First Security Islami Bank Essay

August 29, 2017 Economics

Investing Schemes for First Security Islami Bank Limited. Saver- Branch

Date of entry: ……………………… . .

Investing Schemes for First Security Islami Bank Limited. Saver- Branch

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Letter of Transmittal

February………… . .

D. Mizanur Rahman
Department of Business Administration
Faculty of Business & A ; Economicss
Daffodil International University

Capable: Submission of Internship Report on “Investment Schemes for First SecurityIslami Bank Limited. Saver- Branch” .

Dear Sir.
I have much pleasance to show the study of the internship plan “Investment Scheam on First SecurityIslami Bank Limited. Saver- Branch” . I would wish to take this juncture to show to you my sincere gratitude for the arrangement to me in an organisation like First Security Islami Bank Limited. And for support and encouragement you have ever so liberally extended to me in my work. I have tried my best to acquire an orientation to the practical work environment and to garner all related information. and have placed my hearty attempt to fix the study consequently directed. I hope that my study will run into your outlook and function its intent.

Sincerely Yours.
…………………… . .
( Md. Abu Taher ( Nabin )
Batch: 16th ( Major in Marketing )
Plan: BBA

Approval certification

Letter of Mandate

Profecor d. mizanur rahman
Assitant Professor
Department of Business Administration
Faculty of Business & A ; Economicss
Daffodil International University

Capable: Declaration sing the cogency of the Internship Report.

Dear Sir.

This is my true declaration that the “Internship Report” I have prepared is non a transcript of any “Internship Report” antecedently made by any other pupil.

I besides express my honest verification in support of the fact that the said “Internship Report” has neither been used before to carry through any other class related purpose nor it will be submitted to any other individual or authorization in future.

Yours genuinely.

( Md. Abu Taher ( Nabin )
Batch: 16th ( Major in Marketing )
Plan: BBA

Perfect or frontward

Ki korte hobe boje sodium?

Abstract ( Summary )

First Security Bank Limited ( FSBL ) is one of the 3rd coevals private Bankss in Bangladesh. FSBL commenced its commercial operations October 1999 with authorized capital BDT 1500 million and paid up capital BDT 200 million. The Bank has non yet entered into IPO. By the terminal of 2007. Bank’s authorised capital and paid-up capital reached to BDT 3600 million and BDT 1000 million severally. In 2007 paid-up capital grew by 11. 11 % .

R K eke add korte hobe?

Table of Contentss


|Page No. |
|Title Page | | |Letter of Transmittal | | |Letter of Authorization | | |Letter of Approval | | |Acknowledgement | | |1. Introduction of the survey | | |1. 1. Statement of the Research Problem | | |1. 2. Aims of the survey | | |1. 3. Scope of the Study | | |1. 4. Restrictions of the Study | | |2. Methodology of the Study | | |3. Discussion of the Study | | |3. 1. Meaning of Customer | | |3. 2. Customer Services | | |3. 3. Organ gm of the Mirpur-1 Branch | | |3. 4. Features of Services | | |3. 5. Assorted Servicess provided by the Mirpur-1 Branch | | |3. 6. Categorization of Customer | | |3. 7. The Banker Customer Relationship | | |3. 7. 1. Some of the conditions and patterns | | |3. 7. 2. Rights of clients | | |3. 7. 3. Duties and Duties of a Banker | | |3. 8. Termination of Banker-Customer Relationship | | |4. Result and Discussion | | |5. Recommendations | | |6. Conclusion | | |7. Mentions | | |8. Appendix | |

List of figures


This study is prepared for carry throughing as a demand of both the BBA and the internship plan. On this respect I have been posted in First Security Islami Bank Limited ( FSIB ) . Rangpur subdivision for 3-month continuance from 21-06-2013 to 21-09-2013 and regular supervised & A ; advised by the class instructor to subject my practical acquisition in written signifier through a study. My internship subject is “ How public relation adds value in banking industry in Bangladesh: A instance survey on FSIBL Rangpur Branch. In this initial chapter the study will be presented with significance of public relation. importance of public relation in banking industry. rational for internship plan. ground for chosen this subject. These aid to unclutter about my subject decently.

PR Tools and Techniques

[ movie ]Creation and care of a good public repute is a complex and on-going procedure. Without an effectual PR. it is really hard to make the attending of the mark audience and much less to act upon their sentiment and determinations. But when the relationship with the mark group is eventually established. it needs to be maintained in order to maintain it on a high degree. The procedure works similar to the interpersonal relationships. When two people lose contact. they reasonably much disappear from each other lives no affair how near they used to be. And the same happens with the mark audience if the established relationship is non maintained.

Common PR Tools and Techniques

In order to construct a relationship with the mark audience and keep it on a high degree. PR specializers use a assortment of tools and techniques. Some of the most common 1s include: • Attendance at public events. In order to pull public attending and maintain it engaged with a peculiar administration or an single. PR specializers take an advantage of every public event and the chance to talk publically. This enables them to straight make the public go toing the event and indirectly. a much larger audience. • Press releases. Information that is communicated as a portion of the regular Television or/and wireless programme. newspapers. magazines and other types of mainstream media achieves a much bigger impact than advertizements. This is due to the fact that most people consider such information more trusty and meaningful than paid adds.

Press release is hence one of the oldest and most effectual PR tools. • Newsletters. Sending newssheets – relevant information about the administration or/and its products/services – straight to the mark audience is besides a common method to make and keep a strong relationship with the populace. Newsletters are besides a common selling scheme but PR specializers use it to portion intelligence and general information that may be of involvement to the mark audience instead than simply advancing products/services. • Blogging.

To make the on-line audience. PR specializers use the digital signifiers of imperativeness releases and newssheets but they besides use a assortment of other tools such as blogging and late. microblogging. It allows them to make and keep a relationship with the mark audience every bit good as set up a bipartisan communicating. • Social media selling. Like its name suggests. it is used chiefly by the selling industry. Social media webs. nevertheless. are besides utilised by a turning figure of PR specializers to set up a direct communicating with the populace. consumers. investors and other mark groups.

“Seven Cs of Communication”

The “7 C’s of Communication” is a much-quoted list. foremost provided by Cutlip and Center in 1952 in Effective Public Relations. [ 2 ] The original list was a follows: • Completeness
• concision
• consideration
• concreteness
• courtesy
• clarity
• rightness
Assorted versions of this list. frequently modified and unattributed. are listed in many concern. communications. selling and public dealingss books and classs. [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ]

1. Credibility: Communication begins in a clime of belief. This clime is built by the public presentation of the transmitter who should reflect an earnest desire to function the receiving system.

The receiving system will so hold high respect for the competence of the transmitter.

2. Context: An advertising/communications plan must square with the worlds of its environment. Your day-to-day concern activities must corroborate. non contradict. the message.

3. Content: The message must hold significance and relevancy for the receiving system. Content determines the audience and frailty versa.

4. Clarity: The message must be put in simple footings. Wordss used must hold precisely the same significance to the transmitter as they do to the receiving system. Complex messages must be distilled into simpler footings. and the farther a message must go. the simpler it should be.

5. Continuity and Consistency: Communication is an ageless procedure. It requires repeat to accomplish apprehension. Repetition. with fluctuation. contributes to larning both facts and attitudes.

6. Channelss: Use established channels of communication—channels the receiving system uses and respects. Making new channels is hard.

7. Capability of audience: Communication must take into history the capableness of the audience. Communicationss are most effectual when they require the least attempt on the portion of the receiver. [

The Importance of the Four Models of Public Relations

James E. Grunig. public dealingss expert and guru. has over 20 old ages of experience in the field of public dealingss. The early yearss of public dealingss knew no theories knew no theories. therefore small to no idea was put into communicating programs. tactics. schemes. or plans. With no theoretical foundation. public dealingss in many instances did more injury that good because legal branchings. such as libel and fraud. were non considered.

This inadvertence and bad judgement had dire effects ( i. e. net income loss and a tarnished organisational image ) that had to be alleviated and avoided in order to see public relations’ endurance. Grunig’s research has added many new theories to the organic structure of cognition that already exists. These theories have helped to better the field of public dealingss in many ways. Public dealingss practicians are better able to function the organisational and public involvement by utilizing the best theoretical account or theoretical accounts listed below.

| |

|Grunig’s Four theoretical accounts of Public Relations | |Model Name |Type of Communication |Model Characteristics | |Press agentry/publicity model|One-way communicating |Uses persuasion and use to act upon audience to act as the | | | |organization desires | |Public Information theoretical account |One-way communicating |Uses imperativeness releases and other one-way communicating techniques to administer | | | |organizational information. Public dealingss practician is frequently referred to| | | |as the “journalist in abode. | |One-way asymmetrical theoretical account |One-way communicating |Uses persuasion and use to act upon audience to act as the | | | |organization desires. Does non utilize research to happen out how it public ( s & gt ; experience | | | |about the organisation. | |Two-way symmetrical theoretical account |Two-way communicating |Uses communicating to negociate with populaces. decide struggle. and promote | | | |mutual apprehension and regard between the organisation and its public ( s ) . |


There are many grounds to prosecute an internship:

1. Opportunity for “hands-on” experience: While pupils may garner a great trade of information in their classs. there is no replacement for direct experience in a professional environment. Internships allow pupils to derive direct experience.

2. Opportunity to try assorted calling options: We encourage eligible pupils to make multiple internships for the intent of trying different calling countries. This enables pupils to happen out where they might suit best in a professional environment. 3. Preparation for occupation hunts: Students prepare sketchs. compose cover letters. and travel through interviews as if they were using for a occupation. This gives pupils valuable experience in readying for employment. 4. Compilation of a portfolio: Certain internships allow pupils to roll up their work in a portfolio. This portfolio can subsequently be shown to possible employers.

5. . This enhances the repute of the University and increases the credibleness of a student’s grade. 6. Internship plan helps to detect practical occupation environment in selected occupation country. 7. Surveies wants pupils to see the internship plan as an inducement to execute good academically in all of their coursework.

8. Enhancement of the ripening procedure: Since internships require a great trade of personal duty. the experience provides an of import measure in an individual’s personal and professional ripening procedure.

9. Assurance edifice: Successful completion of an internship frequently provides pupils with professional assurance.

10. Professional acquisition experience: The internship allows chances for the development of practical accomplishments in contexts where professional unfavorable judgment is both immediate and constructive. It besides furnishes pupils with chances to detect and understand connexions between coursework and accomplishments needed to execute efficaciously in a given profession. Finally. internships assistance in the designation of cognition and skills indispensable to making good in a peculiar profession.

11. Potential employment chances and/or contacts: Occasionally internships lead straight into employment chances. Although this is more the exclusion than the regulation. internships surely supply a pupil entry into a professional web. Contacts made through the internship can be priceless beginnings of information for procuring eventual employment.

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Beginning: Fiorida Utlantic University ( Arts & A ; Letterss )

Reason for taking this subject
In ancient period Marketing and public dealingss were non necessities because competition wasn’t as fierce. Banks could non believe about loyal clients. Bank perform activities by the personal interaction of bank employees to their clients. Though promotional mix ( merchandise. monetary value. topographic point. personal merchandising. public relation ) of bank is of import. Public relation is besides really much of import communication. edifice long term sustainable relationship. making loyal clients etc. Due to absent of its bank may & amp ; must lost the chance to supply a personal touch with clients To accomplish this. Bankss are puting in selling and public dealingss to advance their offerings and corporate trade name. The undermentioned grounds for taking this subject

To cognize about intending & A ; patterns of public relation in banking service. To cognize about public relation patterns in FSIBL.
To cognize about effectivity of PR plan for making loyal clients. Beginning: By Rick Keating

First Security Islami Bank Limited ( FSIB ) was Establish in Bangladesh on August 29 1999 as a banking company under Companies Act 1994. On September 22. 1999. FSIB obtained permission from Bangladesh Bank to get down its concern. The Bank offers a broad scope of banking services through its 53 subdivisions in the state. including accepting sedimentations. doing loans. discounting measures. carry oning money transportation and foreign exchange minutess. and executing other related services such as safe maintaining. aggregations and publishing warrants. credences and missive of recognition.

At present. the bank has 66 subdivisions of which 26 subdivisions are in Dhaka Division. 25 subdivisions are in Chittagong Division. 06 subdivisions are in Sylet Division. 03 subdivisions are in Rajshahi Division. 04 subdivisions are in Khulna Division and 02 subdivisions is in Barishal Division.

All the 66 subdivisions are computerized under distributed waiter environment. Another few subdivisions are be aftering to open within December 2010. FSIBL has already started their on-line. SMS and ATM banking installations for their clients.

There were 52 employees in the initial phase of the bank. At present the figure of employees has become about 856.

The bank was started with 500 nucleus taka. Now its present capital is more so 2. 000 nucleus taka. The targeted depositary money for savar subdivision was 20 lakh taka. But the subdivision was able to roll up sedimentation about 18 lakh taka in a competitory market.

FSIB have set up Wide Area Network through Radio. Fiber-Optics & A ; other available communicating media systems to supply any subdivision banking to our clients.

Customer of one subdivision is now able to lodge and retreat money at any of our subdivisions. All Branchs are included in our Wide Area Network. No TT/DD or hard currency carrying will be necessary.

First Security Islami Bank Ltd. has officially launched SMS banking service from December 17. 2007.

For safekeeping of customer’s valuables like of import paperss and goods like jewelleries and gold decorations. FSIB Locker Service is available in most of the Branches in urban countries.

Background of the Study

This study has been prepared as a demand of my internship plan. The study is based upon First Security Islami Bank Limited. FSIBL banking division meets the demands of single clients with assorted merchandises and services. The FSIBL Banking division invariably faces challenges and meets
them by developing new merchandises and services to carry through the specific demands of clients.

FSIBL delivers strong public presentation across the concern and integrates recent acquisitions. FSIBL farther consolidates its presence in cardinal markets through important investing in beef uping distribution. intensifying merchandise capableness and lunching advanced merchandises & A ; service. In the past decennary there has been a rapid alteration in the economic system in the state for increasing the figure of Islamic commercial bank. At the same clip banking country is going competitory every bit good as services are going easier and faster.

With the advancement of clip competition among nationalized private commercial Bankss is increasing twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours. And Bankss are stressing on more advanced merchandises and services to the several clients. In order to last in the competitory field of the banking sector all organisations are looking for better service chances to supply their fellow clients. So it has going indispensable for every individual to hold some thought on the bank and banking process. So FSIBL should guarantee competitory merchandises in Consumer Banking Division and step the client satisfaction

Scope of the Survey:

The range of the survey will be limited to Public relation plan patterns on First Security Islami Bank Limited. This survey in fact taken within its canvas of FSIBL as a whole though the internship was done at FSIBL. the research will cover with the different sedimentations strategy and different facets of Consumer banking division every bit good as a competitory analysis. That is confined to the clients of First Security Islami Bank Limited.

Problems of the survey
While nil comes along without job. I besides had faced some jobs. which were picked up below:

? It was really hard to roll up the information from assorted forces for their occupation restraint.

? FSIBL is really conservative and rigorous in supplying confidential informations.

? Respondents were busy every bit good as reluctant to travel through the procedure of questionnaire.

? The respondents sometimes did non agreeable in supplying accurate statistics and information.

? The bankers are really busy with their occupations. which lead a small clip consult with.

? The communicating spread between the different forces due to workload and inaccessibility of informations. which were confidential and deficiency of sufficient co-operation from employees.

Despite these restrictions. I have tried my degree best to fix the study.

• Lack of clip: The clip period of this survey was really short. I had merely 8 hebdomads in my manus to finish this study. which is non plenty. So I could non travel in deepness of the survey. Sometimes the functionaries were busy with their daily work.

• Insufficient information: Some desired information could non be collected due to confidentially of concern.

• Other restrictions: As I am newcomer. there is a deficiency of old experience in this concern. And many practical affairs have been written from any ain observation that may change from individual to individual.


It is a explorative Research Methodology

With a position to carry oning a research survey. what is necessary is to plan the model and choose the appropriate research methodological analysis. A research design is merely a model or a program for a survey that may be used as a usher in roll uping and analysing informations. On the other manus. the research methodological analysis is a manner to consistently work out the research job. Methodology means the implicit in rules and regulations of organisation of a philosophical system or inquiry process. There are assorted methods of carry oning the research. such as- Interview Method. Observation Method. Historical Method. Statistical Method. Questionnaire Method and the similar.

Given the nature of the present survey. it is required to roll up data/information from the primary and secondary beginnings.

Sampling Plan:

1. Population: The population of this research undertaking is defined as fallow: a. Component: Existing Individual clients of SJIBL
B. Unit of measurement: Merely those clients who have an history in SJIBL c. Extent: SJIBL Customers
d. Time: 8 September 09 – 7 December 09

2. Sample Frame: Individual client those who come to SJIBL and have history or fiscal relation with the Bank.

3. Sample size: To carry on this research the sample size was calculated by the undermentioned expression: n = ( Z2 * pq ) / e2
Here. n = sample size = ?
Z = Value of assurance degree ( 90 % ) from Z table = 1. 65
P = 0. 5 So. Q = ( 1 – P )
pq = ( p = 0. 5. so q = 0. 5 ) = preciseness = 0. 5 * 0. 5 = 0. 25
vitamin E = degree of significance ( 10 % mistake ) = 0. 1
( 1. 65 ) 2 * 0. 5 * 0. 5
( n =
( 0. 1 ) 2
= 68. 06
= 68 ( about )
Hence. required sample size for carry oning this research undertaking is 70 ( approx. ) clients those who are account holder of SJIBL.

4. Sampling Procedure: For carry oning this research the Save subdivision of SJIBL was taken into consideration to roll up the information. Individual clients those who come to the Bank and have history or fiscal relation with the Bank were selected by systematic random sampling. For carry oning this research undertaking the probabilistic sampling process was followed in order to choose the sample which is simple random sampling.

5. Datas Beginnings: In order to run into the informations demand and roll up the above mentioned information following beginnings has been used:

a. Primary Data Beginnings: Primary informations has been collected from the single history holder by questionnaire study. Besides unwritten conversation has been done with different clients of the bank.

B. Secondary Data Beginnings: Important beginnings of secondary informations for carry oning this research were:

? Different studies and diaries of Shahjalal Islami Bank ? Brochures and cusps of the bank
? Head office handbills
? Annual studies.
? Some unpublished information.
? Relevant concern research books.
? Website of the bank

6. Data aggregation instruments: Data aggregation instrument is the questionnaire with largely close-ended as good open-ended inquiries.

F. Data processing:

The information has been collected from the clients through structured questionnaire. After that. information has processed through the undermentioned ways.

? At first the questionnaires has given a consecutive figure. ? Customers replies are categorized harmonizing to their personal information. present banking wont. experience. penchant. attitude. behaviour about SJIBL and so on. ? After that clients answer are recorded in numeral figure.

Restrictions of the Survey:

The internship study is non free from restrictions. The survey has been
conducted on the capable “Investment Scheam on First SecurityIslami Bank Limited. Saver- Branch” .

Key restrictions of the survey are as follows:

? Time was the most mentionable restriction in preparing of the internship study. Time was really abruptly here that restricted the entree to many a Scopess for a comprehensive survey. • Sufficient books. publications. facts and figures are non available ; these restraints narrowed the way of analysis to truth. If those restrictions were non at that place. the study would be more concise and more significant. • It was truly difficult to roll up informations from such a large organisation. My internship was at the Investment Scheam on First Security slami Bank Limited. Saver Brance For better reading I had to roll up some information from the caput office though due to some divisional secretivenesss and official confidentiality. I was non provided with adequate information.

Restrictions of the Survey:

From the beginning to the terminal. the survey has been conducted with the purpose of doing it as a complete and true 1. However. many jobs appeared in the manner of carry oning the survey. During the survey it was non possible to see the whole country covered by the bank although the fiscal statements and other information sing the survey have been considered. The survey considers following restrictions:

? The clip period for this survey was short.
? Banking jurisprudence and Practice conflict few country.

? All the concerned forces of the bank have non been interviewed. ? Lack of in-depth cognition and analytical ability for composing such study. ? Lack of experience.
? Learning overall activities. whole mechanism of banking and public presentation of a bank within 3 months is truly hard. ? Employees are so much busy with their regular activities and can non supply adequate clip for me.
? Bank has some policy for non unwraping some informations and information for obvious grounds that could be really much necessity.


? Most of the costumiers do non cognize the ordinances of the investing manners. ? Deficit of human resources in Investment Section.
? Deposit schemes prefering to the clients.
? Senior degree executives should be more concerted with the subsidiaries.

? Regarding security service of the bank. history gap and shutting system. phone question. hard currency withdraw and sedimentation installation. recognition net income rate. online banking. external and internal environment are satisfactory to the clients.

? Most of the clients are service holder and man of affairs ; they like to come to FSIBL because near to residence / office / work topographic point. better service. easier banking process. ? Employees of the bank are more concerted with the clients.

? Employees of the bank have good cognition to work out the questions of the clients.

? Harmonizing to the clients sentiment more ATM booths needed to be setup in different topographic points. Harmonizing to the informations analysis clients experiencing about banking in FSIBL are really satisfied.


? Different types of merchandises and services are available in FSIBL but clients are non concerned about that so advertisement and promotional activities should be increased. ? Increasing more sedimentation strategies under consumer banking. ? Supplying prompt service in history gap.

? Now a twenty-four hours. the online banking service is really much popular in all over the universe. so the bank should seek to develop in this side. ? FSIBL should increase Debit card & A ; recognition card installations. ? SJIBL on-line service should be fast & amp ; accurate.

? The web site of SJIBL is non good plenty ; most of the pages are under building. The page should be constructed every bit shortly as possible.

? Should increase the ATM Booths.
? More work force is required to run the concern swimmingly.

? Employee preparations and workshops should be administered in order to give them knowledge and professionalism in client interactions. They should be taught about how to cover with the job of clients and debatable state of affairss.

? Physical and technological installations should be increased in measuring recognition proposals.

? Experienced and adept forces should be kept within the bank. which will take to a quality choice of clients ? SJIBL should more concentrate on client demands. They need to concentrate more on their existing services and merchandise invention.

? A annual conference with the employees should be arranged where they will interchange their positions with the direction about different facets. This will assist to increase the efficiency of the employees.

? Prompt service should be given to the clients. In this respect set uping occupation rotary motion on a regular basis for employees to better the accomplishments in different types of service. This will increase the efficiency of the service.

? More accent should be given on the customers’ ailment. ? Informal preparation can be a manner to better the accomplishments of the employee. Allocating occupation duty to the employees harmonizing to their net income. ? Try to make a good image to clients through different promotional tools

C. Conclusion

Shahjalal Islami Bank Limited is one of the taking Islamic sharah based commercial bank in Bangladesh. SJIBL is committed to supply first-class service to its valued clients. The direction of SJIBL ever gives particular attempts to continue the involvement and trust of their clients. By supplying excellence service and particular attempt Shahjalal Islami Bank has placed itself to a strong place among all the Bankss. The chief focal point of SJIBL is to concentrate on the consumer demand. which differentiates SJIBL with other Bankss. SJIBL has been successfully created a trade name image Islamic sharah based in the market and is keeping a strong place in the market. But still it has some failing. which can be easy overcome. SJIBL has much more possible to research the bing market. So. to be the figure one forever they have to be really perfect in their concern.

A bank can non be able to make the end until it makes the client satisfied by supplying service every bit much as the client demands. After fixing this study it becomes really apparent to state that there should be a end to do the client ever happy and satisfied with the service. merely so a bank can run its concern safe and soundly in this competitory epoch. In all right it can l said that Consumer Banking division is the section of Shahjalal Islami Bank which comes closing to the clients. SJIBL has an efficient & A ; effectual squad with public presentations in an first-class mode. So. sing all the service of SJIBL should go more witting to cover with its clients as the clients have now more pick to bank with others.


Aims & A ; aims

• To carry on interest-free banking.

• To set up participatory banking alternatively of banking on debtor-creditor relationship.

• To put on net income and hazard sharing footing.

• To accept sedimentations on Mudaraba & A ; Al-Wadeah footing.

• To set up a welfare-oriented banking system.

• To widen co-operation to the hapless. the helpless and the low-income group for their economic hitch.

• To play a critical function in human development and employment coevals.

• To lend towards balanced growing and development of the state through investing operations peculiarly in the less developed countries.

• To lend in accomplishing the ultimate end of Islamic economic system.

Islamic Banking in Bangladesh

There are presently seven commercial Bankss runing under Islamic rules. They are:

1. Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited.
2. Al-Arafah Bank Ltd.
3. Social Investment Bank Ltd.
4. Exim Bank Ltd.
5. Shahjalal Islami Bank Ltd.
6. Icb Islamic Bank Ltd
7. First security Islami Bank Ltd.

At the get downing it is better to give a clear definition of “Islamic Modes of Finance” . The word “Modes” literally means “methods” . or in other words. it refers to systematic and elaborate regulations. judicial admissions and stairss to be followed for carry throughing a specific thing. The thing that needs to be accomplished in this context is. nevertheless. the capable affair of each of the said manners. i. e. any of the different types of investing activities ( trade. renting. existent estate. fabrication. agribusiness. agribusiness production etc. . or. utilizing Shariah looks Murabaha. Mudaraba. Musharaka. Ijarah. Istisna. etc. ) .

The word “Finance” in one of its different significances refers to the supply of money capital or recognition. provided by either a individual ( family ) . or an organisation ( private or public – fiscal or non fiscal ) . The word “Islamic” is inserted in the above look to curtail the type of regulations that can regulate different manners of finance to the Shariah regulations. A complete definition for the term “Islamic Modes of
Finance”’ may be given as follows:

The footings “Bai-Murabaha” have been derived from Arabic words Bai and Ribhun. The word ‘Bai’ means purchase and sale and the word ‘Ribhun’ means an in agreement upon net income. “Bai-Murabaha” agencies sale for an in agreement upon net income. Bai-Murabaha may be defined as a contract between a purchaser and a marketer under which the marketer sells certain specific goods allowable under Islamic Shariah and the Law of the land to the purchaser at a cost plus an in agreement upon net income collectible today or on some day of the month in the hereafter in lump-sum or by installments. The net income may be either a fixed amount or based on a per centum of the monetary value of the goods.

The word Musharaka is derived from the Arabic word Sharikah significance partnership. Muslim legal experts point out that the legality and permissibility of Musharaka is based on the injunctions of the Qura’n. Sunnah. and Ijma ( consensus ) of the bookmans. It may be noted that Muslim Bankss are inclined to utilize assorted signifiers of Shariakt-al-Inan because of its constitutional flexibleness. At an Islamic bank. a typical Musharaka dealing may be conducted in the undermentioned mode.

One. two or more enterprisers approach an Islamic bank to bespeak the funding required for a undertaking. The bank. along with other spouses. provides the necessary capital for the undertaking. All spouses. including the bank. have the right to take part in the undertaking. They can besides relinquish this right. The net incomes are to be distributed harmonizing to an agreed ratio. which need non be the same as the capital proportion. However. losingss are shared in precisely the same proportion in which the different spouses have provided the finance for the undertaking.

The term Mudaraba refers to a contract between two parties in which one party supplies capital to the other party for the intent of prosecuting in a concern activity with the apprehension that any net incomes will be shared in a reciprocally agreed upon. Losingss. on the other manus. are the exclusive duty of the supplier of the capital. Mudaraba is besides known a Qirad and Muqaradah.

Mudaraba is a contract of those who have capital with those who have expertness. where the first party provides capital and the other party provides the expertness with the intent of gaining Halal ( lawful ) net income which will be shared in a reciprocally agreed upon proportion. This type of concern venture serves the involvement of the capital proprietor and the Mudarib ( agent ) .

Bai-Salam is a term used to specify a sale in which the purchaser makes beforehand payment. but the bringing is delayed until some clip in the hereafter. Normally the marketer is an single or concern and the purchaser is the bank.


The Istisna’a sale is a contract in which the monetary value is paid in progress at the clip of the contract and the object of sale is manufactured and delivered subsequently. The bulk of the legal experts consider Istisna’a as one of the divisions of Salam. Therefore. it is subsumed under the definition of Salam. But the Hanafie school of Jurisprudence classifies Istisna’a as an independent and distinguishable contract. The legal experts of the Hanafie School have given assorted definitions to Istisna’a some of which are: “That it is a contract with a maker to do something” and “It is a contract on a trade good on liability with the proviso of work” . The Purchaser is called ‘Mustasnia’ contractor and the marketer is called ‘Sania’ shaper or maker and the thing is called ‘Masnooa’ . manufactured. built. made.

QARD HASAN ( Benevolent loans )
Qard Hasan is a contract in which one of the parties ( the loaner ) places into the ownership of the other party ( the borrower ) a definite package of his belongings. in exchange nil more than the eventual return of something in the same value of the belongings loaned.

BAI-MUAJJAL ( Deferred Sale )
The footings “Bai” and “Muajjal” are derived from the Arabic words ‘Bai’ and ‘Ajal’ . The word ‘Bai’ means purchase and sale and the word ‘Ajal’ means a fixed clip or a fixed period. “Bai-Muajjal” is a sale for which payment is made at a hereafter fixed day of the month or within a fixed period. In short. it is a sale on recognition.

The Bai-Muajjal may be defined as a contract between a purchaser and a marketer under which the marketer sells certain specific goods. allowable under Shariah and jurisprudence of the state. to the purchaser at an in agreement fixed monetary value payable at a certain fixed hereafter day of the month in ball amount or in fixed installments.

Fuqaha ( legal experts ) have defined Ijaraha as ownership of a benefit for consideration. This is besides known as rental or Hire contract. Al-Ijarah is an Arabic term. This has been derived from the Arabic term “Ujr” or “Ujrat” which means ‘consideration’ or ‘return’ or ‘wages’ . Harmonizing to Islamic Shariah ( law ) . Ijarah is a contract between two parties – the lease giver and the leaseholder. where the leaseholders ( Hirer or Mustajir ) have the right to enjoy/reap a specific benefit against a specified consideration/rent/wages from the lease giver – the proprietor ( Muajjir ) .

Operational Techniques of Islamic Bank

Beginnings OF Fundss
The fiscal resources of the Islamic Bankss consist of ordinary capital resources consisting paid-up capital and militias. and financess rose through adoptions from the cardinal bank and other Bankss ( inter-bank adoption ) . and issue of Islamic fiscal instruments. The major portion of their operational financess is. nevertheless. derived from the different classs of sedimentations accepted on the Islamic rules of Al-Wadiah ( safe custodianship ) and Mudaraba ( trust funding ) . For the interest of easiness of understanding we call these two beginnings as ‘Primary’ and ‘Secondary’ . These are discussed as under.

Primary Beginnings

Paid-Up Capital
Muslim Bankss are public limited companies incorporated under the companies Act. which are listed on the Stock Exchange. Persons and establishments. local and foreign. have subscribed their capital. For illustration. the First Islamic bank of Bangladesh – Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited ( IBBL ) – is a joint venture of Bangladesh and abroad capital in the ratio of 38:62. Its local capital is owned by the Government of Bangladesh and private persons and establishments. Militias

The cardinal bank besides requires that every Islamic bank shall keep a modesty fund. Before any dividend is declared. an Islamic bank shall reassign to the modesty fund out of the net net incomes of each twelvemonth. after due proviso has been made for Zakat and revenue enhancement. a certain per centum of the net net incomes in order to construct up equal militias. If the cardinal bank is satisfied that the aggregative modesty fund of an Islamic bank is equal for its concern. it may by order in composing relieve the bank from this demand for a period of one twelvemonth. In Bangladesh. the IBBL besides keeping the statutory modesty. has built up an Investment Loss Offsetting Reserve ( ILOR ) by allowing 10 ( 10 ) per centum of the bank’s one-year investing net incomes. Liquid Assets

Every Islamic bank is farther required to maintain at all times minimal sum of liquid assets against its sedimentation liabilities expressed as certain per centum of the sedimentations. as may be prescribed from clip to clip by notice in authorship by the cardinal bank. For this intent. liquid assets mean ( I ) hard currency in bank. ( two ) balances with the cardinal bank/other designated Bankss. ( three ) Government Investment Certificates. and ( four ) such other assets as may be approved by the cardinal bank. Failure to maintain the minimal liquid assets invokes punishment for each twenty-four hours of lack. Borrowing From Central Bank

To surge over impermanent liquidness deficits Islamic Bankss. as member Bankss. are entitled to borrow from the cardinal bank. as the loaner of last resort.

In such instances. IBBL does non pay involvement like the conventional Bankss. Such adoption from the cardinal bank is treated as a PLS sedimentation with the Islamic Bankss and net income is paid at the rate collectible on matching PLS sedimentation of the bank. Inter-Bank Borrowing

The Islamic Bankss have established interest-free fund agreements with local and foreign Bankss on the footing of reciprocality. Normally. under anterior agreement. the Muslim Bankss maintain excess financess with selected Bankss. When needed. these Bankss besides place interest-free compensating balance with the Islamic bank. If balances are non equal. so periods for which financess placed are adjusted.

Secondary Beginnings
Islamic banking is a response to such exigencies. It mobilizes nest eggs of the common people in line with Islamic Shariah. Techniques employed by Islamic Bankss for salvaging mobilisation are as follows.

Al-Wadiah History
Muslim Bankss receive sedimentations in their Al-Wadiah history. This history is similar to the demand sedimentation history of interest-based Bankss. Conventional interest-based Bankss do non pay involvement on this type of sedimentation history. In add-on. depositors may retreat all or a portion of the financess deposited in this history without limitation. The term Al-Wadiah means sedimentation of money leting person to claim the financess in the history. The bank as legal guardian conserves and safe keeps the financess deposited. Therefore. depositors feel safe maintaining their money with the bank because the bank provides confidence of returning their money on demand. General Mudaraba Account

The Mudaraba history of Islamic Bankss is different from the look intoing history of an interest-based bank. Mudaraba is a signifier of concern contract where one party supplies money and the other manages the concern by puting labour and clip. Net incomes generated from the venture are shared by both in a proportion agreed upon at the clip of contract. However. in this agreement. the moneyman is entirely responsible for any loss that may be incurred. The moneyman of the concern is known as Sahib al Mal. Rabbul Mal or proprietor of the capital and the director of the concern is called Mudarib or enterpriser.

Term Mudaraba Account
Muslim Bankss besides receive term sedimentation from their clients. The term sedimentation is. of class. wholly different from that of the interest-based Bankss. Fixed term sedimentations received by Muslim Bankss are called “Term Mudaraba Deposits” . Generally an Islamic bank receives these types of sedimentations for a minimal period of 3 months to 3 old ages at the upper limit.

The bank invests the money. and portions any net incomes with the depositor based upon a per centum agreed upon at the clip of contract. In the event a loss in incurred. depositors portion the loss in proportion to the sedimentation in their history. At the terminal of the term the contract terminates and the depositors withdraw their money. plus or minus any additions or losingss. The depositors. if they like. can once more lodge their money for a new term under a new contract. No chequebook is issued against a Term Mudaraba Deposit. nevertheless. Term Mudaraba Certificate is provided to the depositor.

Term Mudaraba Account
Muslim Bankss besides receive term sedimentation from their clients. The term sedimentation is. of class. wholly different from that of the interest-based Bankss. Fixed term sedimentations received by Muslim Bankss are called “Term Mudaraba Deposits” . Generally an Islamic bank receives these types of sedimentations for a minimal period of 3 months to 3 old ages at the upper limit.

The bank invests the money. and portions any net incomes with the depositor based upon a per centum agreed upon at the clip of contract. In the event a loss in incurred. depositors portion the loss in proportion to the sedimentation in their history. At the terminal of the term the contract terminates and the depositors withdraw their money. plus or minus any additions or losingss. The depositors. if they like. can once more lodge their money for a new term under a new contract. No chequebook is issued against a Term Mudaraba Deposit. nevertheless. Term Mudaraba Certificate is provided to the depositor. Particular Mudaraba Account

When an Islamic bank receives a Mudaraba sedimentation for investing in some specific concern. sector. or undertaking. the sedimentation is called a “Special Mudaraba Deposit” . In this instance. an Islamic bank. while having sedimentations. comes to an understanding with the depositors that the money to be received will be invested in some specific concern such as the fertiliser or salt concern ; or in some specific sector like the industrial sector. fabric sector. export-import sector ; or in some specific investing sector of the bank such as existent estate. transportation or a particular undertaking. Net incomes earned from these types of specific undertakings are distributed between the bank and the Particular Mudaraba depositors based a antecedently agreed to per centum. As earlier. in the event of a loss. the depositors portion the loss in an sum proportional to their sedimentations in the history.

Cardinal Banking in Islamic Framework
The cardinal bank has the exclusive authorization to publish money ( currency ) and the duty to modulate the banking system in order to procure the value of money and recognize the other aims of pecuniary policy. Money serves as the medium of exchange and the normally recognized agencies of payment. and every bit such as a step of value. Excessive fluctuations in the value of money lead to economic deformations and causes societal unfairnesss. Inflation gives windfall additions to the rich and the concern people but causes adversity to the fixed and low-income groups by gnawing their buying power.

Worse still. deflation frequently deprives the latter of their employment and agencies of support. The phenomena of rising prices and deflation are characteristic of the fiscal system based on the establishment of involvement. which is prohibited in Islam.

Aims of pecuniary policy in Islam

Consistent with the Islamic ideals of societal justness. equity. equity and balance. there are three major aims of pecuniary policy in an Muslim economic system. which discards involvement. These aims are: • Stability in the value of money ;

• Economic wellbeing with full employment and optimal rate of economic growing ; and • Distributive justness.
For a proper grasp of the above-named aims of pecuniary policy and how these may be realized. they are explained below.

Stability in the value of money

In an Muslim economic system. it is about compulsory on the cardinal bank to continue the value of money. Therefore. the cardinal bank should let enlargement of money supply to the extent it is justified by a possible part to growing in existent balances. The stableness in the value of money should be accorded high precedence because of the univocal emphasis of Islam on honestness and equity in all human traffics. and because of the negative impact of rising prices on socio-economic justness and general public assistance.

But. instead than absolute. this aim would intend comparative stableness in the general monetary value degree. Absolute monetary value stableness is neither executable nor desirable as it may conflict with the optimal growing and full employment aim of the pecuniary policy.

Economic Growth and Employment

While rising prices is incompatible with the ends of an Islamic economic system. drawn-out recession and unemployment that cause human agonies are besides unacceptable. Monetary policy has. hence. to take at a high rate of economic growing with full employment and use of productive resources. However. maximization of economic growing per Se and at all costs is non the aim of pecuniary policy in an Muslim economic system. Material prosperity is to be attained within the model of Islamic values.

It should non be attained through the production of indispensable and morally – questionable goods and services. It should non take to an inordinate and overly-rapid usage of Allah-given resources at the disbursal of future coevalss. and it should non be harmful to show or future coevalss by devolving the moral and physical environment.

Environmental devolution with debasement and depletion of land. H2O and forest resources and serious air and H2O pollution are already affairs of great concern around the universe. Hence the construct of “sustainable development” . which means run intoing the demands of the present coevals without compromising the demands of future coevalss.

Economic development and sound environmental direction are complementary facets of the same docket. Without equal environmental protection. development will be undermined ; without development. environmental protection will neglect.

Distributive Justice

Monetary policy should be used actively to advance the end of distributive justness and prevent concentration of wealth and economic power in an Muslim economic system. However. excessively much concern with distributive justness in formulating and implementing pecuniary policy may adversely impact its overall efficiency and effectivity in achieving the other ends of pecuniary policy. e. g. growing. employment and development. Decrease in income inequalities and necessary redistribution should be an of import policy aim of an Islamic province and hence the sphere. chiefly. of its financial policy. Monetary policy can lend to this aim.

Problems and Challenges of Islamic Banking in Bangladesh
1. Nature of the Problem and Challenges

The Islamic Bankss in the universe have been confronting a figure of challenges. Side by side. the Islamic banking in Bangladesh is besides confronting legion jobs of challenges. First. they have non yet been successful in inventing an interest-free mechanism to put their financess on a short-run footing. They face the same job in funding consumer loans and authorities shortages. Second. the hazard involved in profit-sharing seems to be so high that about all of the Islamic Bankss in Bangladesh have resorted to those techniques of funding which bring them a fixed assured return. As a consequence. there is a batch of echt unfavorable judgment that these Bankss have non abolished involvement but. they have. in fact. merely changed the terminology of their minutess.

Third. the Muslim Bankss do non hold the legal support of the Central bank in Bangladesh. do non hold the necessary expertness and trained work force to measure. proctor. measure an audit the undertakings that are required to finance. As a consequence. they can non spread out despite holding immense extra fiscal liquidness. The execution of an interest-free banking in Banking raises a figure of inquiries and possible jobs which can be seen from the macro and micro operational point of position. A partial list of the issues facing Muslim Bankss in Bangladesh includes.

2. Problems Related to Macro Operation of the Islamic Banks

• Liquidity and Capital
• Valuation of bank Assetss
• Financial Stability
• The Ownership of Banks
• Lack of Capital Market and Interest-free Financial Instruments • Insufficient Legal protection
• Controlling and Supervision by the Central bank on the Basis of Islamic Shariah • Lack of Unified Shariah Rulings
• Absence of Islamic Inter-Bank Money Market
• New Banking Regulations
• Accounting rules and Procedures
• Shortage of Supportive and Link Institutions
• Shortage of Skilled and Trained Manpower in Islamic Shariah banking • Lack of Co-operation among the Islamic Banks
• Lack of Familiarity by International Financial and Non-financial Sector with Islamic Products and processs. • Severe Competition in the Financial Sector
• Economics lag and Political Situation of the Country • Inadequate Track Record of Islamic Banking
• Absence of Infrastructure for International Islamic Trade Financing • Defaulting Culture of the Borrowers
• Short-run Asset Concentration in the Islamic Banks
• Lack of Course or paper on Islamic Economics. Banking and Finance at the Educational Institutions. • Lack of Uniform Operational process of Islamic Banking • Lack of Specialized Islamic Banks and Non-Bank fiscal Institutions • Lack of Consortium or Syndication of the Islamic Banks • Lack of Harmonization of Islamic fiscal Practices • Lack of Inter-country Study on the practical Operations of Islamic Banking • Lack of Secondary Securitisation Market

• Lack of Coordinated Research Work on Islamic Economics. Banking and
finance • Lack of Apex Training Institute for the Islamic Banks.

Problem Related to Micro Operation of the Muslim Banks:

• Increased Cost of Information
• Control over Cost of Funds.
• Mark-up Financing and Corrupted Mark-up
• Excess Resort to the Murabaha Mode of Financing
• Use of Interest Rate of repairing the Net income Margin in Bai-Modes • Financing Social Concerns.
• Lack of Positive Response to the Requirement of authorities Financing. • Failure of Islamic Banks to Finance High Return Projects. • Sacrifice of allocative Efficiency
• Loss of Distributive Efficiency.
• Depression of Profit.
• Lack of Full-fledged Shariah Audit.
• Fraud-Forgery or corruptness in Muslim Banks.
• Minimum Budget for Research and Development.
• Working Environment.
• Issuance of Letter of Guarantee ( L/G )
• Minimum Budget for Research and Development.
• Lack of Shariah Manual or Guidelines.
• Islamic Investment Risk Analysis and measurement Methodology. • Non-exemption of Stamp Duty for Purchasing Property by Banks. • Lack of Co-operation between Islamic Banks and Islamic NGOs for widening Microcredit. • Lack of Establishment of Links with other Training Institutes and Shariah Supervisory Bodies. • Lack of Intention of the Management to be rigorous with Shariah Guidelines. • The above jobs are some of the combustion jobs facing the Muslim Bankss in Bangladesh. However it is felt that much operational work and in-depth research work has to be undertaken to let the Islamic Bankss to boom with highest quality and strength.

The Future of Islamic Banking in Bangladesh
1. Necessitate for Re-organization of the Whole fiscal System
Reappraisal of the jobs of Islamic banking in general and Muslim Bankss of Bangladesh in peculiar airss a ambitious characteristic for the publicity and endurance of Islamic Bankss in Bangladesh. The policy deduction is non that Muslim Bankss should ne’er be floated within the conventional banking model.

Rather it is the conventional banking system whose operational mechanism demands to be re-examined and converted into PLS system sing good impact of the latter on the economic system. However. every bit long as Muslim Bankss are to run within theconventional banking model. the recommendations under the undermentioned caputs may be taken note of.

2. New banking doctrine for the Islamic Banks
There seems to be a spread between the ideals and existent pattern of Islamic Bankss in Bangladesh. In their studies. brochures. bulletins and postings at that place Bankss express their committedness to endeavoring for set uping a merely society free from development. Survey shows that a small advancement has been achieved so far in that way. Though this failure is attributed chiefly to the permeant influence of conventional banking system itself. deficiency of watchfulness of the boosters of Islamic banking in recognizing the aim is no less to fault. There should be a through reappraisal of policies that have been pursued by these Bankss for about a decennary and points of going have to be identified to redesign their of action.

3. Future Policy and Strategy
The first action that deserves immediate attending is the publicity of the image of Muslim Bankss as PLS Bankss. Schemes have to be carefully devised so that the image of Islamic character and solvency as a bank is at the same time promoted. To this terminal. Pilot strategies in some really selected countries should be started to prove advanced thoughts with profit-loss-sharing manners of funding as major constituent.

Muslim Bankss should clearly show by their actions that their banking patterns are guided by profitableness standard thereby set uping that merely Islamic banking patterns ensures efficient allotment of resources and supply true market signals through PLS manners. Muslim Bankss should continuously supervise and circulate through assorted means the impact of their operations on the distribution of income chiefly between the bank and the other two parties: the depositors and the enterprisers. and so on different income groups of the society. These presuppose constitution of a to the full equipped research academy in each Islamic bank.

4. Steping for Distributional Efficiency.
The undertaking is more disputing for Islamic Bankss. as they have toe promote their distributional efficiency from all dimensions together with profitableness. Muslim Bankss. measure by measure. hold to be converted into profit-loss-sharing Bankss by increasing their per centum portion of investing funding though PLS manners. The Muslim Bankss. to make that. can be selective in taking clients for funding under PLS manners. They should set up direct functional relationship between the income of the depositors and between the income the income of the bank and that of the enterprisers. The relationship improves with portion of bank financing under PLS modes additions.

5. Promotion of Allocate Efficiency
The Muslim Bankss can better their allocate efficiency be fulfilling societal public assistance conditions in the undermentioned mode. First. they should apportion a sensible part of their investible financess in societal precedence sectors such as agribusiness ( including domestic fowl and piscary ) . little and bungalow industries and export-led industries like garment. shrimp cultivation. Second. when the per centum portions of allotment of investible financess are determined among the sectors of investing funding. profitableness of undertakings should be the standard for apportioning investing financess. The standard would be best satisfied if more and more undertakings were financed under PLS manners.

6. Modern banking Policies and patterns

Muslim Bankss. with a position to confronting the turning competition either fellow-Islamic Bankss or the conventional Bankss which have launched Islamic banking patterns. will hold to accommodate their operation in line with modern concern patterns. though betterment and enlargement of the scope of covering in the banking sector. Therefore. it is necessary for them to supply comprehensive banking and investing services to clients and at the same time to take advantage of modern technological discoveries in countries such as electronic communicating. cybernation etc.

7. Government and Central bank Duties
Government should believe actively for the publicity of Islamic banking in Bangladesh sing its pro-development function. It should amend bing fiscal Torahs. Acts of the Apostless and ordinances to make favourable environment conducive to smooth operation of Islamic Bankss. The bank Reforms Committee may be entrusted to outline an Islamic Banking Act.

Government should besides let constitution of Islamic insurance and other subordinate companies in order to ease their operation. Bangladesh Bank should develop some Islamic Monetary and salvaging instruments and make separate window for minutess with the Islamic Bankss and a fully fledged Islamic banking Department for analysing. oversing. monitoring and steering intent. thereby easing Islamic Bankss for their smooth development in Bangladesh.

8. Inter-Islamic Bank Co-operation and Perspective Plan
All Islamic Bankss should come forward to assist each others and follow a position program say for 20 old ages for Islamization of the banking system of Bangladesh. To realize this mission. they should set-up instantly and Apex Research Academy and Training Institute designed with modern tools. Books and other accoutrements.

Prospects of Islamic Banking in Bangladesh
In my understanding the chance of Islamic Banking is really bright. Moslem people everyplace want Islamic Banking. In Bangladesh. to give an illustration. 15 conventional Banks have opened separate Islamic subdivisions late. Five 100 applications are pending with Islamic Bank Bangladesh Ltd. for gap of new braches. IBBL has already 132 subdivisions in the state. The place may non be same in all states. But if Islamic Banking succeeds in any state. the places will same in every Muslim state in my judgement.

This means. that first Islamic Bank in any state should be good managed and successful so that people have faith in this system. Established Muslim Banks should co-operate by imparting competent functionaries in puting up new Islamic Banks. The jobs mentioned in the preceding pages are non unsurmountable. Most of them can be solved with more research and dedicated attempts.

IDB. OIC Fiqh Academy. International Islamic Banking organisations and single Islamic Bankss should set more resources in research in Islamic Banking. Finance and Economic issues. Cooperation of Cardinal Banks and the Governments will be needed in some countries. I have no uncertainty in head that Islamic banking will spread out more and more in the full universe.

Performance of the Islamic Banking System
Comparative place of the Islamic Banking sector in
Bangladesh. 2007
( In million TK. )

|Group Banks |Deposit |Investment |Excess liquidity|Manpower |Branches | | | | |asset | | | |Islamic Banking |288557 |284547. 2 |7742. 4 |8220 |308 | |sector | | | | | | |All pri


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