Evolution of family in hong kong

Before 1960, Hong Kong households were affected by traditional Chinese civilization. They lived with parents, kids and other relations to organize an drawn-out household. ( Answers.com ) The Second World War and the Second civil war in mainland China led to big Numberss of refugees fled to Hong Kong. Therefore, there was sudden and big addition in population from less than 100 million people in 1945 to about 300 million people in the early 1960. The undermentioned statistic shows the growing of population in Hong Kong from 1931 to 1981.

This sudden alteration in population led to an rush in demand for lodging. Peoples began to herd into chunky countries that are built on the inclines of the surrounding hill. In 1953 Christmas Eva, a fire in Shek Kip Mei homesteader destroyed 53,000 people ‘s house. Thus Hong Kong authorities intervened this instance by constructing the two-storey cottage which called “ Bowring Bungalows ” . In 1961, authorities introduced “ Government Low Cost Housing Scheme ” , because although 500,000 people lived into the relocation edifices in 1960, there were 600,000 people still lived in homesteader huts. “ Review of Policies for Squatter Control, Resettlement and Government Low-cost Housing ” was so released in 1964 in order to rush up resettlement edifices and authorities low cost houses to run into the big sum of lodging demand.

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On the other manus, after the Second World War, western industrial states began to give up the lifting cost of labor-intensive industries, they tried to utilize capital-intensive and technology-intensive industries in order to take down the production cost. Fortunately, this gave an chance to Hong Kong for the development of export-oriented visible radiation industry, because those big Numberss of refugees provided cheap labour force. At the beginning of 1960, Hong Kong industries such as rose and flourish, fabric, garment and plastics were booming. To fulfill the big sum of labour demand in light industries, adult females started to come in the labor market.

In 1970s, it was a disruptive period of the Hong Kong economic system, because foremost Taiwan, Singapore and South Korea were smartly developing industries, their exports had surpassed Hong Kong. Second, Europe and the United States of the industrial states had implemented import quotas on vesture. Third, the oil crisis in 1973 triggered the stock market clang. These three factors led to Hong Kong industry alteration. In order to get the better of these jobs, enterprisers so implemented “ industrial variegation ” , “ diversified economic construction ” and “ market variegation ” to diminish the hazard in concentrating on one industry. Many industries such as fiscal, trade and existent estate grew quickly. It expanded the Hong Kong economic base.

Overpopulation was a serious job in the early 1970, because most people in Hong Kong were refugees from Mainland China. Their political orientation was affected by traditional Chinese civilization. Therefore they wanted to hold more kids in their household. This rapid growing of birth rate increased the lodging demand and caused other societal jobs. To forestall these jobs, Hong Kong authorities introduced “ Two is Adequate ” policy through The Family Planning Association in Hong Kong by publicizing the film. The successfully launched “ Two is Adequate ” run rapidly became household word in the district. ( FPA )

Besides, in order to forestall kids who age less than 12 old ages old became child labor, and to better their instruction degree, Hong Kong authorities provided 9-year mandatory instruction for them. From the Review of 9-year Compulsory October 1997 Education Chapter 3 reported that “ Compulsory instruction is universally accepted as a basic human right, as a agency to protect kids from ignorance, and a factor for both the community ‘s economic development and an person ‘s employment chances. “ ( Education Bureau ) Furthermore, the 9-year compulsory free instruction meets the cosmopolitan declaration of human rights. It said that “ Everyone has the right to instruction. Education shall be free, at least in the simple and cardinal phases. Elementary instruction shall be compulsory. ” ( United Nation ) In September 1971, free primary school was available to all kids. Besides, the manager of instruction was given powers to order parents to direct their kids to school in instances where it appeared to him that the parents were keep backing their kids between ages of 6 and 11 old ages from attending at primary school without good ground. ( Education Bureau )

From the feminist point of position, 9-year compulsory instruction additions female instruction degree, therefore adult females ‘s employment increased meant the society advocated gender equality. The undermentioned statistic shows the labour force engagement rates from 1977 to 2007. During this period, female engagement rate continued addition from 45 % to 53.2 % .

Women become fiscal independent mean they tendency to hold single chase and will non remain at place to acquire an accomplishment from her hubby. ( Centanet ) Such alteration destroys the cardinal portion of tradition household system, therefore household construction bit by bit transform into atomic household.

In the early 1980s, Hong Kong fabrication industry was affected by bound land supply and high labor cost. At the same clip, Mainland China was implementing Open Door Policy. This provided an chance for Hong Kong ‘s fabrication industry to switch to Mainland China. Rapid development of lead-based fabrication export in the Pearl River Delta promoted the resurgence of Hong Kong entrepot trade. Thus it straight stimulated the rapid development of third industry in Hong Kong. At the beginning of China Open Door Policy, most of the foreign investing in China was Hong Kong-based. Foreign investing in China had stimulated the growing of Hong Kong ‘s fiscal, trade, jurisprudence, accounting, etc. The proportion of Hong Kong ‘s service sector in GDP farther enhanced from 68.3 % in 1980 to 91.2 % in 2006. At the same clip, the proportion of fabricating industry in GDP declined from 22.8 to the staying 3.2 % . ( Table 1 )

Table 2 Sourcei?sCensus and Statistics Department

On the other manus, third establishments in the early 1980s were merely University of Hong Kong, Chinese University of Hong Kong and the Hong Kong Polytechnic. They provided merely 3 % of school-age pupils in third instruction. However, in the mid 1980s, Hong Kong had undergone major alterations in third instruction. Hong Kong authorities had decided to spread out its educational plans. City Polytechnic of Hong Kong and the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology had established in 1984 and 1991 severally. In 1994, Baptist College was incorporated into the authorities ‘s funding construction and together with the Hong Kong Polytechnic and City Polytechnic of Hong Kong upgraded to be a university. In 1997, four Teacher Colleges combined into Hong Kong Institute of Education. In 1999, Lingnan College besides upgraded to a university. A sum of eight publically funded higher instruction establishments in Hong Kong, which could have university instruction in the school-age population significantly improved from 3 % to 18 % . Table 2 shows the addition in proportion of pupils who have secondary or above instruction degree.

Since 1960, household construction has a important alteration, its alteration non merely affected by authorities policy, but besides affected by fiscal, societal environment and household attitudes and values. In fiscal facet, Hong Kong started to economic take-off in the early 1990s, belongings monetary values were raising quickly. As guess in belongings market can hold high return in a short period of clip, many people are willing to pass their money in belongings market. Such as the Sunshine City in Ma On Shan in 1993, 600 sq foot level monetary values rose to 2.2 million Hong Kong Dollars. Compare with the same level monetary values in 1960s, the mean unit merchandising monetary value had increased hundredfold. ( ChinaReviewNews ) However, lifting belongings monetary values increased the household fiscal load, adult females from the in-between category or below took portion in labour market in order to work out the job. To farther cut down force per unit area in mortgage, middle-class households began to cut down the figure of child-birth. Table 3 below shows the population of Hong Kong birth rate from 1990 to 1999. It starts lessening from 1994.

On the other manus, adult females take portion in the labor market produced many double earner households. Rich people will engage foreign domestic assistants to take attention of parents, kids and family jobs, while the others will name their household members to assist them to take attention of their kids. Therefore, the demand for foreign domestic assistants increased during the early 90s.

However, booming belongings market triggered the Asiatic Financial Crisis began in July 1997. This crisis led to a big figure of endeavors, fiscal establishments forced into bankruptcy and closing. ( Wikipedia ) Many people were unemployed. The undermentioned statistic shows the unemployment rate in Hong Kong has a rapid addition during the Asiatic Financial Crisis.

Beginning: Census and Statistics Department

In the societal facet, the map of household alteration bit by bit, because people think of ideal household has changed. In tradition household, the chief undertaking of parent is to educate their kids. However, as they both go to work ouside, this map is replaced by school, nursery, foreign domestic assistant or other relations. Traditional household encourages reproduction, as they think their kids will protect them when they become aged. But nowadays addition in kids may non increase production and ingestion. On the contrary, it increases household ‘s disbursals. In table 4 shows, the mean domestic family size decreased from 3.4 to 3.0 between 1996 and 2008. Such functional specialisation is an built-in portion of the general procedure of societal alteration coined as “ societal distinction ” . Because there are many permutations, household map becomes less of import than earlier.

Table 4: Statisticss on Domestic Households

Time period

Number of domestic families ( ‘000 )

Average domestic family size

Owner-occupiers as a proportion of entire figure of domestic families ( % )

1996

1 854.9

3.4

45.6

1997

1 918.9

3.3

46.6

1998

1 958.4

3.3

46.7

1999

1 996.1

3.3

48.1

2000

2 032.4

3.3

50.8

2001

2 063.4

3.2

52.2

2002

2 100.7

3.1

52.8

2003

2 124.5

3.1

53.3

2004

2 162.7

3.1

54.0

2005

2 193.6

3.0

53.6

2006

2 220.9

3.0

53.5

2007

2 247.1

3.0

53.1

2008

2 277.4

3.0

52.7

Notes:

Get downing from 2001, one-year figures are compiled based on informations collected in the General Household Survey from January to December of the twelvemonth concerned every bit good as the mid-year population estimations by District Council territory compiled jointly by the Census and Statistics Department and an inter-departmental Working Group on Population Distribution Projections.

Beginning:

Owner-occupiers refer to the domestic families having the quarters they occupy.

General Household Survey Section ( 2 ) , Census and Statistics Department

The Central Policy Unit carried out a research in August 22, 2008. The study showed the tendencies in household attitudes and values in Hong Kong. It said that “ household values and attitudes in Hong Kong have become more heterogenous over the last three decennaries. On one manus, the general populace remained traditional, in that it is best to acquire married and have kids, non to disassociate, non to acquire involved in any extra-marital personal businesss or homosexual relationships, and to back up the older coevalss. On the other manus, people are going more receptive, both for themselves as for others, towards divorce, remarriage, cohabitation, pre-marital sex, childlessness, and a less traditional gender function. ” ( CPU ) That average household construction can besides affected by people ‘s attitude and value. Table 5 shows the attitude towards ideal household.

Most people see atomic household as the ideal household type in Hong Kong. While 86 per centum of the study respondents agreed that a childless twosome can be an ideal household, 69 per centum indicated that a atomic household is more ideal than a childless household. However, merely 44 per centum agreed that a three-generation extended household is more ideal than a atomic household. About 30 per centum disagreed that an drawn-out household is more ideal than a atomic household. About 45 per centum of respondents agreed that a individual parent household can besides be an ideal household. Findingss from the study study show that most participants described the image of a atomic household, with a twosome and two kids, when asked to depict an ideal household.

As Hong Kong is affected by western civilization, the ideal of matrimony in modern society is difference than earlier. The traditional construct of matrimony is a duty. Both work forces and adult females must ever populate together. Further, matrimony is regarded as economic system system to protect kids. However, construct of matrimony in the modern society understands as equal partnership. They merely want to acquire personal satisfaction from matrimony. ( hkreform ) The modern construct of matrimony led to increase in divorce and remarriage. The tabular array 6 shows the addition in divorce edicts from 1981 to 2009. To simplify the divorce process, both sides agreed to a divorce need non give a statement in tribunal, but through the drumhead process to shorten the waiting clip. This is the ground why divorce decrees increase quickly.

In decision, household system in Hong Kong has undergone rapid transmutation in the past four decennaries. Structurally, households have become smaller, averaging about 3 individuals per family. Economically, the household system in Hong Kong no longer serves as an economic production unit. Socially, with the outgrowth of different household types such as childless household, single-parent household, single-person household, double earner household, and step-family, households have become more heterogenous. It can be attributed to the increasing divorce and remarriage, rise in the age at first matrimony, the increasing female engagement in labour force, and the decreasing birthrate and mortality rates. For all these grounds, the tradition household system has collapsed. Nuclear households become more general in Hong Kong modern society.

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