Solar Energy is indispensable for the planet and the primary beginning of energy for the universe. Solar energy, gives rise to the procedures of photosynthesis and so to the life on the planet. In fact a compound called chlorophyll allows green workss to absorb sunshine and to give birth to living things. When workss and animate beings die, they are eaten by other beings and everything is assorted into the dirt to ease the birth of new workss.
The Earth receives about 10^15 Watts of solar radiation in the upper ambiance ( about half billion of the energy that the Sun irradiates continuously ) . However non all of the radiation arrives to the land, thanks to the presence of the ambiance, which partly reflects and partly absorbs. solar-energy-diagram-pic
Approximately 35 % of incoming solar radiation is reflected back into infinite, while 14 % of solar radiation is absorbed into the beds of the ambiance. The ambiance besides helps to distribute on the 20 % of the visible radiation in multiple waies impacting the electromagnetic spectrum of radiation.
As in any unfastened system, the Earth receives and delivers energy. The energy absorbed by the Earth is later delivered to outer infinite, with signifier of radiation re-irradiated. In the long term the energy balance of the Earth is ever in equilibrium.
1.2 From Solar Energy to Solar Power
How does it work the Solar Power? Solar Power Diagram
Solar power demands two things to be created:
a surface which can roll up the solar energy
a manner to change over this energy into electricity
There are two methods which can be used to bring forth electricity:
CPV-Photovoltaic transition ( direct method ) : this system requires the use of solar panels. These contain solar cells, arranged on the surface, that are made with particular stuffs and can change over the solar radiation into electricity.
CSP-Thermal transition ( indirect method ) : In this instance the energy of the Sun can be used to make heat and to boil H2O. In fact the mirrors can be used to concentrate the sunshine into particular containers full of H2O ( it can be used other liquids ) that need to be heated and produce steam that will be used to revolve a steam turbine which produces electrical energy.
This simple image shows how the Sun radiation can impact on place warming. A We can see how the incline of the roof does non let the high summer Sun to reflect into the house, alternatively the lower winter Sun has a direct entree to the house. This means that during summers this type of house will be cooler, while during winters it will be provided by a plentifulness of heat without extra demand of heat.Passive solar energy diagram
1.3 CSP Concentrated Solar Power
It is a manner to concentrate the Sunlight into a smaller country by utilizing an array of mirrors ( lenses ) . These CSP systems normally heat H2O in order to bring forth steam, which can drive a turbine and produce electricity. We have to be careful to non confound solar photovoltaic with CSP method, this is the difference: CSP needs to reassign the solar energy with a particular bearer ( normally H2O ) transformed in the signifier of steam, while solar photovoltaic is a direct method ( solar energy is converted straight into electricity by utilizing particular photovoltaic cells ) .Concentrated Solar Power ( CSP ) Diagram
In the history, the rule of concentrating Solar Energy was used by Archimedes of Syracuse to fire Roman ships during the besieging of the Sicilian metropolis. Through a system of mirrors, the machine of Archimedes concentrated solar radiation towards the ships, doing the fire. The rule was already known, the concentration of Sun beams in a individual point through mirrors causes the rapid rise of local temperature even for 100s of grades. The same rule is the footing for the experiment of solar panels for the production of electricity. An illustration is the solar power works in Priolo, designed by Enel.
The first solar power CSP
“ World ‘s first ” commercial-scale CSP works with cardinal tower receiving system and thermic storage commissioned
The first concentrating solar power works of medium size was inaugurated in 2007 in Seville, southern Spain. The CSP has a cardinal power of 11 MW and a production capacity of 23 GWh per twelvemonth, the equivalent of the electricity demand by 10 000 people and salvaging 16 000 metric tons of CO2 emanations. The solar power works is composed by 624 mirrors covering an country of 120 square metres of brooding surface. Solar beams are concentrated to a receiving system armored combat vehicle, placed on a tower 115 metres high. The concentrated heat powers a turbine system and allows the coevals of electricity. The undertaking is besides known as PS10 and it cost 35 million euros, partly covered from subsidies granted by the European Union. It is the first of a long series of Concentrating solar power workss under building in the Iberian Peninsula, which will take Spain to tout a capacity of 300 MW of CSP engineering by 2013.
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1.4 CPV – Concentrated Solar Photovoltaics
Concentrated solar photovoltaics is a rather new system of solar engineering. This consists in a kind of smaller solar panel where a larger sum of sunshine is concentrated into a photovoltaic country. So what is the difference with solar panels? The lone differences are that CPV systems are cheaper to bring forth because the solar cells are minimized ( these are most expensive parts ) and that sunshine is converted straight into electricity by utilizing the photovoltaic cells.Solar hot H2O heat diagramConcentrated Solar Photovoltaics diagram
In the image we can see that the solar aggregator is concentrating the beams of the Sun. The H2O is heated and goes into a armored combat vehicle which contains a kind of “ heat money changer ” . When the heat is exchanged, the H2O is pumped back up in order to make the solar aggregator.