facts of journalism today

July 18, 2017 Cultural

AN Ethical codification is without uncertainty a sine qua non in any profession. Journalism today faces an increasing demand for critical coverage, truth equity and objectiveness. The Code of Ethics is hence, the comrade of the practising journalist every bit good as the informed populace in supplying ethical guidelines by which practicians can judge and be judged.

This Code is new and comes after a painstaking and corporate attempt of Nigerian Journalists represented by the Nigerian Press Organization ( NPO ) and the Nigerian Press Council ( NPC ) whose adjudications are predicted wholly on the readings and commissariats of the Code. The old Code of Ethics put together and adopted by the NPO since 1979 was clearly lacking in many critical countries. It lacked daring, candor and lucidity and looked more of a gratuitous appliance which could intensify and obfuscate judgement of any perceived incorrect making in news media pattern.

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The new Code is a consensus papers. It is bold, elaborate and evinces lucidity for practicians and the public alike. It is a recognition to Nigerian Journalists that they could put so clear and unambiguous yardstick for their ain pattern and opinion. This reappraisal procedure began in March 1996, when the Press Council held a National workshop in Ota, Ogun State in coaction with the Nigerian Union of Journalists ( NUJ ) and the Nigerian Guild of Editors ( NGE ) which successfully reviewed the old Code of Conduct to do it more antiphonal to misdemeanors in Journalism pattern. The amended Code was adopted by the cardinal on the job commission of the NUJ in an in-house conference held in Abuja, shortly after the Ota Workshop. To give it yet the widest possible credence, the NPC eventually organized the Ilorin Forum, signifier March 18-20, 1998 where the NPO made up of NUJ, NGE and Newspaper Proprietors Association of Nigeria officially ratified and gave drift for the execution of the new Code.

This publication besides contains the Ilorin Declaration and illustration of relevant subdivisions of the enabling jurisprudence of the Nigerian Press Council on making for enrollment of the Nigerian Journalists. We believe the New Code should be the practicians ‘ comrade and delectation.


HAVING reviewed the Code of Ethics drafted at Ota, Ogun State in March 1996, delegates at the Forum for the Implementation of the Code of Ethics, held at Ilorin, Kwara State, affirm and declare as follows:

That we:

Accept the jussive mood of a Code of Ethics as a critical pillar of Journalism and the necessity for the application of moralss tie one criterions ;

AFFIRM that self-regulation through a Code of Ethics and other constructions drawn up by professionals would outdo function the involvement of both the profession ad the populace

ENJOIN the Nigerian Union of Journalists, the Nigerian Guild of Editors and the Newspaper Proprietors Association of Nigeria to guarantee the execution of the eligibility standards for entry into and pattern of news media in Nigeria, as contained in the Nigeria Press Council Decree No 85 of 1992 ;

PLEDGE to stay by the Code of Ethics and to advance the observation of its commissariats by all journalists ; and

URGE the Nigerian Press Council to join forces with the Nigerian Press Organization to publicise the Code of Ethics for the benefit of the imperativeness and the populace, and guarantee conformity with its commissariats afterlife.



Journalism entails a high grade of public trust. To gain and keep this trust, it is morally imperative for every journalist and every intelligence medium to detect the highest professional and ethical criterions. In the exercising of these responsibilities, a journalist should ever hold a healthy respect for the public involvement.

Truth is the basis of news media and every journalist should endeavor diligently to determine the truth of every event.

Conscious of the duties and responsibilities of journalists as purveyors of information, we, Nigerian journalists, give to ourselves this Code of Ethics. It is the responsibility of every journalist to detect its commissariats.

1. Column Independence

Decisions refering the content of intelligence should be the duty of a professional journalist.


I. The Public has a right to cognize. Factual accurate, balanced and just coverage is the ultimate aim of good news media and the footing of gaining public trust and assurance.

two. A journalist should forbear from printing inaccurate and deceptive information. Where such information has been unwittingly published, prompt rectification should be made. A journalist must keep the right of answer as a central regulation of pattern.

three.In the class of his responsibilities, a journalist should endeavor to separate facts from speculation and remark.


As a general regulation, a journalist should esteem the privateness of persons and their households unless it affects public involvement.

A. Information on the private life of an person or his household should merely be published if it impinges on public involvement.

B. Printing of such information about an person as mentioned above should be deemed justifiable merely if it is straight at:

i. Exposing offense or serious misdemeanors ;

two. Exposing anti-social behavior ;

three. Protecting public wellness, morality and safety ;

four. Preventing the populace from being misled by some statement or action of the person concerned.


I. A journalist should detect the universally recognized rule of confidentiality and should non unwrap the beginning of information obtained in assurance.

two. A journalist should non transgress an understanding with a beginning of information obtained as “ off the record ” or as “ back land information ”


I. A journalist should dress and behave himself in a mode that conforms with public gustatory sensation.

two. A journalist should forbear from utilizing violative, opprobrious, or coarse linguistic communication.

three. A journalist should non show lurid inside informations, either in words or image, of force, sexual Acts of the Apostless, abhorrent or horrid scenes.

four. In instances involved in personal heartache or daze, questions should be carried out and attacks made with sympathy and discretion.

v. Unless it is in the promotion of the populace ‘s right to cognize, a journalist should by and large avoid placing relations or friends of individuals convicted or accused of offense.

6. Discrimination

A journalist should forbear from doing dyslogistic mention to a individual ‘s cultural group, faith, sex, or to any physical or mental unwellness or disability.


I. A journalist should neither beg nor accept payoff, satisfaction or backing toA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A suppress or publish information.

two. To find payment for publication of intelligence is unfriendly to the impression of newsA A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A as just, accurate, indifferent and factual study of an event.

8. Violence

A journalist should non show or describe Acts of the Apostless of force, armed robberies, terrorist activities or vulgar show of wealth in a mode that glorifies such act in the eyes of the populace.


A journalist should non place, either by name or image, or interview kids under the age of 16 who are involved in instances refering sexual offenses, offenses and rites or witchery either as victims, informants or suspects.


A journalist should endeavor to use unfastened and honest adult males in the assemblage of information.

Exceeding methods may be employed merely when the public involvement is at interest.

11. Public Interest

A journalist should endeavor to heighten national integrity and public good.


A journalist should advance cosmopolitan rules of human rights, democracy, justness, equity, peace and international apprehension.

13. Plagiarism

A journalist should non copy, sweeping, or in portion, other people ‘s work without ascription and/or consent.

14. Copyright

I. Where a journalist reproduces a work, be it in print, broadcast, art work or design, proper recognition should be accorded to the writer.

two. A journalist should stay by all regulations of right of first publication, established by national and international Torahs and conventions.


A journalist should endeavor at all times to heighten imperativeness freedom and duty.


Section 17:

( 1 ) Subject regulations made under this edict, a individual is entitled to be to the full registeredA under this Decree if:

( a ) He had attended a class of developing recognized by the Nigerian Union of Journalists so acquired with the blood relation experience recognized by the Nigerian Union of Journalists ; or

( B ) The class was conducted at an establishment so sanctioned, or parlty at one such establishment and partially at another or others ; or

( degree Celsius ) He holds a making as approved ; or

( vitamin D ) He holds a certification of experience issued in pursuit of subdivision 22 of this Decree.

( 2 ) Subject as aforesaid, a individual shall be entitled to be registered as a journalist if he satisfies the Council that instantly before the beginning of this Decree he has non less than five old ages experience as a journalist.

( 3 ) An applier for enrollment shall, in add-on to grounds of makings, satisfy the council that:

A ( a ) He is of good character ;

A ( B ) He has attained the age of 18 old ages.

A ( degree Celsius ) He has non been convicted in Nigeria or elsewhere of an offense affecting

A A A A A A fraud or dishonesty ;

A ( vitamin D ) He has been trained at an sanctioned mass media establishment.

A ( vitamin E ) He has a general professional orientation which covers the basic

A A A A A demands of information art taking to a making non less than a

A A A A sheepskin ; and

A ( degree Fahrenheit ) Has good cognition of political relations and socio economic personal businesss of his society

A A A A A acquired from an sanctioned establishment.

Section 22:


( 1 ) A individual who after obtaining an sanctioned making, satisfies the conditions specified in subdivision ( 2 ) A of this subdivision shall be entitled to have free of charge a certification of experience in the prescribed signifier from the individual in charge of the establishment.

( 2 ) The conditions referred to in subdivision ( 1 ) of this subdivision are that

( a ) he shall hold served his clip for employment. The prescribed period in Nigeria with a position to obtaining a certification of experience ; or

( B ) he shall hold acquired, during his employment practical experience under the personal supervising and counsel of one or more registered journalists for such periods as may be prescribed ;

( degree Celsius ) the mode in which he carried out the responsibilities of his employment and his behavior during the period of his employment shall hold been satisfactory.

( 3 ) It shall be the responsibility of the employer, being a registered journalist oversing the preparation of the individual employed with a position to obtaining a certification of experience, to guarantee that the individual is afforded proper chances of geting the practical experience required for the intent of paragraph ( B ) of the subdivision ( 2 ) of this subdivision.

( 4 ) Where after holding served his clip as referred to in paragraph ( a ) of subdivision ( 2 ) of this subdivision, a individual is refused a certification of experience, he shall be entitled-

( a ) to have from his employer the specifics in authorship of the evidences of the refusal ; and

( B ) to appeal from the refusal to a commission of the Council in conformity with regulations made by the Council in that behalf ( including regulations as to the tome within which entreaties are to be brought ) and on any such entreaty the commission of the Council shall hold power to either disregard the entreaty or itself issue the certification of experience in inquiry or give such other way on the affair as it considers merely.

( 5 ) The Minister may do for the issue of certification of experience in regard of employment and establishments outside Nigeria.A


As contained in the Nigerian Press Council Law.

Journalist- means any individual ( non being less than 18 old ages of age ) engaged in the aggregation, processing and airing of information for usage in the Press and who has been accredited by the Nigerian Union of Journalists ;

Newspaper- means any paper incorporating public intelligence, intelligence or happening in any comments, observations or remarks printed in this for sale and published sporadically, or in parts, or Numberss.

News Agencies- means any bureau engaged in the aggregation and airing of intelligence, images and characteristics ;

Press- includes wireless, telecasting, wire services, newspapers, magazines and such other channels of communicating involved in the aggregation and airing of information.

Radio and Television- includes electronic agencies of mass communicating which portion in the formation of public sentiment.



The organisation shall be known as the NIGERIAN GUILD OF EDITORS, hereinafter

referred to as the Guild


The purposes and aims of the Guild are:

i„¬ To continue the high traditions and criterions of news media in Nigeria by implementing, in

cooperation with other journalistic organic structures, in codification of moralss for the profession

i„¬ To safeguard the rights of the imperativeness, in general, and in peculiar, the freedom of

publication of intelligence and remark.

i„¬ To procure installations and privileges for the imperativeness in the due discharge of its


i„¬ To stand for Nigerian Editors as a group in their dealingss with the populace, public

establishments and authorities.

i„¬ To promote the preparation and instruction of journalists.

i„¬ To set up and develop contacts with similar organisations in Africa and in other

parts of the universe.

i„¬ To take acute involvement in the general promotion of the mass communicating media.


Membership of the Guild shall be by application to the Standing Committee and shall

be unfastened to:

i„¬ Editors of day-to-day, hebdomadal or monthly, newspapers, magazines published in Nigeria, and

of wireless and telecasting, and intelligence bureaus.

i„¬ Editors-In-Chief or individuals busying similar functional places.

i„¬ Provided that, in each instance, the applier should hold been a on the job journalist for at

least five old ages.

Associate Members

i„¬ Members who no longer measure up under “ Membership ” clauses 1 and 2 may be

considered by the Standing Committee to go Associate Members.

i„¬ Associate members shall be entitled to go to and ballot at the Annual Conference of

the Guild and shall be eligible for election to the Standing Committee but shall non

keep any office of the Guild.


The rank of a individual shall discontinue:

i„¬ When he resigns his rank by composing to the General Secretary of the Guild.

i„¬ When he ceases to keep office of Editor, etc, as defined under “ Membership ” .

i„¬ When he is suspended or expelled by the Standing Committee in conformity with

the commissariats of the fundamental law.


The Standing Committee may suspend or throw out a member:

i„¬ If the Committee is satisfied that the member is guilty of professional misconduct. If

a member is guilty of any action which the Standing Committee determines to be

detrimental to the involvement of the Guild and its members.

i„¬ The rank of a individual shall sink if he defaults in payment of his

subscription for six back-to-back months.

i„¬ A member may appeal to the Annual Conference against his suspension or ejection

by notice given in composing to the General Secretary non subsequently than four hebdomads before

the day of the month of the first conference after his suspension or ejection. If the conference

ratifies the ejection, the individual will non be entitled to re-apply for the rank

of the Guild until five old ages after the day of the month of the confirmation of his ejection.


The enrolment fee shall be =N=5,000.00 and there shall be a annual subscription of

=N=15,000.00. An Associate Member shall pay an one-year subscription of =N=100.00

Variety meat OF THE GUILD

The functional variety meats of the Guild shall be:

The Annual Conference

The Standing Committee

Such other commissions as may be appointed either by the Annual Conference or by the

Standing Committee


There shall be a national conference of the Guild every two old ages. The topographic point and the clip

of each conference shall be determined by the Standing Committee as necessary.

The Conference shall:

i„¬ Elect the officers of the Guild.

i„¬ Elect the members of the Standing Committee.

i„¬ Debate and base on balls declarations on affairs related to the Guild ‘s Aims and Objectives.

i„¬ See the Audited Account of the Guild.

i„¬ Receive Annual Reports from General Secretary and Address from the President.

i„¬ Appoint the Guild ‘s Hearers from the guaranting twelvemonth.

i„¬ Consider such other affairs as may be referred to by the Standing Committee:

i„¬ Every Member and Associate Member of the Guild shall beaˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ .

An extra-ordinary session of the conference may be called:

i„¬ By the President

i„¬ By a declaration of the Standing Committeei„¬ On a requisition signed by at least 20 per centum of the members of the Guild, including

Associate Members.


Notice for an Annual Conference shall be given in authorship by the General Secretary to all

members of the Guild non les than 30 yearss before the day of the month of the conference provided that

an extra-ordinary session may be summoned at two hebdomads notice.

Gestures and declarations intended to be taken at an one-year conference shall be filed with

the General Secretary non subsequently than four hebdomads before the day of the month of the conference.

Matters non punctually notified may be taken at the conference if the President agrees

Military officers

The officers of the Guild shall be:

President, Deputy President

Three Vice Presidents, one for North, one for East and West, who shall work as Zonal



Assistant Secretary


Social and Publicity Secretary.


A member seeking elections as President of the Guild must hold been a member of the

Standing Committee for at least one term.

Voting at an Annual Conference shall be by secret ballot. Military officers shall keep office for a

term of 2 old ages, but a individual may be re-elected to the same or any other office.

Standing Committee

There shall be a Standing Committee, which shall consist the officers of the Guild,

and 7 other members elected at a National Conference, including non more than three

Associate Members. Vacancies in the Standing Committee may be filled by declarations

of the Committee.

The Standing Committee shall be run intoing at least one time every two months.

The maps of the Standing Committee are:

i„¬ To transport on the ordinary concern of the Guild in line with the declarations of the

National Conference.

i„¬ To prosecute the purposes and aims of the Guild within the bounds of the authorization given

to it by the National Conference.

i„¬ To ask into affairs and ailments brought by members or by non-members

refering hindrance to the exercising of imperativeness freedom or maltreatment of same, and shalladjudicate on such matters/complaints, at all times bearing in head the purposes and

aims of the Guild.

i„¬ The commission may co-opt members when necessary, and may put up subcommittees for the intent of accomplishing the aims of the Guild

i„¬ Decisions of the Committee shall be by simple bulk ballot.


Five members shall organize a quorum at any meeting of the Standing Committee and at the

National Conference a 3rd of the full rank of the Conference.


A gesture or declaration for the disintegration of the Guild must be filed with the Secretary

and circulated to all members non less than 21 yearss before the day of the month of the National

Conference at which the gesture is to be taken. The Guild shall non be dissolved unless

the gesture is supported by seven-eights of the members of the Guild.


The fundamental law of the Guild shall non be amended, salvage by declaration passed by two tierces bulk of delegates go toing an Annual Conference

AWKA-THEAA Nigerian Guild of Editors, at the weekend, in Awka, hailed Governor Peter Obi of Anambra State for his developmental paces, observing that his public presentation would come ready to hand when the clip comes for the people to take a determination on which way things would travel in the province.

President of the Guild and editor-in-chief of Vanguard Newspapers, Gbenga Adefaye, who spoke on behalf of the editors after inspecting some undertakings executed by the Obi disposal in parts of the province, urged the governor to allow the universe know about the things he has done because they were so good to stay unpublicized.

He said: aa‚¬A“We moved about Anambra State and it was astonishing what we saw. The last clip I had chance of traveling about Anambra State was 25 old ages ago.

What we saw today was singular. We are non defeated. If the governor had done less than what we saw, it would hold been awful for me as a individual because I would non be able to support what you are capable of making.

If you win, some of us would hold succeeded. We notice that there is a serious effort to develop establishments that can run a thriving province on a sustainable basis. “

Obi, who went down memory lane, narrated to the editors his experience since going governor, adding that, at a phase, he asked himself why he got into the state of affairs.

He said: aa‚¬A“Before I became governor, I had ne’er been a politician. I recall the twenty-four hours I met Chief Victor Umeh, the APGA national president in 2001 and told him I wanted to contend for governor.

But so, I had made up my head to come down and unrecorded in the province to lend my quota toward the development of the province.

When we came here, there was no program. I had no office as the governors office was burnt down in 2004. So I was populating in Onitsha from where I operated.

There was no secretariat and all the ministries were scattered around the province. I kept inquiring God how I could work out the job. I kept inquiring how I could acquire money to purchase autos for the Judges, Magistrates and lasting secretaries. At a phase, I started inquiring myself why I had to acquire involved in it.

But so, it became more and more a challenge. So I started be aftering instantly because there was no maestro program for Awka, Onitsha and Nnewi. I was busy seeking to supply replies to our jobs and the impeachment came. ”

He commended the editors for coming to see things for themselves, adding that it would assist to properly inform and educate Nigerians on the true state of affairs of things.


The imperativeness was a specialised involvement group in Nigeria. As the 4th estate or the “ social watchdog, ” it was the most vocal and effectual involvement group in the state, particularly because other involvement groups channeled their demands and support through the imperativeness. The media could move as a watchdog because of the big figure of newspapers and wireless and telecasting Stationss, and because of the broad grade of imperativeness freedom.

In the 19__s, Nigeria had more than 30 national and provincial newspapers, more than 20 general magazines and diaries, and more than 20 telecasting and wireless Stationss. Although the wireless and telecasting Stationss were owned by the federal and province authoritiess, most of the newspapers and magazines were in private owned and were, in general, seen as instruments of partizan political involvements. Therefore, the latter could afford to be critical of the authorities. At some points, newspapers and magazines have been proscribed, as happened toA NewbreedA in 1977, theTribuneA in 1984, andA NewswatchA in 1988. Individual journalists have been harassed and intimidated by authorities security agents. In 1971 Minere Amakiri, aNigerian ObserverA letter writer, was detained and his hair shaved. Since so, legion editors and newsmans have been detained.

The organized involvement groups stand foring the imperativeness included the Nigeria Union of Journalists, the Newspaper Proprietors Association, and the Nigerian Guild of Editors. These associations chiefly pursued the professional involvements of their members but besides played active functions on broader societal issues.

Data as of June 1991


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