Factors affecting newly developed products

The demand of freshly developed merchandise is affected by assorted factors. Among these assorted factors, monetary value and publicity are the cardinal factors to impact demand. This effectivity is higher in perishable merchandises, for both short every bit good as long tally. ( Vincent et al. , 2001 ) . New merchandise is developed by each and every company in different state of affairs. Some of them produce new merchandise in the beginning phase and some of them produce it after the diminution phase of merchandise life rhythm. As a life being, merchandise has besides a life. In its different phases of life, its selling policies are changed. That means 4p ‘s ( Product, monetary value, topographic point and publicity ) are consider absolutely run intoing clients ‘ satisfaction. The new merchandise is developed to replace the decease merchandise. Customers ‘ behaviour gets changed harmonizing to clip, so to run into clients ‘ satisfaction, merchandise has to modify and new merchandise is launched. This research has been done to happen out the relation between the monetary values and demand of freshly developed merchandise.

Byungate ( 2005 ) believes that one of the indispensable demands of a house to derive competitory advantage and obtain the particular concern value is to analyse its mark clients ‘ demand accurately at the right clip. When a house tries to establish its freshly developed merchandise, It should non lose its chance for merchandise launching due to heavy cost and drawn-out clip of demand analysis, otherwise the house can easy loss the client base to its rivals in malice of more sophisticated demand analysis ( Byungate, 2005 ) . In order to suit in this timely analysis of demand, this research is suggesting different theoretical accounts of strategic demand appraisal harmonizing to pricing policies.

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1.2 Aims of the survey:

By and large when the statement is made the monetary value is determined by demand and supply. But for new merchandise demand has to be estimated on the footing of its utility merchandise bing in market or study of clients ‘ demand in the market. Price is chief factor to consequence demand and supply of merchandise. If Price of new merchandise is lesser than the clients ‘ desire so there will be high demand of merchandise and the maker company besides should hold power to provide the merchandise to run into increasing demand. Otherwise the dependability of merchandise in the market will travel down and there might be presence of rearward consequence on demand. Although there are other assorted factor which could hold positive and negative influences in between the relation of monetary value and demand, this Research aims to accomplish the undermentioned aims:

To happen out how pricing policies consequence demand of freshly developed merchandise.

To analyze the relation between monetary value and demand.

1.3 Purpose and range of the research:

This research defines the boundaries of this research field which are named as aims and range of this survey, research attack and schemes, aggregation of informations etc to acquire the decision on research subjects. This is a descriptive research although some statistical informations has been used for the comparative surveies.

Marketing mix for new developed merchandise should be considered absolutely by experts. Among them pricing is most indispensable factor to impact the demand of new merchandise. After analyzing the wide lineation of the research on pricing schemes and its impact on demand of freshly developed merchandise as mentioned in debut, this research could be best tools for the account of relation between these two factors. Many experts have adopted their ain practical attacks for calculating out the monetary value demand relationship through formal or informal consumer study ( questionnaires, polls etc ) and through existent experiment conducted in the signifier of limited clip offers of price reduction. ( Zhang et al. , 2002 ) This Procedure could be drawn-out and dearly-won every bit good. This research tries to understate the job sing price-demand dealingss.

1.4 Research background

Monetary value and demand relationship is an economic subject where a batch of researches have been done by different experts. But this research has been done by concentrating one of the factors of marketing mix ( i. e. Price ) and its influence on demand of freshly developed merchandise on the footing of marketing background instead than economic sciences. Although some research of economic expert were taken as mention for the decision. Some Journal, books, articles etc are chief beginning of this research. On behalf of informations, secondary informations are used alternatively of primary informations, published by different beginnings as mentioned in mention lists.

A scientist named Kalish ( n.d ) humorously said that “ A twelvemonth in the lab can salvage you a twenty-four hours in the library ” . As Kalish ‘s idea I prefer to take secondary research alternatively of primary research. So, through library and internet research, it is seeking to supply anticipation of what could be the best for future stairss.

1.5 Restrictions:

As antecedently mentioned that it is a paper work based on other different books, diaries, web sites etc, it has some restrictions, which are lists below:

It is merely the anticipation harmonizing to collected beginnings, which could be right or incorrect.

The decision of this research might non be same for all types of merchandise.

Basically, this research is focused on selling background but this term has other economic background besides. So, it has to see economic values besides.

As subject has wider dimension, it has merely bounded inside the two aims.

Chapter – 2 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

New merchandise development is the term which explains the full procedure of developing a new merchandise or service into the market. Harmonizing to the PDMA Glossary for New Product Development ( 2006 ) , “ it is a term of many sentiments and patterns but most by and large defined as a merchandise ( either a good or service ) new to the house selling it, excepting the merchandises that are merely changed in publicity ” . As per PDMA ( 2006 ) , the overall procedure of scheme, organisation, construct coevals, merchandise and selling program creative activity and rating and commercialisation of a new merchandise is New Product Development ( NPD ) . This new merchandise has to be launched to the market tactically to obtain market benefit. For that assorted factor impacting it and its demand should be analyzed, but here we will analyse monetary value and its consequence on demand of new merchandise.

One of the of import elements in the selling mix that the seller call Price has many names: menu, fee, charge, toll, tuition, rent, all right, and appraisal to advert a few. Generally monetary value is whatever must be exchanged in return for having a good or service. ( Pezzullo, 1998 )

It is a measure of payment or compensation transportation from one party to another alternatively of merchandise. This position has limited account for the significance of monetary value during dealing. When we say “ monetary value, ” it means it has got different significances to different people depending upon their points of position. Sellers focus on acquiring right monetary value relation to competitory merchandises. Economist focal points on market monetary value driven by supply and demand balance. Gross saless representatives concentrate on coming up with right dealing monetary value for each particular clients. Similarly, organisational behaviorist focal points on their alteration direction orientation. ( Walter et al. , 2010 )

Boyes & A ; Melvin, ( 2008 ) stated that demand is a relationship between the monetary value of the goods or service and the measure of that good or service people which the people are willing and able to purchase. Demand of a merchandise is chiefly effected by monetary value and the supply which are shown by demand and supply curve.

Figure: Demand Curve Fig: Supply Curve

2.2 Process of new merchandise development:

Booz et al. , ( 1982 ) Categorized new merchandise into six group: new to the universe merchandise, new merchandise line, add-ons to bing merchandise, betterments and alteration to bing merchandises, repositing, and cost decrease. Their common character is demand demand to the new merchandise developer. Kotler & A ; Armstrong ( 2010 ) , argues that in order to make a successful new merchandise, a company must understand its clients, markets and rivals and so develop merchandise that deliver superior value to clients. For the new merchandise development he developed a systematic, customer-driven NPD planning procedure. Figure:1 shows its major stairss of this procedure.

Fig:1 Stages in New-product development Beginning: Kotler & A ; Armstrong, 2010

Idea coevals:

Idea showing:

Concept Development and Training:

Marketing Strategy Development:

Business Analysis:

Merchandise Development:

Trial Selling:


Harmonizing to Degeneffe ( 2008 ) , a company present new merchandise for the growing, capacity use, and competitory place in the market. During the debut of new merchandise in the market, a batch of obstructions will happen:

Trouble in placing truly a new thought accepted by the market.

Maximal opportunities of failure.

Cannibalization of being concern.

New Product Development procedure is used by most companies to cut down hazard failure and bring forth new winning merchandises. It starts with an chance designation measure. The first measure is based on consideration of a batch of options and so concern analysis occurs throughout the procedure of phase Gatess. At the construct trial phase it justifies development cost and at the market stages it justifies to travel to market. At the terminal of NPD procedure, the selling program comes which includes a comprehensive set of programs that involve gross revenues, finance, publicities, advertisement and production. ( ibid )

2.3 Pricing:

Pricing is the basic facet of fiscal modeling. It is the scientific discipline where subjects of selling, cost accounting, concern schemes, and economic sciences get covered. During the pricing there is the possibilities of either over monetary value or under monetary value or appropriate monetary value. Activity based pricing integrates demand information with Activity based Cost informations to happen the combination of monetary value and cost that maximize net income. Daly ( 2002 ) and Abraham ( 2001 ) divided the monetary value in to three theoretical accounts, which are: Cost plus, Market pricing and Discounted pricing.

Kotler ( 2010 ) Introduce four types of pricing schemes for the sellers: New merchandise pricing schemes, merchandise mix pricing schemes, monetary value accommodation schemes, and monetary value reaction schemes. Pricing schemes normally changed as the merchandise passes through it life rhythm. But the introductory phase of pricing is disputing. Companies can choose either market planing pricing scheme or market incursion pricing scheme at this phase. ( ibid ) .

Kyle ( 2010 ) explains that pricing schemes are affected by assorted factors. She introduced five forces that influence other concern determinations that should be considered: Rival, Supplier, handiness of utility merchandise, client and cost. By and large, there are assorted schemes of pricing.

Kotler ( 2010 ) identified 9 monetary value quality schemes as shown below:


High Value

Super Value

Over Changing

Mid Value

Good Value

Rip- Off

False Economy


Low Price

High Monetary value

High Quality

Low Quality

Figure: 2 Price – Quality Matrix Source: Kotler ( 2010 )

These assorted schemes are used by concern adult male in their merchandise to acquire benefit from the market but merely those who can understand five forces as mentioned antecedently could acquire success. These pricing schemes are, Cost plus pricing, Target return pricing, Value based pricing, Market incursion, Psychological pricing, planing, premium pricing, merchandise package pricing, promotional pricing, geographical pricing, value pricing, optional merchandise pricing, psychological pricing etc.

Schemes may change from merchandise to merchandise. For the new merchandise Dean ( 1976 ) discussed about skim pricing and incursion pricing in his authoritative HBR articles. Kotler ( 2010 ) besides corroborated with this thought.

2.3.1 Skim Pricing:

It is a pricing technique which is designed to let a concern to bear down each possible client the most that he or she would be willing to pay for given merchandise or service. In this technique, the monetary value of the merchandise at first is offered at high monetary value that client will pay and so easy the monetary value is dropped until the degree where the merchandise is trusted to be for the long term. [ online ]

Dean ( 1976 ) argued that the skim pricing is most appropriate when:

Demand is expected to be comparatively inelastic.

Large cost nest eggs are non expected at high volume.

The company does non hold the resources to finance the immense capital outgo for the production of big volume at the clip of low net income.

2.3.2 Penetration Pricing:

This is another type of pricing technique where monetary value of the merchandise or service is ab initio really low to pull client and physique market portion. After the merchandise is stable in the market monetary value goes easy up to maximise net income. Dean ( 1976 ) besides explains that incursion pricing maximise the merchandising measures because of low monetary value. It is most appropriate when:

Demand is extremely elastic.

There is a menace of future competition.

Large lessenings in cost are expected as cumulative volume addition.

The merchandise can derive aggregate entreaty rapidly.

On the other manus Price point spouse [ online ] developed new thought for the pricing policy of new merchandise. It considered cost, perceived value, and competitory place when turn toing monetary value of new merchandise. Value function technique allows the integrated usage of cost and perceived value to placing pricing mark.

Figure:3 Value mapping graph Beginning:

2.3.4 Pricing Aims:

As the merchandise passes its different phase in its life rhythm, pricing has to be revaluated. The pricing aims depends upon many factors, that includes the house ‘s resources, production cost, barriers to entry, merchandise distinction, rate of merchandise diffusion, being economic systems of graduated table and the merchandise expected monetary value snap of demand. [ online. www.netmba.com ]

2.4 Price Elasticity of Demand ( PED ) :

Elasticity is a step of reactivity. It explains how much one thing got alteration when we change something else that affects it ( Baker, 2006 ) . A step of how much demand measure of a good responds due to alter in the monetary value is called monetary value snap of demand. It is calculated by the per centum in demand divided by the per centum alteration in monetary value. ( Reynolds )

Where, = Elasticity of Demand

= Change in Quantity demanded = Change in Price

Q1A­ = Initial Demand Quantity

Q2 = Final Demand Quantity

P1 = Initial monetary value

P2 = Final Price

Basically, If Ed & gt ; 1, so the we can state merchandise has elastic demand.

Similarly If Ed & lt ; 1, so the merchandise has inelastic demand, If Ed =1, so the merchandise has unit snap.

If Ed = 0, so merchandise is absolutely inelastic.

If Ed = a?z , so the merchandise is absolutely elastic.

Harlow ( 2000 ) argues that the critical Level of Price Elasticity of Demand ( PED ) can be found by an application of breakeven analysis. He said we can take the current degree of part to overhead and net income ; and inquire what the volume must be to give the same degree of part at the alternate monetary value. Having found this critical volume, we can calculate what the PED would be to give us this volume at the new monetary value, compared with being monetary value and measure. Then this will be the Critical Price Elasticity of Demand ( CPED ) . He besides added that if we are increasing monetary values, any PED less than CPED will increase net income ; if we are take downing monetary value, we want PED to be more than CPED.

There are two types of merchandise demand as mentioned earlier: Elastic and Inelastic. ( Roberts et al.,2004 ) referred in a undertaking that if the demand for a merchandise is affected by a alteration in monetary value, the merchandise is said to hold elastic demand and if its demand is non affected it is said to hold inelastic demand. By and large epicurean merchandises have elastic demand and the necessary merchandises that the people need to last like Food, fuel etc have inelastic demand.

Amlani ( 2007 ) referred eight factors that are combined to find snap of demand which are tabulated below:





Many Substitutes available


Perceived as necessity by consumers


Item has alone characteristics of import to consumer


Consumer can easy compare with merchandises of rivals


Item ‘s monetary value represents a significant per centum of consumers ‘ budget


Consumer is paying merely a little part of the entire monetary value


Merchandise has low shift costs


Monetary value is an index of quality by consumer


Figure: 4, Factors to find snap of demand.

Chapter:3 Research methodological analysis

3.1 Introduction:

Research methodological analysis is the system of roll uping informations for research. These informations may be collected by either theoretically or practically. This chapter explains the methodological analysis which was used to execute this research and it besides explains about the informations which are used by giving their beginnings. As mentioned earlier this research has gathered information from research chiefly from books, diaries, cyberspace, articles, magazine and studies, therefore the informations are collected by theoretically. This type of research is known as secondary research.

3.2 Research Design:

A research design is the scheme for replying the inquiries or proving the hypothesis that stimulated the research in the first topographic point. Survey design can be distinguished as transverse sectional or longitudinal, depending upon whether they exclude or include expressed attending to the clip dimension. Longitudinal designs provide greater assurance for causal illations than cross-sectional designs because they established temporal precedence more easy. ( Kraemer, 1990 )

Harmonizing to the aims of research the research enterprise can be grouped as descriptive, correlativity, explanatory or exploratory. Descriptive research describes consistently a state of affairs, jobs, phenomenon, service or plan or provides information about populating status of community or describes attitude towards an issue. Correlation research discovers or established the relationship between two or more facets of a state of affairs. Explanatory research efforts to clear up why and how there is a relationship between two or more facets of the state of affairs while the research that is undertaken from the position point of aim of the survey is known as exploratory ( Ranjit Kumar, 2005 ) . As this research is the relation between monetary value and demand, it is a co relational research. But it besides contains some features of descriptive research.

3.3 Research attack:

By and large, in a research the job is formulated in general manner and so researcher identifies assorted intents which will explicate how the subsequent information will be gathered and how it will be analysed. During research, research worker has either a theory which he/she wants to prove out or has observed a full procedure that he/she wants to develop a theory. These two attacks usually termed either as normative and normative or as deductive and inductive severally. It is common to fit these attacks to two manners, these being quantitative research and qualitative research. ( Cohen & A ; Manion,1994 )

3.3.1 Quantitative Research:

Quantitative research methodological analysis is a research methodological analysis which seeks to quantify the informations and typically, applies, some signifier of statistical analysis. ( teacher ‘s note 2010 ) . Quantitative survey must be testable hypothesis and hypothesis must include constructs that can be measured by figure. In quantitative surveies the experimental methods must be appropriate and good designed with appropriate statistical applications and tools. In quantitative methodological analysis the research worker tries to be nonsubjective and to show a space screen to the research subjects. ( Frankfort & A ; Nachmias, 2008 )

Features of Quantitative Research:

The focal point here is on numeral representation.

Information is tasted before presentation utilizing a systematic attack.

Concerned with comprehensiveness instead than deepness.

It is more nonsubjective non subjective.

3.3.2 Qualitative research:

Qualitative research methodological analysis is a research methodological analysis which seeks the significance and motive behind behavior every bit good as a thorough history of behavioral fact and deduction via research worker ‘s brush with people ‘s ain actions, words, and thoughts. ( teacher ‘s note, 2010 ) . Qualitative research is on the “ crest of a moving ridge ” and has become vastly popular in the pattern subject. ( Morse, 1994 )

Many types of qualitative surveies portion common facets. They are descriptive, and instead than turn outing or confuting a hypothesis, they explore some facet of human experience in deepness. In qualitative surveies, the focal point is on the integrity of the experience instead than its parts. ( Denzin & A ; Lincoln, 2003 )

Features of Qualitative research:

Deeper apprehension of the research job.

Exploratory than conclusive/decisive.

Helps replying what, why & A ; how.

More subjective non nonsubjective.


Figure: Research Design Source: www.chici.org/docs/Research.doc

This research has got the features of qualitative research so it tries to explicate the different theories related to the topic of the research. It is more subjective.

3.4 Data Collection:

There are different methods of informations aggregation. All the methods of informations aggregation can provide quantitative or qualitative informations. Datas like Numberss, statistical, fiscal are quantitative informations while the informations in word or text are qualitative informations. By and large quantitative informations are presented in tabular or graphical signifier.

Basically there are two types of informations. They are: Primary informations and Secondary informations. Primary informations are those informations which are collected by the research worker at first manus from the field for the solution of research job. Normally, these informations are collected by questionnaire, interview, observation, instance survey, portfolios etc. by research worker from the stakeholders of research topic. Secondary informations are those informations that has already been collected by person else for different intent to us. For illustration organisation ‘s one-year study, authorities statistics, informations supplied by marketing company etc.

This research chiefly contains secondary informations. By the different beginnings the informations could be collected. In instance of secondary informations, its beginnings are classified in to major two groups. They are:

Paper based beginnings: For illustration books, diaries, magazine, intelligence paper, research study, one-year study, internal record of an organisation, conference paper, directories etc.

Electronic Beginnings: For illustration Cadmiums, cyberspace, online database, picture, telecastings etc.

3.5 Data Analysis:

Data analysis is a most of import phase of the research weather the information is primary or secondary. Before the information aggregation, research worker must believe how he/she is traveling to analyse the information. As the secondary informations are collected for different intents we must handle it with attention. It will be good to utilize the informations collected by other if exists because it may incorporate informations on a much larger graduated table than we expect, but we must be able to analyze them wholly and decently.

In this research, informations are collected from assorted books, research study, newspaper, magazine etc. I besides use many diaries such as progress in consumer research, Journal of marketing research, Journal of marketing direction, European diary of selling which are viewed via cyberspace and from the informations base like concern beginning elite, scientific discipline direct, emerald penetration etc. All the collected informations are analysed critically to obtain better results.

Chapter 4 Analysis and Findingss:

This survey expects to supply the effects of monetary value on demand of freshly developed merchandise. The full new merchandises are non same. They are differing in their features, their market, their clients etc. Their monetary value snap of demand is besides different from each other. Some new merchandises are easy accepted by market because of absence of rivals but some fails to capture market. Here this research will seek to happen the best manner to capture market by the new merchandise with perfect pricing.

For the new merchandise, different economic experts and seller developed different pricing theories which are discussed in chapter two. But bulk of them concentrate on two types of pricing. They are skim pricing and Penetration pricing.

Skim pricing:

In general, Marketers sets a comparatively high monetary value of a new merchandise in the beginning and so bit by bit lower the monetary value of a merchandise. This scheme is known as skim pricing. This scheme will let the house to obtain its sunk cost rapidly before the competition come inside the market. During this procedure, top sections of the market which are willing to pay highest wage to obtain the merchandise at first are skimmed foremost. It occurs in largely technological market when the new merchandise developer sets merchandise ‘s or service ‘s monetary value really high during the first phase of Product life rhythm. This scheme is like the agriculture of milking cattles where the pick rises to the top and we skim it off.

Some consumers are advanced. They have a desire to accomplish new merchandise at any cost. They are non monetary value sensitive but merchandise oriented. They want to be the first user of the merchandise.

By and large monetary value skimming is done for the merchandise has expected to be inelastic demand curve because if the demand curve is elastic for long term so the market equilibrium will be achieved by measure alteration non by altering monetary value. Price skimmer should be cognizant of jurisprudence of the market every bit good.

Normally, monetary value planing seems to be good to the house bring forthing new merchandise because this scheme will assist to capture client ‘s excess and obtain adequate fiscal resources for the production of more merchandises. It helps to section the market where monetary value can be lowered to accommodate market, hence the demand of each section is satisfied and houses can obtain more net income from each of them. But to implement this scheme, a house has to believe a batch otherwise monetary value skimming monetary value could be worse scheme for the company. Some of the possible menaces that might happen during monetary value planing are listed below:

Skim pricing encourage rivals to entry in to the market as they see the high border on the merchandise.

Inventory turnover of the skimmed merchandise might be low which could make the job in distribution concatenation.

The new merchandise developer could develop negative promotion if they cut down the monetary value of merchandise rapidly without any alteration in merchandise or service.

The rate of diffusion of skimmed merchandise is slow which could supply advantage to the rivals.

These menaces and chances both should be evaluate before taking determination to acquire success. Basically, this type of pricing is done in High-end electronic merchandises like I-phone, Mobile, play station etc and other merchandise like Cars, minibike etc. These Merchandises are sophisticated and epicurean.

Figure: Demand curve Source: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.witiger.com/marketing/pricingobjectives.htm

This graph shows that because of skimming monetary value policy house is acquiring theoretically maximal net income in each degree.

An illustration of Price skimming is DVD participant. During 1990s, its monetary value was $ 400 to $ 500, in its debut phase. By 2001, the monetary value bit by bit came down and reaches up to $ 100. Now these DVD participants are available in the market in $ 30 to $ 40.

Penetration Pricing:

If the house has aims of increasing market gross revenues volume instead than net income for the short tally, so they usually implement incursion pricing. It is the pricing technique where the monetary value of freshly developed merchandise is ab initio low to pull new client. This pricing is perfect for those merchandises which have following features:

Merchandise or service has high snap of demand

If the freshly developed merchandise will confront stiff competition after debut.

The merchandise expects high demand.

By and large this scheme is implemented on the merchandise if the maker wants to be established in the market. This is done on the outlook of that the clients will be attracted by the low monetary value of new merchandise. After the consumers got habituate with the merchandise, company will increase in its monetary value bit by bit to acquire more borders.

Some chances of incursion pricing:

It can make good will among the first user which could assist in promotion.

This is chiefly based on fringy cost pricing which is economically efficient.

This scheme discourages rivals to entry into the market because of low monetary value.

It can construct high stock turnover throughout the distribution channel.

Some menaces of incursion pricing:

The consumers expect the low monetary value of the merchandise for long period. Any increase of monetary value might exchange clients to rival ‘s merchandise.

This scheme will non make strong client relationship and merely

Attracts consumers for profitable trade.

For illustration 3 nomadic webs is supplying an offer to its client stating that the first two episode of contract is say ?5 per month so remainder of other episode is say ?15 per month with free Mobile set. Here nomadic company is acquiring loss in its initial phase but when the client is habituated with the merchandise, they are inspired to go oning it.

The option of the incursion pricing is bait and hook theoretical account, where the merchandise has its initial monetary value really low but the other basic things for its operation is expensive. Printer is the best illustration for it. Now a twenty-four hours, monetary value of pressman is about ?50 which is less than its cost monetary value but the cartridge used on it will be about ?25, which is higher than its cost monetary value. Thus the company is seeking to acquire net income by giving Lollypop to the client of initial low monetary value because the client will purchase the pressman one time but they are purchasing cartridge for many times. This theoretical account is besides called razor and blades concern theoretical account.

Therefore, harmonizing to the nature of merchandise, market environment, presence of utility merchandise and company ‘s fiscal status and objectives the pricing policy of new merchandise should be determined which has positive impact on demand of it.

Mention: Walter L. Baker, Michael V. Marn, Craig C. Zawada, ( 2010 ) The Price Advantage ( willy finance ) 2nd edition, by Mckinsey & A ; company ( copy right ) Published by Wiley and Sons, Inc, Hoboken, New Jersey ISBN 978-0470-48177-6

Kumar, Ranjit, 2005, Research Methodology-A measure by measure usher for Beginners, ( 2nd.ed. ) , Singapore, Pearson Education.

Frankfort-Nachmias, C. , & A ; Nachmias, D. ( 2008 ) . Research methods in the societal scientific disciplines. ( 7th ed. ) . New York: Worth.

Denzin, N. , & A ; Lincoln, Y. ( 2003 ) . The landscape of qualitative research: Theories and issues. ( 2nd ed. ) Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Cohen, L. and Manion, L. ( 1994 ) Research Methods in Education, Routledge, London.

Kalish M. , Science brothers, 2008, Kenneth Lafferty Hess household charitable foundation, Accessed at www.sciencebuddies.org on 21st Nov, 2010

Mention: Pezzullo, M. A. , American banker association, ( 1998 ) Marketing fiscal services, page 172, American Banker Association

Mention: Boyes, W. J, Melvin, M. , 2008, Fundamental of ecomomics, Demand, Page 33 Houghton Miffin Company



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