Explain One Theory Of Motivation Commerce Essay

Motivation is the driving force behind an persons actions. Motivation is the set of forces that cause people to take certain behaviors from among the many options open to them. The strength of motive varies from single to single. An single himself may see different degrees of motive at different state of affairss. Besides, an person could be motivated by different factors like occupation satisfaction, sense of achievement, interaction with clients and colleagues, something to make full their clip with activity, etc.


Organizations are driven by employees and a motivated employee is an plus to the organisation. Motivation is of import because of its significance as a determiner of public presentation and its intangible nature. In today ‘s of all time increasing competitory markets, keeping a extremely motivated undertaking force is one of the challenges that the modern director has to face.

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Marks & A ; Spencer is a good known concatenation of supermarkets with several mercantile establishments all over the universe. Recently there has been a sudden addition in employees ‘ absenteeism, extended interruption hours and a perceptible diminution in client service. The state of affairs is non out of manus but will shortly go, if this tendency is non reversed. The direction has investigated the grounds for this behavior and found the grounds to be as under:

Due to recession, direction has taken the determination to close down several mercantile establishments in non-profitable locations. This has created a fright among employees.

Management besides has decided to cut down excess staff.

There have been several steps taken towards cost cutting – which included withdrawing of several benefits, which employees used to bask before, for illustration, paid interruptions.

Due to these and many other factors employees are de-motivated and are fring involvement in working and functioning the clients decently.


Customers are kicking about hapless service and ill-mannered staff.

No. of footsteps in the shop has reduced, thereby cut downing profitableness.

Employees ‘ attitude on the occupation is demoing negativeness

Employees ‘ public presentation is straight doing a downward tendency in the company ‘s repute and gross revenues.

The theory of Motivation which I think is most applicable to the current state of affairs is Abraham Maslow ‘s Theory of Hierarchy.

Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands assumes that people are motivated to fulfill five degrees of demands which are explained in item below. As an employee of Marks & A ; Spencer, allow me explicate how the company takes or can take attention of my demands and maintain me motivated.

Physiological, It is the most basic of demands. Marks and Spencer can supply its employees with basic necessities like free canteen, subsidised nutrient vouchers, etc. Since most of the staff are pupils, they can organize some sort of shared subsidised adjustment near to their shops.

Safety, Once nutrient and adjustment demands are taken attention of, the following set of demands would be a feeling of safety and security. Job security, a healthy and hazard-free work environment, proviso of medical insurance and exigency medical installations are all really strong grounds for an employee to experience safe. The direction at Marks & A ; Spencer can give a feeling of occupation security by being transparent in its communicating to employees about intended determinations. Announcement of internal occupation posters will give the employees the confidence that they will be given first penchant every clip there is a occupation gap. Reding employees will besides give them a feeling of occupation security.

Social Needs are taken attention of when the company conveys a concern for the employees ‘ public assistance and involvements, thereby making a feeling of belongingness to its employees. Marks & A ; Spencer could organize particular yearss or little events without impacting the work which can do the workplace more merriment.

Esteem, this covers both internal regard and external regard. Internal esteem relates to self-esteem such as self-respect and sense of pride. External regard relates to societal position and acknowledgment. Though this is a really sensitive topic, Marks & A ; Spencer take attention of this facet by handling me reasonably. They have policies whereby employees can non handle another employee disrespectfully or base on balls remarks which have sexual undertones. Their acknowledgment policy ensures that my director acknowledges my public presentation every clip I have met the clear marks set out for me,

Self-actualisation is the highest degree reached harmonizing to Maslow. At this point, the person ‘s focal point displacements to more intangible demands like a sense of morality, demand for being originative, spontaneousness in the workplace, feeling of being engaged in critical activities like job resolution, a feeling of deficiency of bias, etc. However, before this degree can be attained, the earlier degrees in the hierarchy have to be attained.

( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/maslow/ )

( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cbc.ca/radio2/programs/maslow.png )

The hierarchal agreement suggests that the five degrees of demands are arranged in order of increasing importance, get downing with physiological demands. Harmonizing to the theory, when demands at one degree are satisfied, they are no longer incentives and the single “ moves up ” the hierarchy to fulfill demands at the following degree.


While concentrating on the bottom line is a primary concern of all concerns, it is really of import to besides retain the human capital of the constitution. Management can make so by merely acknowledging the assorted factors which motivate employees. Consequently direction can take determinations which will non merely profit the concern but besides be satisfactory to the employee.

Directors at Marks and Spencer should follow Maslow ‘s theory where one time the physiological demands are fulfilled, the demands move to safety and so farther until it can make the maximal degree at self-actualisation. This can actuate the employees to work better.


Though this is a really old theory used by many companies and the first motive theory, it is argued that in some work places the employees are sometimes non motivated in the hierarchal manner. At times, safety demands may take precedence over physiological demands and so on the demands do non ever follow the same order.


Though there are some restrictions to this theory, I believe that if the directors follow Maslow ‘s theory, there will be an addition in employees ‘ motive degrees which will assist unusually better the employees ‘ public presentation and thereby assist Marks & A ; Spencer to maintain clients happy and maximize its net incomes. Most significantly, Marks & A ; Spencer will win in maintaining the chief assets of the company, the work force happy.


STEREOTYPING ( Generalizing )

Pigeonholing agencies analyzing a fixed image about a certain group of people based on the race, coloring material, and faith without holding more cognition about the individual or community as a whole. Generalizing about people holding limited or no cognition about them can be deceptive and unjust some times. Assuming about people based on their race, coloring material, and faith can be unsafe. It can be both negative and positive but it is unjust to judge people without holding cognition about them. Human head is complex all the clip. We easy form stereotypes like for case, if late at dark we are walking in a alone street and we see two old work forces in coats and with walking sticks we believe that we will be safe as we have a stereotype image that they will non do any job. Common stereotypes are that adult females are chatty ; all politicians are corrupt etc… .when this may non ever be the instance. Thus stereotype has really negative deductions on a race, faith, worlds etc.


I had been to the US, a nice and large state but when I used to run into people most of them believed that I am from a 3rd universe state. One twenty-four hours I met a cat who was speaking all bad things about India. When he came to cognize that I am an Indian, he directed his attending to me stating that I am from a 3rd universe state which has a batch of poorness and corruptness. His head was preset about Indians. However when I gently pointed out to him India ‘s accomplishments like traveling to the Moon, the 3rd largest ground forces in the universe, a flourishing economic system, one of the largest Numberss of physicians, applied scientists etc he was shocked. He accepted that his impression of India was stereotyped and far removed from the world.


Halo consequence can be defined as holding a certain positive image of a individual or merchandise because of the inclination to believe that it will be good by non judging the negative things about the individual or merchandise. A recent illustration of the Halo consequence was seen when Apple released IPod – it was believed that its Mac book gross revenues would besides increase as the IPod gross revenues were really good nevertheless that did non go on. By and large, we have a inclination to believe that if a certain merchandise of a company is good the other merchandises made by the same company will besides be good and this belief would be founded without look intoing much about the other merchandise.


In the twelvemonth 2002 Pepsi released a new drink in India called Pepsi Blue, as Pepsi was at extremum with its Pepsi Cola, Mirinda and other drinks which were making great concern. It released Pepsi Blue to capture more market portion. Like most people, even I thought that since its other merchandises are good this drink should besides be nice. However the drink was excessively sweet and Pepsi had to retreat it in 2004 as consumers were non happy with Pepsi Blue.

Undertaking 2 ANSWER Angstrom

Give specific illustrations of the ways in which an administration of your pick has attempted to fulfill and or has failed to fulfill, duties or duties towards its stakeholders.

Every company has stakeholders whether internal or external. A company, to be successful, has to carry through the duty of its stakeholders as they may be straight or indirectly linked to it. A stakeholder could be described as a individual, administration, and group which can be affected by the administration actions.

In this assignment I would wish to take the illustration of Tesco, the administration I work for, how they are able to fulfill or hold failed to fulfill their duties or duties towards their stakeholders. Tesco, the largest supermarket in UK and Northern Ireland, is non merely in retailing but in different types of concerns like banking, finance, insurance to call a few. It becomes really hard to fulfill every stakeholder ‘s demands but it tries its best to accomplish that.

Stakeholders OF TESCO

Customers Tesco ‘s chief purpose is to sell its merchandises at a low monetary value while keeping quality as it believes “ Every Little Helps ” . It does its best to fulfill its clients. It ‘s celebrated nine card helps clients to acquire points whenever they shop which can be used to acquire hard currency verifiers at a ulterior phase after they accumulate points or they can purchase anything from the shop or online by utilizing those points, which motivates clients to shop from Tesco. For about every merchandise they have their value scope which the clients can purchase at inexpensive monetary value and good quality. It adapts to the local country wherever it opens shop for illustration if it opens a shop where many Asians live they would maintain nutrient points harmonizing to Asian gustatory sensation which make clients to come to Tesco and store. If a Customer is non happy with a merchandise he can interchange or acquire a refund for the merchandise. Customers can order most of the material online even food markets which makes it easy for the client to non travel to the store and salvage clip.Fresh and best quality nutrient is available for the clients.

Employees They are the chief internal stakeholders of the company. Tesco does its best to maintain it Employees happy as without them it would be non possible for the company to run its concern. Below are some of the steps applied by Tesco to fulfill its employees

Equal wage for the same work done by employees.

Right for publicity for the suited campaigner. Tesco has an internal strategy called “ options ” where in an employee after being lasting in the company can fall in in “ options ” and acquire trained to be a Line Manager and so the director.

Every employee has a right to fall in the Union USDAW which they have tie up with for a nominal fees which they charge every month and any issue which the direction ca n’t work out the employee can near the Union which they will so look after. If an employee is sacked unlawfully or is injured at work they can near the Union who will make its best to give the justness.

If any employee is non happy with his line director and ca n’t acquire his job solved he can near his Personal director, who will look into the affair so.

No racial discrimination- Tesco makes certain that there is no racial favoritism and one can happen people from all races working in Tesco shops.

Proper Health and Safety regulations are followed in all Tesco shops.

10 % Discount Privilege card to employees after finishing 6 months in occupation.

These are some of the steps taken by Tesco to fulfill its employees and to do certain they are motivated in every manner the company can.

Stockholders, Government and Local Community Despite being recession Tesco has managed to do net income of ?3.13 billion lbs net income for the twelvemonth stoping April 2009 and fulfill all its stockholders.

( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/retailandconsumer/5192155/Tesco-posts-record-3bn-profit.html ) .

Tesco recycles most of its material like plastic, composition board and thereby assisting the environment, it donates money to assorted charity administrations for illustration every clip any one withdraws money from a hard currency machine at Tesco it will donate 0.0125p to Muscular Dystrophy Campaign. It invests batch in utilizing Green Technology at that place by cut downing CO2 emanations.

( hypertext transfer protocol: //tesco.muscular-dystrophy.org/get_involved/pop_it_in_your_trolley/809_cash_machines )

It is one of the largest private Employer and Tax Payer in the UK there by assisting the Government to raise revenue enhancement money.

Though Tesco tries it best to fulfill all its stakeholders but there are certain countries where it has failed to carry through its duties towards its stakeholders:

Some employees complain about excessively much work emphasis and deficit of employees because of which they have to work excess.

Sometimes no proper enlisting process is followed and many vacancies are filled by mentions from bing employees.

Tesco is been accused by Viva ( Vegetarians International voice for animate beings ) that it sends more than 5000 metric tons of fresh meat which has crossed it sell-by-date to National Grid to bring forth electricity for about 600 UK places which Tesco believes can assist to bring forth power but Viva believes that many people would be horrified by larning that the power they are utilizing is from meat, they argue that why in the first topographic point so many animate beings should be killed which increases the waste.

( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/epic/tsco/5979939/Tesco-criticised-by-vegetarians-for-using-waste-meat-to-generate-electricity.html ) .

Lot of Bakery and Fresh nutrient points are besides wasted because of surplus telling which is thrown off, where many people in the universe do n’t even hold one loaf of staff of life to eat every twenty-four hours.

Many merchandises are outsourced from China and other developing states to cut down cost but like many other companies Tesco is accused that the people doing these merchandises do n’t acquire proper wage, no proper working conditions and besides usage of kid labor in these states.

Some clients feel the monetary values are non as competitory compared to other supermarkets like ASDA and Sainsbury.

If Tesco wants to be figure one in the market it needs to undertake these jobs to do certain all its stakeholders are kept happy.

Undertaking 2

Answer B

“ To do the best usage of engineering, we must utilize it to back up and develop our concern, non adapt concern to engineering ” .

“ Technology should be our retainer and non our maestro ” .

Discuss the above statement with the aid of your ain personal experiences in this respect.

Technology has become an of import portion of the universe today, it has helped many administrations to be more successful in the market and it besides has changed their manner of advancing a concern since engineering started to govern the concern universe.


Savingss – Time: Time can be easy saved by utilizing engineering in a concern.

Savingss – Attempt: Work can be done easy and merely and can be retrieved easy.

Simple Storage solutions: More secure to maintain all the paperss in the system than in a desk.

Encourages volume and range of concern: Could assist to turn our concern to its highest degree.

Efficiency: Make the concern more efficient for the clients


Initially in Tesco, the largest supermarket in the UK, there were merely manual check-out procedures. This is characterised most of the times with long waiting lines during busy times and people working at the check-out procedures scanning the points and functioning the clients. Some clip back Tesco and other supermarkets introduced Self-Checkouts where a client can himself scan the points he is purchasing and pay for the merchandise. Tesco saved a batch of money by presenting these egos check-out procedures by cut downing the figure of staff at the check-out procedures. However this method has disadvantages besides which I experienced firsthand. Once when I was utilizing the self-checkout, I had bought a batch of confectioneries as there was a party at my topographic point. There was one staff taking attention of 6 self-checkout counters to assist the clients if they were confronting any job. The job I faced was that many of the in-store bakeshop points did non hold barcodes. It was time-consuming to look for the points manually and was doing me impatient. Though the staff manning the self-checkouts helped me it took approximately 10 proceedingss to acquire my bill done when it could hold been done in less than 5 proceedingss if the check-out procedure was done by the staff manually. There are several other clients excessively who have found the use of ego check-out procedures to be an bothersome experience.

Therefore engineering should be used to back up and develop the concern ; it should non be used as a tool to put off people. If used decently it can give maximal benefits.


About all companies have introduced voice acknowledgment client service to salvage costs wherein the client calls the client service figure and has to talk clearly to take the right option which is so recognised by the system and the question is answered consequently.

My experience when I had to name 3 Mobile for my measure question was really raging. Even though I was talking clearly the voice acknowledgment system did non understand it clearly and I had to reiterate it two to three times and be on the phone for about 10 proceedingss before I could talk to person. It was truly thwarting utilizing their system.


Therefore earlier implementing any new system the staff should be trained decently and clients ‘ response should be taken into history. Merely so can engineering give best consequences. This clearly explains that “ Technology should be our retainer and non our Maestro ” .

Undertaking 3 Answer

With regard to the undermentioned theoretical account, analyse the organizational civilization of a planetary administration of your pick. Besides discuss the jobs faced by the directors in pull offing their diverse and multicultural work force.

The cultural web was developed by Gerry Johnson and Kevan Scholes in 1992, provides an attack for looking at and altering an organisations civilization. Using it one can expose cultural premises and patterns and put to work different administration elements with one another with 1s scheme.

The cultural web consists of six different elements called the “ paradigm ” , the form of work environment they are Narratives, Rituals and Routines, Symbols, Organisational Culture, Control Systems and Power Culture.

( hypertext transfer protocol: //changeworksblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/11/culturalweb.jpg )



It is what people speak about the concern and its repute in the market. Tesco is the largest supermarket in the UK. Customers know that they will acquire value for money when they buy merchandises in Tesco and besides acquire loyalty clubcard points when they shop at Tesco. Employees are besides happy for working with such a reputed company.

Rituals and Routines

In Tesco the staff has to work together and describe to their line director, who in bend has to describe to his director. The clients know they are traveling to acquire good client service in Tesco. It is fundamentally the twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours behavior of the staff and clients.

Power Structures

Power is distributed to assorted people harmonizing to the occupation. For illustration a shop director in Tesco has the power to make the right thing for the shop which he needs to pass on to the caput in Tesco. Though there are some major determinations which are taken by the Chairman of Tesco and are communicated to different shops and section.


One can recognize Tesco symbol easy. Whenever we think if Tesco their ticket line “ Every Little Helps ” will ever come to mind and one can be assured that Tesco will sell good quality material at sensible monetary value. Staff in Tesco ‘s demand to have on bluish or ruddy uniform with Tesco logo which is alone, so if any client demands help they know whom to inquire in the shop.

Control Systems

It is the manner of tracking the net income and other activities of the concern. In Tesco an employee after being lasting can travel for “ options ” wherein he will be trained to go a line director and so a Manager. Every employee is rewarded harmonizing to his public presentation.

Organizational Structure

Tesco is the largest supermarket in the UK and besides has shops in other states. It has got a matrix organizational construction where each section is given their ain work, have to describe to their line directors and who in bend have to describe to their directors. For illustration as I work dark displacements in Tesco in Dairy subdivision, my line director assigns me a section which I need to finish and describe to him and in the forenoon he has to describe to the twenty-four hours director who so reports to the Store Manager.


Tesco being the largest supermarket in the UK and one of the largest private employers, the directors can confront troubles in pull offing the multicultural work force as follows:

Every person has different capableness ; one can make a occupation fast whereas the other may take some more clip to finish the same undertaking. The director should cognize this and handle the staff consequently.

Persons from different race, faith, background should be treated consequently. For illustration during Ramadan, Muslims need to interrupt their fast at a peculiar clip, so the director has to set their interruption clip consequently so they can interrupt their fast and if they need to pray a supplication room should be given to them.

If some employee has a difficult clip in understanding him he should inquire them and speak easy to do certain they have understood.

If there are any differences between employees he should seek to screen them out, actuate them and do them work in squads.

If an employee has a echt job and ca n’t come to work the director should understand it and happen a solution to it like a displacement barter etc.


Therefore a good leading manner would assist the directors to pull off diverse and multicultural work force by making a friendly ambiance and actuating the employees in every possible mode.



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