There are five types of ethical theories: 1. Teleological theory of moralss 2. Deontological theory 3. Virtue ethics 4. Justice as equity 5. Feminism
The teleological theory examines the effects in footings of pleasance and hurting. which is termed as “Utilitarianism” . Harmonizing to this theory. our duty in any state of affairs is to execute that action which will bring forth the greatest sum of good over evil. Under this theory. the ethical virtuousnesss such as being honest or non lying are non obligatory. Utilitarian morality compels you to make merely those peculiar Acts of the Apostless which bring out good consequences merely.
For case. see a state of affairs where stating the truth can interrupt someone’s bosom or ache his/her feelings so in the visible radiation of this theory. prevarication is better than honestness. One of the cardinal features of utilitarianism is universalism which talks about the pleasance of everyone. instead than profiting your ain ego merely. The two versions of utilitarianism have evolved from these conditions. act-utilitarianism and rule-utilitarianism. The two great philosophers. Jeremy Bentham and Stuart Mill presented their positions in the visible radiation of this theory.
Bentham proposed the act-utilitarianism theory and said: “An action is right if it produces greatest sum of pleasance over hurting for everyone” However. this statement was greatly opposed by many critics since they termed it as a “pig philosophy” . Critics complained that pleasance entirely can non represent the good for human existences because even hogs are capable of achieving pleasance from their ain organic structures so it would be better to populate the life of a satisfied hog instead than being a disgruntled human being such as Socrates.
Sing these expostulations. Stuart Mill supported the utilitarianism gave the thought of act-utilitarianism by giving his position that an action is right if it produces greatest sum of pleasance over hurting by following certain moral regulations. Mill said that a individual should travel for qualitative pleasance instead than quantitative pleasance. Mill besides defended the accusal of hog doctrine on Bentham by giving his positions that human existences are able to bask the higher degrees of pleasance than swine. Human existences can pursuit pleasance in the signifier of rational humanistic disciplines and other such activities.
Hence. Mill categorized pleasance in higher and lower signifiers of pleasance. Rule-utilitarianism emphasized enormously on morality and societal duties. which in fact. are the jobs of all teleological theories. Reasoning the treatment now. the best theory is the rule-utilitarianism as compared to act-utilitarianism theory because one does non necessitate to cipher the sum of pleasance and hurting before executing any title. Alternatively. it provides the basic evidences of morality and goodness for making any action.