In society the basic modernity is described as one of the key forms of social pattern, resulting from social patterns resulting from industrialization (Macionis, 2006). Peter Berger explains how modernization manifests itself, by four major concepts. The four concepts consist of: the decline of small traditional communities, the expansion of personal choice, the increase of social diversity and the orientation toward the future and a growing awareness of time (Macionis, 2006). In the U. S. small traditional communities are growing into more modern and larger communities, people have more personal choices, than they once had and many different cultures and races are interacting together and created more diverse families. Peter Berger’s also believed that orientation toward the future and growing awareness of time is making people aware of the changes and new inventions of the future. This will improve people’s lives. These same concepts are still being encouraged in today’s society (Macionis, 2006).
Ferdinand Tonnies theory reflects the many different dimensions of the changes; such as: the growth in population and the impersonal interaction (Macionis, 2007). Emily Duckern theory was like Fedinard Tonnies; however, she feared that the modern society would become so diverse that it forgot to show moral guideless to different individuals (Macionis, 2007). Modernization is likely to continue in the United States and world wide. Modernization was brought on by the industrial age and since that time society has grown and moved forward with process.
Modernization and process, work together in the growth of a society (Macionis, 2007). However, many people would disagree. Some people believe that modernization will not continue in the United States. Some believe that has we move into the information age of post modernity; defined as social pattern characteristic of postindustrial society (Macionis, 2006). This has the concepts of: in important aspects, modernity has failed, the bright light of process is fading away, and science no monger has the answers, cultural debates are intensifying and social institution are changing.
With this knowledge some people believe that modernization does not have the power necessary to continue in the United States and it creates more problems than it solves (Macinis, 2006). Global Warming is one of the problems that modernization has created. Critics have urged the nation to assume a stronger leadership role regarding the climate change. The United States has the position to set a good example to other countries; however, the United has done the complete opposite.
The United States has allowed the greenhouse gas emission to rise more than 15 percent between 1990 and 2004 (Global Warming, 2009). Modernization can create consequences. It can lead to problems with environment, for example; irrigation products are facing increasing challenges from concerned groups, which see potential harm to the environment. Inadequate water has aggrated the environmental consequences of water projects (Irrigating, 1991). This leads to poor maintaince and leading countries to defer modernization.
Imprudently development, badly designed and poorly managed irrigation schemes, have substantial negative effects on the environment (Irrigating, 1991). Modernization is a result of the industrial revolution. Many world countries have not reached their own industrial evolution. It is unlikely that they will develop modernization. Not everyone believes that modernization is really a option. In today’s poor societies, they struggle to modernize, even if they wanted to. The major barrier to economic development, is not tradional but global; by the rich capitalist societies.
The rich nation will achieve modernization at the expense of the poor societies. This provides the rich nations the valuables national resources and human labor. Today, the world’s poorest countries have a disadvantage in economic relationship with rich nations. They are dependant on wealthier countries to buy their raw materials and the rich society will perpetuate current patterns of the global inequality (Macionis, 2006). The consequences of modernization have many different consequences.
One of the consequences has been the rise of a new urban underclass. The urban underclass consists of displaced southern peasants and their descendants (Letters, 1999). Another example would be the loss of purpose and confusion of how to live. Some people have lost their sense of morals. The morals that were important to our parents may not be important to our children. Computers, cell phones and other communication tools have made it where people do not have to physically connect anymore. People are sending emails, instead of seeing someone.
Tradional families are a part of the past and modern families have taken their place; which means many families are not communicating effectively, single parent families exist more and same sex families have grown over the past years. While there are many negative effects, there are some positive aspects. For example, health care has improved greatly. What once killed a child is no longer a treat. Treatments of many diseases have improved and many people are living longer and healthier lives. The theorist that best reflects my views would be Karl Marx.
Karl Marx believed in the people and guided them to a safe world of free living. He believed that class conflicts as the imine that drives societies from one historical era to another. He also believed that class, race and gender all would force changes in every society. Marx agree with Tonnies, that modernity weakened small communities, with Durkern who believed that the increased division of labor and with Weber who encouraged a ration world view. However, he also believed that these conditions were necessary for capitalization to flourish (Macionis, 2006).
We live in a world that continues to change everyday. There are many different viewpoints and new theories that are being discovered everyday. Modernization will continue to move forward and the life that we know today, will be modified in the future. The aspects of modernization have negative points; however, the positive points out weigh the negative points. As the years continue to pass, the more changes that will occur in the United States and world wide. However, some countries may not be as advanced as other countries, modernization will still affect everyone today and in the future.