Ethics Exam Essay

September 5, 2017 Cultural

1 ) Give the complete definition Aristotle offers of wellbeing? EUDAIMONIA MEANS HAPPINESS/ FLOURISHING DEFINED AS AN ACTIVITY OF THE SOUL IN ACCORDANCE WITH COMPLETE VIRTUE WITH ADEQUATE EXTERNAL GOODS IN A COMPLETE LIFE This involves one’s life as a whole and consists in action in agreement with ground Eudaimonia is non achieved through pleasance. wealth. award or even virtue on its ain. What is an external good? Are external goods necessary or sufficient for felicity? While internal goods are more of import. equal external goods are necessary but non sufficient status for wellbeing.

External goods from Aristotle’s position include good birth. sufficient wealth and friends. These external goods enable a individual to pattern complete virtuousness. because in many patterns we use wealth ( generousness ) . friends and political power ( justness ) . Aristotle besides includes good birth. good kids and even outer beauty. Claiming that we can non hold the character of felicity if we look abhorrent. we are childless. ill-born or unrecorded in solidarity. ( Book one chapter 8 ) Is virtue necessary or sufficient for felicity?

Happiness depends chiefly on character and action in conformity with complete virtuousness. it is non something we can passively have from other people or external fortunes and good luck. it is Aristotle’s position that virtuousness is necessary but non sufficient for wellbeing. Virtue entirely can non convey felicity because person who suffers the worst immoralities and has no friends or external goods would non be considered happy by any agencies besides idealistic doctrine What is the most of import facet of felicity? Why? What sort of activities is Aristotle mentioning to? 3 different types of activity

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1. Activity done for it’s ain interest
2. Activity merely done for the interest of an terminal
3. Activity both for it’s ain interest and for the interest of an terminal Happiness is the highest end because it is complete in it’s ego. done for it’s ain interest.

2 ) What is Aristole’s position of ego love? When is it good and when is it bad?
Why do people confound this? P146

3 ) GIVE EXAMPLES of 3 virtuousnesss in aristoles. demoing each is a average in respect to feeling or actions ( be specific ) and state what the extremes of the extra and lack are. Courage the mean in respect to feelings of fright and assurance in endangering state of affairss surplus: chesty. reckless. roseola. deficiency fright when needed

lack: fearful. cowardliness. cautious
Generosity the mean in respect to the action of giving and taking resources extra: uneconomical. irresponsible. unprompted lack: selfishness. stinginess. greedy
Friendliness is the average with respect to actions that cause pleasance and hurting in others extra: people pleaser
lack: quarrelsome

4 ) Why are the chases of pleasance and award rejected as the good life? p4 and p19 1. The vulgar perceive felicity as pleasance. a life of satisfaction appears slavish like animate being activities/grazing cattles. 2. The political individual perceives felicity as award. insufficient because it can come and travel and depends on those giving award doing it excessively external and superficial

5 ) Are virtue and frailty voluntary? Can we alter who we are? Explain aristotles position and your ain Yes. virtuousness and frailty are voluntary. both virtuousness and frailty are in harmoniousness with our desires and ground. frailty develops after the character of person becomes so that they preceive what is bad as good. this individual harmonizing to aristole is still held responsible for their activity even though they can’t on their ain alteration their character due to their perceptual experience. I think we can alter with outside intercession.

6 ) What is the relationship between cognition and virtuousness in Aristotle? Are the virtuousnesss of thought necessary or sufficient for moral virtuousness? What sort of wisdom affairs here? p162
7 ) What are the three types of friendly relationship? Why is the best one the best? p121 1. Loving the other due to public-service corporation
2. loving the other due to pleasure
3. loving the other for their ain interest ( complete friendly relationship ) merely people of virtuous charcater can hold complete friendly relationship because it requires simular virtuousness between 2 people and ability to cognize and hold assurance in the other individuals character. It is the lone friendly relationship that continues past utlity and pleasance. 8 ) What are the three characteristics self-love and friendly relationship have in common?

1. Enjoy disbursement clip together
2. Love the other for their ain interest
3. portion in pleasance and strivings
With self-love: Enjoy yourself. love yourself for your ain interest. have intrinsic value within yourself. and portion in your ain pleasances and strivings. 9 ) What is the difference between theoretical wisdom and practical wisdom. or prudence? How is each acquired? P90

Practical wisdom or prudence – a province of hold oning the truth. concerned w/action. things that are good or bad for a human being prudence and virtuousness are necessary and sufficient for one another

10 ) What is the difference between continency and virtuousness? Is incontinency or frailty easier to bring around and why? p110 incontinency: to cognize ( or possibly merely believe ) what is the good action and choose otherwise. your desire is different than your ground

11 ) Aristotle’s moralss depend upon no metaphysics or myths sing the Gods or the hereafter. yet he does do the premise about human nature that equates goodness with felicity. What are these premises?

Virginia Held
What are Virginia Held’s claims are the 3 chief masculine prejudices in history of moralss? Are they relevant today?
1. Dichotomy between ground and emotion
Reason: rational: male as emotion: irrational: female
Reason controls emotions
2. Split between public and private
Mothering: natural and biological. adult females merely reproduce life. driven by inherent aptitude. irrelevant to morality Man is human doing history cultural. exceeding his carnal nature
3. Concept of ego as individualistic instead the dependant and holding peculiar relationships.

How it effects today: “just add adult females outlook is non plenty to repair how emotion and private life has been left out of moralss. New theories are needed that include emotions. nurturance of kids and societal dealingss beyond the range of concern. This requires reassessing the importance of the place and kids.


What are the 2 necessary minutes in feminism? Which do you believe is of import right now? 1. Claiming general human features that have wrongly been called male ( cosmopolitan rules. dryness. liberty ) 2. Promoting features considered to be merely female and devalued. ( passion. peculiar relationships and community and connexion. Feminist attention moralss say embracing elevate gender duality )

I think it is of import right now to promote those “female” features as valuable. for the private to be of value every bit every bit as the public How does Aristotle supply a solution to the split between ground and emotion? 1. For a individual with well-developed character emotions and ground are in harmoniousness. non mere continency. emotions and grounds have the same purpose. 2. Emotions are types of knowledge. all types of pleasance and hurting are from comprehending specifics that are good as good and that are bad as bad MacIntyre

What is the tenseness between nationalism and broad morality? Why does each position see the other as a moral danger? Patriotism is a sort of trueness to a peculiar state this conflicts with broad moral theory because broad ethical motives uphold nonpartisanship. Patriots see broad morality as a menace to societal bonds within a community and that it endangers the endurance of such because it abandons all ground for defence. Broad moralist think nationalism justifies war and can take us into blindly following our authorities


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