Fossil Fuels and Minerals Essay

September 28, 2017 General Studies

Fossil fuels are fundamentally hydrocarbons that are found within the uppermost of the crust of the Earth. These fuels can come in different types which include volatile stuffs or substances with small C to hydrogen ratio such as liquid crude oil and methane every bit good as other non volatile substance or stuffs that are composed of about pure C such as anthracite coal. among others ( Britannica Encyclopedia. 2008 ) . Volatile stuffs such as methane are sourced from Fieldss of hydrocarbon and it can either be coupled with oil. as a methane clathrate or in remarkable signifier.

The most widely accepted theory of the beginning of fossil fuels is that they were formed from the dodo remains of dead animate beings and workss by 1000000s of old ages of exposure to the force per unit area and heat within the Earth’s crust. which is known as the biogenic theory ( Britannica Encyclopedia. 2008 ) . Furthermore. harmonizing to this theory. during the prehistoric times. the fossil fuel crude oil came from the algae and zooplankton. which were found in monolithic sums in the underside of lakes or the seas that have decreased O content ( Britannica Encyclopedia. 2008 ) .

In add-on. based on the theory. after clip passed. mire assorted with the organic affair in the underside of the seas and lakes were submerged under immense beds of deposit. Heat and force per unit area so do this organic affair to transform during a procedure called diagenesis. into a stuff called kerogen. which is waxy in nature. Upon exposure to more heat. the kerogen is so farther transformed into gas hydrocarbons through cataganesis ( Britannica Encyclopedia. 2008 ) . Minerals. on the other manus. are besides found within the Earth’s crust on the surface.

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However. they are of course happening solids that have a extremely atomic agreement and a characteristic and definite chemical composing ( Britannica Encyclopedia. 2008 ) . Basically. minerals are classified and formed depending on their chemical group. These groups include Oxides. Halides. Elementss. Sulfides. Carbonates. Borates. Tungstates. Silicates. molybdates. Arsenates. Phosphates. Vanadates. Sulfates. Chromates. and Nitrates ( Minerals. cyberspace. 2000 ) . 2. Describe how at least one dodo fuel and mineral is formed from its beginning or beginnings. One illustration of a dodo fuel is coal.

Historically. coals originate from works affair. specifically. tellurian workss. The procedure of change overing works affair into coal is called coalification. which normally spans over 1000000s of old ages while the beds of peat. which are biogenic deposits that come from the compression and accretion and works remains from swamps and bogs. are buried and compressed by the deposits. Coalification normally begins with a swamp that is thick with remains of organic flora. After this organic affair decomposes. it is farther buried by more deposits and flora. Through this procedure. the works affair so transforms into peat.

This thickness of deposits so continues to increase over clip and this applies higher temperature and increased force per unit area on the organic bed. As a consequence. a batch of volatile constituents and H2O are expelled. Over clip. as more force per unit area and heat are applied. a certain bed of peat is so converted into coal. The thickness of this bed is decreased by 90 per cent and most of its antecedently volatile constituents disappear. This finally leads to a great concentration of C. which is its chief heat beginning. On the other manus. minerals can be formed through a assortment of ways and are classified based on the manner they were concentrated.

For illustration. zinc blende. which is a zinc mineral ; galena. which is a lead mineral ; and copper pyrites. which is a copper mineral. are all formed through a hydrothermal procedure. These three minerals are normally found in venas that were formed after H2O. which was volcanically heated. made its manner up and created a break in the andesite environing an country. In add-on. carbonate minerals are found in the Marine countries where dead plankton’s shells submerge and later roll up on the floors of the sea or the ocean.

Carbonates can besides undergo two procedures. precipitation and disintegration. which consequences in the formation of minerals such as stalagmites and stalactites. among others.

Mentions Britannica Encyclopedia. ( 2008 ) . Fossil Fuel. Retrieved July 12. 2008 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/214545/fossil-fuel. Britannic Encyclopedia. ( 2008 ) . Mineral. Retrieved July 12. 2008 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/383675/mineral. Mineral. cyberspace. ( 2000 ) . What is a Mineral. Retrieved July 12. 2008 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. minerals. net/resource/what_is_ . htm.

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