In microeconomic, monopoly is a polar country to the survey of market constructions. With it we can reply or understand such inquiry as why the monetary value of gold rose aggressively in few old ages ; why the monetary value of gasoline rose dramatically in 2008s-2010s and declined in 2011s ; why raising the minimal pay at least RM900 and to increase youth unemployment ; why the monetary value of sugar rose in few old ages ; why the cereal rose in few old ages and others. Through this it can allow us cognize the significance and ground doing monopoly. Besides that, it besides know characteristic of monopoly in deeply.
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Harmonizing to the Cambridge lexicon ( 2nd edition ) monopoly in micro economic mean is when a company or organisation is the lone 1 in an country of concern or activity and has complete control of it. Monopoly is a market construction in which there is a individual marketer and big of purchasers and merchandising merchandises. It have no a high entry and the being of barrier and have no close permutation to other sellers to come in into the market. Examples of merchandises in monopoly market in our state are H2O, electricity, local telephone services, sewage and others. Our place telephone services are Telekom Malaysia ( TM Berhad ) . Obviously, Telekom Malaysia is a monopoly in market.
Another definition is a individual marketer of a merchandise and 100 % of market portion ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.econ.uiuc.edu/~seppala/econ102/lect13.pdf )
2.0 Reasons why Monopoly Arise
Monopoly is a house that is the exclusive marketer of a merchandise without close replacements. Monetary value shaper and barriers to entry are besides causes monopoly arises. Example of barriers to entry is monopoly resources, authorities ordinance and the production procedure. Besides that, a house may have or command the full supply of a jurisprudence stuff required in the production of a trade good and it besides has alone engineering to bring forth merchandise.
2.1.1 Monopoly resources
Monopoly resource is a cardinal resource for is owned by a individual house merely and a higher monetary value. A house is besides control jurisprudence stuff in productiveness. For illustrations: the DeBeers Diamond Company is a house to command about 80 per centum of the diamonds in the universe and
2.1.2 Government Regulation
Government grants one individual or one house the sole right to bring forth or sell some good or service. Patents and right of first publication Torahs are issued by the authorities to give houses the sole right to bring forth merchandise for 20 twelvemonth. A individual house who give the sole right can increases the monetary values of merchandises to derive more net incomes in company.
2.3 Features of Monopoly
A market construction in which one house sells a alone merchandise into which entry is blocked in which the individual house has considerable control over merchandise monetary value and in which non-price competition may or may non be found.
NUMBER OF FIRMS: individual house
B. Type OF PRODUCT: alone merchandise, no stopping point replacements
C. CONTROL OVER PRICE: “ monetary value shapers ”
D. EASE OF ENTRY: blocked entry
E. NONPRICE COMPETITION: public dealingss
2.3.1 Single Firm hypertext transfer protocol: //www.amosweb.com/cgi-bin/awb_nav.pl? s=wpd & A ; c=dsp & A ; k=monopoly, +characteristics
A market construction was controlled by a individual marketer is called “ monopoly ” . “ Mono ” means is individual in the portion of monopoly. This “ glandular fever ” term is besides the beginning of such words as soliloquy — a long address by a one individual in a public presentation ; monolingual-using merely one linguistic communication ; monarch-a individual swayer ; monocle-an monocle for one oculus ; monochrome-a individual colour and monolith-a individual big rock. “ Poly ” means is to sell in the portion of monopoly. So the word “ monopoly ” means is a individual marketer.
The individual marketer is a direct contrast to hone competition and has a big figure of Sellerss. Perfect competition could be renamed many-poly or multi-poly and to contrast it with monopoly. A individual marketer is that the monopoly marketer IS the market and the market demand for a good IS the demand for the end product produced by the monopoly. So it makes monopoly a monetary value marker instead than a monetary value taker.
2.3.2 Barriers to Entry
Definition of barriers to entry is anything are designed which unnaturally to barricade or forestall the entry of houses come ining a market productively. Barriers to entry to protect monopoly power of bing houses in an industry. It besides to keep supranormal ( monopoly ) net incomes in the long tally.
Effectss of barriers to entry are doing a market less competitory. Some of the cardinal barriers to entry are patents and right of first publications, bound pricing, cost advantages, advertisement, sunk cost, international trade limitations and development outgo.
2.3.3 Monetary value Maker
Single house produces or supplies good or service and have a monopoly in an full market that means it holds a big bulk of a stock. With holding a big bulk of a stock and a individual house makes a determination affect the monetary value of an point. As a consequence, marketer has full control over the market monetary value.
There are alone merchandise and no close replacements for the merchandise.
Patent and right of first publications
The rights of the manufacturers have to be protected, e.g. record manufacturers and publishing houses ; they have the right to bring forth these goods. Infringement jurisprudence is an offense. Examples Apple Computers, Samsung mobile phone, etc.
Certain climatic conditions favor certain types of agricultural merchandises and non others. It can take to monopolistic power, for illustrations Brazil for java, Ghana for chocolate, Italy for spaghetti, America for cereals and Malaysia for palm oil and gum elastic.
In some state, competition is non allowed and this is set by the authorities through a certain set of ordinances.
2.4 Types of monopoly
2.4.1 Legal monopoly
An organisation, individual, or house was approved by the authorities and gave sole rights to offer a service or merchandise within a peculiar geographical country. In here agencies, house usage money to register like hallmarks, patents, right of first publications, industrial design to continue and heighten steadfast value through rational belongings assets. Macdonald fast nutrient, Music industry, Apple industry, Samsung industry, KFC fast nutrient are some illustration of legal monopoly.
2.4.2 Natural monopoly
An industry is a natural monopoly when a individual house can provide a good or service to an full market at a smaller cost than could two or more houses. A individual house produces or supplies a good or service in market with lower cost. When production is divided among more houses, each house produces less and mean entire cost rises. As a consequence, a individual house can bring forth quantity demand in market with the lower cost. The most obvious illustrations of a natural monopoly are public-service corporations such as H2O, electricity, and natural gas.
Marginal rput the graph
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Features of Perfect Competition
There are many purchasers and Sellerss of a trade good
In this Fieldss, there contains significant figure of Sellerss and purchasers of the trade good. Harmonizing to the concern lexicon in microeconomics agencies is a merchandise that you can purchase or sell like nutrient, grains and metals. Each purchaser buys a little measure of the entire sum and the individual purchaser or marketer can non act upon the monetary value and impact a merchandise in the market. As a consequence, every marketer or house sells its merchandises at the monetary value determined by the measure demanded or supplied of the trade good in market. Each purchaser buys the trade good at the monetary value determined by the market status.
The merchandise of an industry in which the end products of different houses are identical comparison with another merchandise. When trade good under perfect competition it is same homogeneous, characteristics, benefits, quality, and indistinguishable. The homogenous merchandises are the merchandise where the purchasers could non distinguish the merchandises of one marketer to another marketer. Example of homogenous merchandise is lily-livered egg consumer bargains from the stores are homogeneous and uniform. They are brought the merchandise ( chicken ) if that they are same quality and pick is made on the footing of monetary value. The undermentioned characteristics are same for purchasers as same size, quality, gustatory sensation and ingredient.
In perfect competition houses, consumers and resource proprietors have perfect cognition of all relevant monetary values and costs in market. In here agencies, no purchasers unwilling to pay more a monetary value of the merchandise higher than the prevalent monetary value. Similarly, Sellerss will non put or bear down a monetary value higher or lower than the prevalent monetary value. Advertisement has no range in this type of market.
Resources are perfect mobility
This means that inputs or resources are free to travel in market. Firms can come in or go forth the industry in the long tally without much difficultly. That is, there are no unreal barriers like transcript rights and hallmark or natural barriers such as immense capital demands to entry into and issue from the industry.
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hypertext transfer protocol: //www.metutoring.com/uploads/4/7/7/9/4779498/market_structure_comparisons.pdf ( compare 4monopoly )
Monopolistic competition is a market construction betweeen the exteremes of monopoly and perfect competition. The features of monopoly and monopolistic competition, although about same to hone competition. The features of monopolistic is many houses but differentiated merchandise. it can easy entry and issue from the market. There are following characteristics of monopolistic competition.
Features of Monopolistic competition
Differentiated merchandises are merchandises that are similar but non indistinguishable. It besides conveying out differentiated merchandises which are comparatively close replacements for each other. The monetary value productsare green goods by the house can non be really much different from each other. For illustration breakfast cereals, milk, staff of life, detergents and toothpaste on the market today.