Even from the beginning, the linguists had their own classification of translation and also their own strategies in doing a translation .
Firstly, Nida brought with his creation “Theory and Practice of Translation (1969)” a new image in terms of translation. In his perspective the process of translating is reproducing in the target language the closest equivalent of the concept from the source language, but this process is done in terms of meaning and in terms of style. On the other side the definition of translation giv-en by Nida is opposed to the one given by Newmark (1981) . He says that translation is the art in which attempts to replace a written message in one language by keeping the same message from the source language. In other words Nida emphasizes equivalence, meaning and style, in contra-diction with Newmark who claims it is more important to pay careful attention to meaning and the original text.
This new image of translation is sustained by Baker (1992) in her translations strategies which she defines the following steps:
1. Translation by a more general word- she says this strategy works in almost every language (1992:26)
2. Translation by a more neutral word- she claims that this strategy has to deal with the ex-pressive meaning (1992:28)
3. Translation by cultural substitution- she claims that this strategy deals with replacing an cultural specific item with a item in the target language which does not have the same meaning but has the same impact on the readers of the target text (1992: 31)
4. Translation using a loan word- this strategy has to do with modern loan words with ex-planation and new popular phrases, more exactly the buzzwords (1992: 34)
5. Translation by paraphrase with related words- this strategy is used when the item ex-pressed in the source language is lexicalized in the target language (1992: 37)
6. Translation by paraphrase with unrelated words- this strategy is used when the item in the source language is not lexicalized in the target language (1992: 38)
7. Translation by omission- this strategy has to do with the omission of words which are considered to be irrelevant to the target text (1992: 40)
8. Translation by illustration- this strategy deals with the use of illustrations when there is no equivalent of the concept from the source language to the target language (1992: 42)
Another approach on the meaning of the term, the word “translation” is defined by Oxford Dictionaries to be “the process of translating words or text from one language to another”, but it is also defined by some secondary definitions, such as: “a written or spoken rendering of the meaning of a word or text in another language”, “the conversion of something from one form or medium into another”. In other words, translation is the transfer of meaning from one language to another, a translation cannot be perfect because every language has its own culture, its own traditions and that cannot be transferred properly, it needs some explications from the translator, and in order to do that, he needs to do research and have some knowledge from that culture.
Newmark (1988: 5) says that translation is not only about rendering the meaning from one text to another but it also depends on other several aspects like the culture of the source language, the dialect used in some texts, legal aspects and others. He claims that every translator is trying to transfer as much words from the source language to the target language, but that is harder than it seems because it’s impossible for the result of the translation to be reproduced identically as the source text, that means it cannot be like the original.
Newmark (1988: 3) distinguishes three main areas of translation:
1. the area of science and technology
2. the area of social, economic and/or political topics and institutions
3. Literary and philosophical works
According to Bassnett (2002: 22) beside the transfer of meaning, which translation means, a translator must accept that there is another criteria he must keep in mind and that is the extra-linguistic criteria, which means the transfer of a variation of language signs from one language to another.
According to Roman Jakobson in his article “On Linguistic Aspects of Translation” there are three types of translation:
1. The intralingual translation, or rewording (an interpretation of verbal signs by means of other signs in the same language ).
2. Interlingual translation or translation proper (an interpretation of verbal signs by means of some other language).
3. Intersemiotic translation or transmutation (an interpretation of verbal signs by means of signs of nonverbal sign systems).
Having the three types established, Jakobson points out the central problem: though the messages serve an adequate interpretation of code units there is no full equivalence in the transla-tion. Jakobson admits that even through synonymy you cannot get a perfect equivalent, he adds that complete equivalence is impossible in any of these three categories. His conclusion is that you can get only an adequate interpretation not a perfect translation.
According to Nemark (1988:13) regarding text styles, as Nida said, there are four types of text(literary or non-literary): first one is the narrative style- which has a dynamic sequence of events and the emphasis is on the verbs, verb-nouns or phrasal verbs, second is description style- which is static, the attention is on linking verbs and adjectives or adjective constructions such as adjectival nouns, this style is followed by discussion style with the accent on concepts, verbs of thought, metal activity, logical argument and connectives and the last style is the dialogue style “with emphasis on colloquialisms and phaticisms”.
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