Every culture has a uniqueness that distinguishes it from other cultures. There are so many differences from each culture for example: dialect and the language they use. Even though they use the same language which is one of the elements of cultural identity, but there is a dialect which makes the difference between one and another.
Based on Cambridge Dictionary 2008, the dialect can be interpreted as “the form of language that people use when speaking in a particular country or region, including several different words and grammar etc (Altugan, 2014).
Madura Island is one of the Indonesian islands located northeast of East Java with his famous tribe, the Madurese. Based on penninga and H hendriks clustered Madura into four main dialects from a linguistic point of view, those are Sumenep dialect, Pamekasan dialect, Kangean dialect and Bangkalan dialect, and additional dialect there are Pinggirpapas dialect and Bawean dialect, Pinggirpapas dialect is categorized as part of the Sumenep dialect and Bawean dialect is categorized as part of the Bangkalan dialect (Sofyan, Fonologi Bahasa Madura, 2010).
The present study is going to describe the Consonant and Vowel Changes in the dialect between Sumenep dialects and Sampang dialects. Sumenep dialect is used as the main dialect on Madura Island, because of the authenticity of the dialect and the center of Madura culture. Sampang dialect relatively the same as the Bangkalan dialect The researcher choose Sumenep dialect as part of the eastern Madura and Sampang dialect as part of the western Madura (see the picture 1.1), however it is not mentioned explicitly.
The picture 1.1: Map of Madura Island (www.bing.com)
Sumenep and Sampang use the same language however there are the different pronunciation, one example word “be’en” that’s mean “you”, sumenep dialect will pronounce be’en which /n/ is voiced consonant, and the place of articulation when they produce this consonant is alveolar when tongue at or near the ridge behind the upper front teeth, the manner for articulate is Nasal when air through the nasal cavity because the velum is goes down. While Sampang dialect will pronounce be’e? which /?/ is voiced consonant, the place of articulation is different from Sumenep dialect which is alveolar become velar it is mean the consonant produce at velum or soft palate. And the manner to articulate this consonant is same with Sumenep dialect it is Nasal.
The researcher use PRAAT software to compare between those two dialects. PRAAT is a program of computer for analyzing, synthesizing, and manipulating speech which was developed since 1992 by Paul Boersma and David Weenink at the Institute of Phonetic Sciences of the University of Amsterdam (Paul Boersma, 2001). The researcher tries to identify the Consonant and Vowel Changes that spoken by informants of Sumenep dialect and Sampang dialect by seeing the differences of formant and spectrogram on PRAAT software.
Formants on PRAAT software is a dark band in a spectrogram that shows the vocal channel resonance, therefore the different vowel will produce the different Formants. Numbering in the formants starts from the bottom up, therefore the position of Formant 1 (Further written as F1) is at the bottom and so on. F1 is inversely proportional to the height of the vowel, the higher the vowel the lower F1. But F2 is the opposite of F1, F2 is directly proportional to the forward and backward position of the tongue or indicate the front or the back vowel. The higher F2, the more vocal is going forward, and vice versa. For example the difference between vowel /i/ and /?/ in spectrogram, /i/ vowel has the lower F1 than /?/ vowel because /i/ vowel is the high vowel, and /i/ vowel has the higher F2 than /?/ vowel because /i/ vowel is a front vowel and / ? / vowel is a middle vowel. (See the picture 1.2 and 1.3)
The picture 1.2: The position of the tongue
The Picture 1.3: The different between F1 and F2 in /i/ and /?/ vowels
To identify the differences between these two dialects, the researcher asked the informants to say the words selected by the researcher – in which there were 5 words selected because they were the words most frequently used in daily life – and this pronunciation would be recorded using PRAAT software, which record results will be displayed in formants. From the formants the researcher will identify the consonant and vowel changes found in these two dialects.
The aim of this study is to describe the Consonant and Vowel Changes in the dialect between Sumenep dialect and Sampang dialect by using PRAAT software which show the formant of the spoken language.