMU was the first private higher education institution in Malaysia that received the right to confer academic degrees, and it was granted full university status by the government in 1999. It cooperates with universities in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Canada, Ireland, and China. The main campus of IMU is located in Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur. As of 2017, the university has 21,973 students across its various programmes.
The university offers a range of undergraduate programmes in medical and health sciences: Medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, pharmaceutical chemistry, nursing, nursing science, dietetics with nutrition, nutrition, psychology, biomedical science, medical biotechnology, chiropractic, Chinese medicine as well as postgraduate degrees such as MSc and PhD in Medical and Health Sciences, MSc in Public Health, MSc in Analytical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry and MSc in Molecular Medicine.
The organizational culture is to be based on our value system: We will be an organization driven by its values. These core values, encapsulated in the acronym T.R.U.S.T., are :
• Trustworthy – we are trustworthy and stand for integrity, reliability, and commitment.
• Responsive – we are responsive to change and people’s needs Unity – we are united to
achieve a common goal Service – we are committed to providing outstanding service.
• Tenacity – we are tenacious in the pursuit of excellence These are the values that we hold firm and is the foundation on which we perform our work and conduct ourselves.
From TRUST comes justice, truth, honesty, integrity, fairness, humility, service to others and professionalism. Our corporate culture should be based on our value system, and we must become a values-driven organization. Our values provide space for us to behave based on what is important.
These values underlie our work, how we interact with each other, and help us explain why we do business the way we do. They are the basic elements of how we go about our work and practices we use every day in everything we do. It is part of our culture. Our culture represents the collective action of all individuals in our organization, and all of us must understand it and everything that goes with it, so that we can collectively make it work. Our culture and the values embedded in it, will help us realize our vision of being a great organization, and of producing graduates who will be capable of being leaders that make a difference to their communities. Every staff and student is expected to demonstrate and live our core values as a way of life. With this embedded, we can confidently walk tall and be known as an IMU role model for all.
Staff must obey work ethics that have been fixed by the University. Allegiance towards work ethics will enable the university to control and avoid negative values from occurring. The core service must be coherent with the University’s philosophy which stresses the infusion of knowledge and practice which would bring benefits to society. Every staff must work in line with the following values:
• Work with humility
• Respect for the individual and diversity
• Have the desire to improve quality in service
• Work with full responsibility and accountability
• Avoid selfish behavior
• Work in a friendly manner
• Work with sincerity and integrity