Food Production Using Lean Manufacturing Principles Management Essay

By August 19, 2017 Management

The chief aim of the mills was to accomplish high economic growing. The betterment in productiveness has become demand of nutrient industry to take the competitory advantage of planetary market. The large job or challenge to nutrient industry is placing the wastes and run into the market monetary value by keeping a good net income. The lone solution is to cut down entire production cost. Thin fabrication is systematic attack to place and extinguish the waste through continues betterments. This paper discusses how the production rules of thin fabrication can be applied in nutrient production to increased production efficiency and betterment productiveness and quality. This paper foremost presents the thin construct and presents the execution of thin fabrication system on some organisation.

Three chief factors that nutrient production mills fear, hapless and tacky quality, addition of production cost, addition in lead clip. Production betterments should be based on the betterments of procedures every bit good as operation. Problems can look in any of the basic elements that constitute the production country. ( Materials, workers, machines and tools, energy, methods, merchandise ) . So I focus on thin fabricating the plan can assist to better in this country.

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Problem Statement

Why and how companies should implement thin fabrication in nutrient production?

1.3 Importance of the survey

The chief purpose of the survey is to show the chief thought of the Lean fabrication system, and the benefit of using it in the field of nutrient production, and placing the sorts of wastes in production procedure, and the consequence of the Lean fabrication on nutrient production and showing some illustrations of successful companies that implemented the Thin fabrication.

1.4 Research Questions

When organisations implement thin fabrication, it is more likely to do positive on nutrient production?

1.5 Research Approach

The information collected in this research was stemmed from old published articles. And present a successful illustration from companies will be achieved good consequences after implement thin fabrication plan. The chief mark of this paper is to be applied as guideline to nutrient production companies in Egypt.

II. Literature Review:

2.1 History of Lean Manufacturing.

Many of the constructs in LM or thin production originate from the Toyota Production System ( TPS ) and have been implemented increasingly throughout Toyota ‘s operations get downing in the 1950 ‘s. In 1980 ‘s Toyota had progressively become celebrated for the efficiency with which it had implemented Just-In-Time ( JIT ) fabricating systems. Now, Toyota is frequently considered one of the most efficacious and influential fabrication companies in the universe and the company that put the criterion for best patterns in LM. LM has progressively been applied by taking fabrication companies throughout the universe, lead by the major car industries and their equipment providers. Thin Manufacturing is going an progressively important subject for fabricating companies in developed states as they try to happen process to vie more efficaciously versus competition from Asia.

2.2 Thin Manufacturing.

Thin Manufacturing is a set of tools and methodological analysiss that aims for the uninterrupted riddance of all waste in the production procedure. The chief benefits of this are lower production costs ; increased end product and minimal production lead times.

Some of the ends include:

Use of equipment and country

Use equipment and fabricating country more expeditiously by eliminating constrictions and maximising the rate of production though bing equipment, while cut downing machine downtime.

Defects and wastes

Reduce defects and unneeded physical wastage, including excess usage of natural stuff inputs, preventable defects, and costs associated with recycling faulty points and dispensable merchandise features which are non required by clients.


Have the ability to bring forth a more elastic scope of merchandises with minimal conversion costs and changeover clip.

Labor productiveness

Improve labour productiveness, both by cut downing the inactive clip of workers and guaranting that when workers are working, they are utilizing their attempt every bit fruitfully as possible

End product

Insofar as decreased rhythm times, increased labour productiveness and remotion of constrictions and machine downtime can be completed, companies can by and large significantly increase end product from their bing installations.

Inventory degrees

Minimize stock list degrees at all stairss of production, peculiarly works-in-progress between production stairss. Lower stock lists besides mean lower working capital demands.

Cycle Times

Reduce fabrication lead times and production rhythm times by cut downing waiting times between treating phases, every bit good as procedure readying times and merchandise.

Most of these benefits lead to take down unit production costs – for illustration, more effectual usage of equipment and infinite leads to take down depreciation costs per unit produced, more effectual usage of labour consequences in lower labour costs per unit produced and lower defects lead to lower cost of goods sold.

2.3 The Five Thin Principles

The critical beginning point when altering a traditional production line into a Thin procedure is the finding of value from the clients ‘ points of position, which is important as the end of the Lean procedure is a line where every activity adds a specified client value to the merchandise. Having identified the value of merchandises, the 2nd measure is to place and map the value watercourse in the production line. Value watercourse mapping refers to the function of a merchandise ‘s path and is explained in more item further. The 3rd rule is the connexion of value making activities in a uninterrupted flow procedure. Every quandary or ‘batch and waiting line ‘ procedure must be avoided to obtain an uninterrupted flow throughout the production. The ‘ideal ‘ production Flow is drawn on a map, and bing processs changed and equipment relocated to reflect this. The 4th rule is non to bring forth anything ‘upstream ‘ unless it is needed ‘downstream. The rule is in contrast to batch and line up processs, as seen in mass production, and aims to cut down the sum of resources locked up in stock lists. It implies that production must be just-in-time, both internally between procedures and externally when presenting merchandises to the End-user. The 5th rule is about prosecuting flawlessness through a uninterrupted betterment. This is non merely about making a merchandise that the client requires with a lower limit of defects, but besides includes the flawlessness of every action in connexion with the production procedure. It involves wholly employees as they know procedures the most and are closest to do suggestions for betterment. The engagement of everyone in the uninterrupted betterment is what makes Lean a doctrine – bettering working procedures is integrated in occupation modus operandis.

( Womack & A ; Jones 2003 ; Bicheno 2004 ) .

2.5 The sort of waste in nutrient production:


Producing elements for which there are no client demands. The Thin rule is to utilize a pull system, or bring forthing goods merely as clients order them. Service organisations operate this manner by their very nature. Industrialization organisations, moreover, have historically operated by a Push System, edifice merchandises to stock, without house client orders. Anything produced beyond the client demand ( safety stocks, work-in-process stock lists, etc. ) ties up valuable labour and material resources and hence is a waste.


Time during production ( service ) when no value is added to merchandise ( service ) . This includes waiting for stuff, information, equipment, tools, stock-outs, batch processing holds, equipment downtime, capacity constrictions, etc. The Thin rule is to utilize a just-in-time ( JIT ) system- non excessively shortly, non excessively late.

Transportation system

Unnecessary moving and handling of parts. This includes transporting work-in-process long distances, trucking to and from an off-site storage installation. Lean demands that the stuff be shipped straight from the seller to the location in the assembly line where it will be used. Material should be delivered to its point of usage.


Unnecessary processing or processs than necessary to run into client demand. Common examples multiple inspecting. Statistical procedure control techniques can be used to extinguish or minimise the sum of review required. Value Stream Mapping is another thin tool that can be used for this intent besides. This tool is often used to assist place non-valued-added stairss in the procedure ( for both makers and service organisations ) .

Excess Inventory

Excess natural stuff, or finished goods. Inventory beyond that needed to run into client demands negatively impacts hard currency flow and uses valuable floor infinite.


Scrap, rework, replacing production, and review. Production defects and service mistakes waste resources in four ways. First, stuffs are consumed. Second, the labour used to bring forth the portion ( or supply the service ) the first clip can non be recovered. Third, labour is required to make over the merchandise ( or remake the service ) . Fourth, labour is required to turn to any extroverted client ailments. Entire Quality Management ( TQM ) is one of the thin tools that can be used to for cut downing defects.

Excess Gesture

Unnecessary gesture of people or equipment that adds to value to merchandise ( service ) . This is caused by hapless work flow, hapless layout, housework, and inconsistent or undocumented work methods. Value Stream Mapping is besides used to place this type of waste. Tools like 5S, comfy workspace design can be used to extinguish this waste.

Underutilized Peoples

Underutilization of mental, originative, and physical accomplishments and abilities of employees of the organisation. Some of the more common causes for this waste include – organisational civilization, unequal hiring patterns, hapless or non-existent preparation, and high employee turnover.

2.6 The Policy to cut down the waste

Policy to cut down waste consists of several systems

1- Reduced Set up Time

It reduced the clip required to set the machines to bring forth a different merchandise. A long clip in the control of the machine means the demand to bring forth big measures of the same merchandise and therefore prevents us from cut downing the size of the order, which in bend prevents us from stock list decrease and prevents us from the production procedure of retreating. Permission must be reduced machine set clip dramatically.

2- Small Lot size

A Which is the size of the order per batch per production? If the size of each tally bid ( order ) important significance that we will hive away a batch of semi-finished stuffs, which do non desire to make because we want to cut down stock list in general

3- Reduced Work in Process

A An stock list of the stuffs or parts that have passed the initial phase of production and did non go through to the latter. Reduce stock list this is indispensable in the doctrine of the policy of cut downing losingss because of its impact on the coverage of production jobs and because it is a money investor.

4- Policy pull Production

A it means that production on the footing of demand for the following phase of production and non on the footing of a specific production program. The first production technology phase non merely produces and necessitate permission from the production phase following and so on until the terminal of the production line. There is stacked production between phases. This is besides known as Kanban card or card.

5- Quality Control Circles

A It is a work squad of operators and technicians are analyzing and work outing quality jobs and operation and care. These rings are necessary to analyze the jobs and uprooted from their roots and to affect all degrees of work in work outing jobs. Quality control loops is a uninterrupted development of methods Continuous Improvement, which is one of the rudimentss of the Toyota system.

6- Total Productive Maintenance

They maintenance system leads to increased handiness of equipment and cut down dislocations. This system is necessary to be able to cut down stock list of semi-finished stuffs and the execution of the policy to retreat production. Must be reduced dramatically sudden failure to implement these policies.

7- Group Technology

A It is a method designed to fabricate similar merchandises in one topographic point to cut down the conveyance clip and delay in what is known as the cell fabrication Cells. This method helps to cut down transportation times material from one topographic point to another and do each group of operators responsible for different phases of the production for the same merchandise that they have a sort of full duty for the merchandise.

8- Multi Task Employees

A Meaning that the worker trained to make several undertakings alternatively of one undertaking. This method gives the flexibleness to alter the maps of working when needed. Note that this system is designed to make the velocity of response to client demands and therefore there must be flexibleness in employment every bit good so that you can alter the maps of Group harmonizing to the demands of the market. This method has a batch to make with engineering group, where can one participant that is running several machines.

9- Production grading:

Toyota system is designed to cut down the variables and produce little sums of each merchandise every twenty-four hours, so there is no demand to bring forth big measures of a merchandise in one twenty-four hours. Reduce the alteration helps us non to keep a big stock and makes the production procedure is running swimmingly and regularity without important alterations.

10- Just In Time Buying

it means of entree to raw stuffs and production supplies when you need them rapidly. This procurance policy is needed to cut down stock list and production development and cut down defects in merchandises. To make that there is a batch of things are applied, such as cut downing the figure of providers and to collaborate with them and oblige them specific things in the manner of their work.

11- Maintain a work environment 5S:

A It means arrange and organize and clean workplace and work tools so that you have entree to the tools and information is accessible, fast and the site is a good topographic point to work and safe at the same clip. This method is called 5S relation to the Nipponese words that mean form and set up and clean workplace.

12- Total Quality Control:

There is a correlativity between policies to cut down waste and entire quality direction both supports the other. To make to draw production policy has to be to make high degrees of quality. Therefore, Toyota and Nipponese companies have applied TQM or entire quality control of the most of import has been applied is the proficient cheques parts produced by himself in the sense that the merchandise is scanned during each phase production by the operators themselves. It is the powers of the workers off the production line in the event of a quality job.

2.6.1 The Benefits of cut downing the waste

Improved public presentation indexs such as:

aˆ? cut down losingss to a great extent

aˆ? high merchandise quality ( in footings of conformity with specifications ) any low per centum of faulty merchandises

aˆ? Reduced clip advancement ( which is the clip to run into fabrication orders )

aˆ? high stock list turnover rate

aˆ? really high flexibleness to alter production from one merchandise to another

aˆ? lower the sudden failure of equipment

aˆ? low extra cost Overhead cost

aˆ? addition production capacity

aˆ? high truth to run into the supply orders on clip for supply

aˆ? the velocity of response to altering market

aˆ? betterment of fiscal indexs in the long term, including the profitableness

aˆ? Improved morale of workers

2.7Quality in Thin Fabrication

2.7.1. Reducing the Defect-Detection Time Gap

The most of import betterment that is made by a move from concluding reviews to successive cheques to self cheques is in the decrease of the clip spread between creative activity of a defect and its sensing. Figure 1 show how this clip spread psychiatrists as one progresses towards self review





Figure 1: the clip slowdown includes all operations that happen

In Figure 1, the clip slowdown includes all operations that happen to the portion after the defect

Has been made and before the defect will be detected ( more faulty parts can be made

During this clip if the defect is due to a broken machine tool, improper machining method,

Or other jobs that do non make merely one stray defect ) .



Figure 2: the clip spread psychiatrists

In Figure 2 the clip spread psychiatrists to the length of clip before the operator of the following

Machine handles the portion. In a occupation store, this may be a important measure of clip and if

Partss are produced in batches ; frequently the full batch may hold the same defect. However,

In cellular fabrication this clip slowdown is little, since the waiting line is merely one unit.



Figure 3: the clip slowdown has shrunk down

In Figure 3 the clip slowdown has shrunk down to the sum of clip that the operator spends

On the given operation before he or she checks the portion. Self-inspection produces visibleness of the job after the first faulty portion is made ( if it is noticeable ) . Catching faulty parts prevents adding more value to parts that will be scrapped or reworked subsequently. Clearly this decrease in clip slowdown can take to: quicker and easier sensing of what the job is that is doing the defect, decrease in otiose clip in the signifier of value added to trash parts, and wasted clip spent piecing a portion that will hold to be disassembled and so reassembled. Overall, quicker riddance of defect doing jobs will ensue in a decrease of the figure and cost of bad quality parts.

2.8 Productivity in thin fabrication

2.8.1 Introduction

The thin fabrication focal point on 20 key ‘s I will show merely cardinal figure 6 method betterment ( Productivity )

Figure 4 Relationship Diagram20 Key ‘s

2.8.2 Definition

Productivity is about how well resources are used. The other country of general consensus is that productiveness is about the relation between end product and input in any procedure bring forthing goods or services.

Productiveness can be calculated as end product divided by input

P = O/I

Where P = Productivity, O = Output and I = Input

End product can be measured in different manner tones, Kilograms or even end product defined as standard proceedingss or hours

2.8.3 The constituents of productiveness

Productivity fundamentally has two constituents:



Use is about whether the resources available are really used in bring forthing the merchandise or service. That is a machine might be available but if no merchandise is scheduled to be produced so it is non utilised, or if merchandise is scheduled to be produced for merely 85 % of the available clip so use is 85 % Efficiency. On the other manus, is about how good the resources are used while it is being utilized.

The expression for productiveness is so:

Productivity = Efficiency X Utilization

This expression can be expanded:

Productivity = Output / Available hours, that is how much did we produce during the clip that the resources were available

Efficiency = Output / Hours worked, that is how much did we produce during the clip that the resources were really runing.

Use = Hours worked / Hours available, that is for what per centum of clip did we really use the resources.

2.8.4 Peoples. Plant- and process – related issues impacting on productiveness

It is of import to understand what issues typically impact on productiveness as you can so look for the causes to why productiveness is non at the degree it should be.

If productiveness is non at the mark degree it can be explained in footings of the two constituents of efficiency and use that it can be either an efficiency loss or none utilizes clip. This can be because of people, works or procedure related issues.

The undermentioned drumhead show typical illustrations of issues impaction on productiveness.

Efficiency loss:


Work method

Work rate

Effort ( motive issues )


Quality of work

Plant / Process

Speed, tick overing, minor arrests

Quality of merchandise

Non – Utilized clip


Plant / procedure

Market demand

Work rate



Table 2 issues impaction on productiveness

2.8.5 Productivity Improvement an Integrated Approach

Productivity betterment can non be achieved by merely implementing Kaizen operation.

Figure 5 Productivity Improvement: An Integrated Approach

Productivity addition and first-class quality can be achieved at the same clip.

2.8.6 Implementing cardinal 6

Implementing kaizen of operation requires the effectual usage of the CAPDo rhythm. The CAPDo rhythm is a simple direction system for uninterrupted betterment. One a plane for execution has been drawn up, the existent preparation demands must be scheduled it is of import to look into on a regular basis whether developing marks have been met, and if non, the ground for this must be analyzed. Problem identified can so go actions for the following CAPDo rhythm.

Figure 6 CAPDo Cycle


Company and every section against the map.

Benchmark the company utilizing cardinal 6 map

Check current productiveness public presentation


Identify procedure for betterment.

The benchmark mark.

Productivity public presentation to place precedence processes to concentrate on.


Use the five – stairss methodological analysis for procedure betterment.

Put option ends for all procedure

Use the five stairss methodological analysis for procedure betterment.

Plan the betterment utilizing 20 keys program.


Implementing the program

Regular feedback from ends on advancement

Implement the program for accomplishing the mark.


Restart the rhythm through

Reviewing the consequences of the program on monthly footing

Reviewing cardinal advancement with the map at least every six months

Update accomplishments matrix


Cycle of CAPDo betterment and celebrate success.

2.9 Actual Cases

2.9.1 Meal production in Glostrup Hospital ‘s chief kitchen, Denmark.

The chief hypothesis of this paper is that where any implement LM it is more likely to do positive on nutrient production so I present thin rules can applied in meal production to increase the efficiency without cut downing the quality of repast prepared. All thin rules and tools may non be every bit applicable in nutrient production, but it is of import to see this facet when discoursing the execution of thin in meal production. Glostrup Hospital is situated in the greater Copenhagen country in Denmark. The cardinal Kitchen is situated inside the Hospital evidences in a separate edifice, and every twenty-four hours, repasts for about 1000 patients are produced and distributed from the kitchen. In 2005, the infirmary ‘s direction took the determination that all services should be Lean, and to cut the costs of meal production, the kitchen was forced to replace cook-serve with cook-chill production and cut down the figure of foodservice employees from 71 to 54. This brought about a demand to reexamine and optimise the production processs to keep both end product measure and quality. The alteration of production system to cook-chill besides had an impact on the end-product quality as formulas and production processs needed accommodations. Therefore, the systematic rating and betterment of merchandise quality was given a high precedence in the kitchen. The internal working environment in the kitchen was of import to the director as she insisted on keeping this as a high precedence during and after the rationalisation procedure, and that increased efficiency of production procedures was obtained by the optimisation of processs and non by doing the staff work faster. Because of these reserves, the execution of Lean was expected to ensue in both increased efficiency of procedures and improved merchandise quality while guaranting a pleasant working environment for the staying employees. The execution of Lean in the kitchen began shortly after the alteration to cook-chill processing and before processs became everyday. The kitchen produces most constituents of the repasts themselves including staff of lifes, soups and processed veggies. Previously with cook-serve production, there were separate production lines for hot repast constituents, veggies, adust merchandises, sweets and cold merchandises for these repasts, all points were prepared, processed and kept warm until service. Initially, when altering to cook-chill production, the separation of production harmonizing to repast was maintained with processed repast constituents being assembled into repasts, packed and stored for up to 3 yearss before concluding distribution to infirmary wards. The packaging was standardised in two, five or seven parts per battalion, and the wards received the part sizes equal to or the closest figure above their existent orders. This pattern of standardising packaging was accepted by the direction as a matter-of-fact pattern of cook-chill production. The execution of cook-chill production processs called for a systematic rating of merchandise quality. A graph on show in the production installation demoing the day-to-day figure of remarks on nutrient quality was chosen as an look of client satisfaction with merchandise quality. The figure of ailments for each repast constituent, based on feedback received from wards and patients, was totaled and each twenty-four hours marked on the chart. This process was chosen as a manner to guarantee communicating of client merchandise satisfaction to all employees. An internal quality control system was developed to reflect the demand for seting formulas to better repast quality after the alteration from cook service to cook-chill production. It consisted of a three-color step of merchandise acceptableness where ruddy refers to ‘not acceptable ‘ ; yellow, ‘acceptable ‘ ; and green, ‘good ‘ . The testing of merchandise quality was performed internally in the kitchen, and the merchandises had to obtain a yellow to go through. This system was developed to visualise the advancement of seting bing processs to cook-chill production. As a consequence of the execution the infirmary realized some speedy fiscal wins. Gross increased 19 % , extinguish wastes repasts from 10 % to 5 % ( England al.2009 ) .

2.9.2 Implementing 20 keys in modern bakeshops company ( Rich Bake ) , Egypt.

In 2008 modern bakeshops company direction took the determination that some production procedure should be thin. The company decided implement 10 key ‘s from 20 keys

Key1 cleansing & A ; forming to do work easy.

Key 2 Apologizing the system / end Alignment.

Key 3 Small Group Activities.

Key 5 Quick Changeover Technology.

Key 6 Kaizen of operation.

Cardinal 9 Maintaining Machines & A ; Equipment.

Key 10 Workplace Discipline.

Key 11 Quality Assurance.

Key 15 Skill Versatility and cross Training.

Key 19 Conserving Energy and Materials.

Table 3 present the 20key, s rating before and after implementing thin on modern bakeshops company through 2 old ages.


Base Line Level 2008
































Table 3: 20 key ‘s rating

Extinguish wastes from 3 % to 1.8 % .

Increase productiveness from 16KG Man / Hour to 18.5 Kg Man /Hour.

2.12 The tremendous obstructions for nutrient production in footings of following

LM attacks to betterment.

There is some jobs face the nutrient production companies to implementing thin fabrication, by and large as follows.

Lack of a clear vision of the hereafter

Lack of forbearance and follow.

Lack of persistent and challenge in leading.

Failure to associate the procedures in cardinal 6 kaizen operation with normal work.

Failure to comprehend that tilt is a feasible scheme to assist accomplish competitory advantage.

Lack of changeless visibleness by direction.

Failure of direction to take a whole systems position of concern and to see the connexions between all procedures.

Persistent focal point merely on demanding consequences without a balance focal point bettering the procedures that achieve the consequences.

III- Research Methodology

3.1 Research Aims

The chief purpose of the survey is to show the chief thought of the Lean fabrication system, and the benefit of using it in the field of nutrient production, and placing the sorts of wastes in production procedure, and the consequence of the Lean fabrication on nutrient production and showing some illustrations of successful companies that implemented the Thin fabrication.

3.2 Conceptual Model

Figure 7: LM Conceptual Framework

3.3 Research Question and Hypotheses

3.3.1 Research Questions

Why and how companies should implement thin fabrication in nutrient production?

3.3.2 Research Hypotheses

When organisations implement thin fabrication, it is more likely to do positive on nutrient production?

3.3.3 Mugwump

Cost decrease, waste rate, gross additions

3.3.4 Dependant

Tax return on investing, net income in organisation.

IV Conclusion and Recommendation


Through the survey found that there is a possible for the application of thin fabrication system in nutrient production and that explained by sing experience hospital cardinal kitchen in Denmark and experience modern bakeshops company in Egypt, where the application of thin fabrication system to derive increased efficiency, quality, and productiveness through the application of tools for thin fabrication.

. Easy to implementing thin fabrication in large company that have systems for illustrations ISO9001, 2200, HACCP

Easy to implementing thin fabrication in little company but focal point merely 3 or 4 rules in the first phase.

4.2 Recommendation

To acquire the benefits from this plan ( thin fabrication ) , there are many lessons from the old companies ‘ experiences. And harmonizing to my research aims. Which I achieved all of it, and answered the research inquiry. I eventually show this experience to be a usher for nutrient production companies in Egypt to accomplish a good consequence ( net income, productiveness, efficiency, and quality ) through implement this system.


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