The ability to pass on with our fellow human existences makes us distinguishable from other living existences. The chapter has made it really clear that talking is non conversation. Conversation is a collaborative attempt by both the talker and the hearer. Our success much depends on how good we can interact with people around us. It much depends upon understanding certain factors called ‘social dynamics’ in conversation. In the essay “Women Talk Too Much” Janet Holmes makes it really clear that it is a incorrect impression to believe that adult females talk more than work forces. She says it is an premise based on stereotypes.
On the other manus. she says that it is work forces who talk more. There is no cogent evidence to state that work forces are biologically programmed to speak more than adult females. It is merely the societal conditions that promoted the incorrect impression that male childs are more active than misss and they talk more. She says it is wholly disagreeable. I find rather interesting to cognize that it is male childs who interact more in the category suites than the misss. Then. the writer claims. how it can be said that adult females talk more than work forces In the 2nd essay of the chapter. Tony Kornheiser makes a differentiation in the communicating manner of adult females and that of work forces.
He feels that adult females are really peculiar about everything and they have more to state than work forces have. He makes a point stating that adult females do non believe life is every bit simple as work forces believe it to be. A conversation that turns into a talk is decidedly deadening as Deborah Tannen points out in the essay “I’ll Explain It to You” . The most frustrating experience for anyone is when a conversation turns into a talk. I feel it is non merely tiring to adult females but besides every bit boring to work forces. There has been much literature on gender biased linguistic communication and there is a gradual alteration in the usage of linguistic communication to sound impersonal.
Ronald Macaulay besides agrees with Janet Holmes and says that many of the impressions are myth and they have no cogency scientifically talking. It is instead societal conditioning that has played a cardinal function in leaving sentiments that have no footing. Clive Thompson’s essay on how computing machine package can place accurately whether the author is a adult male or adult female is rather interesting. His inquiries the many of the commonly held thoughts about the differences between the two sexes. ( 407 words ) Chapter6: Media Speak. What we know about the universe is from media merely. Our perceptual experience of the universe is influenced by the media which presents it.
The one million millions of dollars spent on Television ads clearly indicate the power that the media enjoys. Undoubtedly. the advertizements that come on telecasting and newspapers and magazines have enormous influence on us. Within a span of a century there is a great alteration in the media. Now the universe is progressively dependent on unwritten media where as it was largely written word in the beginning of the last century. With the purpose of making more figure of audiences. the quality of linguistic communication used in Television intelligence and shows has become really low. Neil Postman and Steve Powers. justly indicate out that the dependance on the image has made a great displacement in intelligence devising.
The extremely quality visuals have replaced good linguistic communication with low degree popular linguistic communication. They argue that it is non merely linguistic communication but besides our positions and sentiments about the universe are acquiring corrupted. The general expression is “a image is worth a 1000 words” but in the present yearss when intelligence is re-created or re-presented. it is every bit true to state that “one word is worth a 1000 images. ” There is small uncertainty that the linguistic communication used by the media is aimed at making esthesiss to pull more audience. Then. I do believe that it is non precisely what happened i. e. intelligence.
The article ‘All the World in Pictures’ is really interesting and thought arousing. It has clearly explained how the linguistic communication is used in mass media. It is competently said that ‘Advertising is the driving force of consumer economy’ . The universe is filled with advertizements. Wherever there are people. there are advertizements. They appeal to all our failing making a universe of fancy with ageless young person. power. enriched beauty. immediate felicity. and fulfilment of our inner demands. I feel the usage of linguistic communication in making such emotional entreaties is rather astonishing. Advertising plays much on the psychological science of people.
A little 15 2nd ad can efficaciously allure the people appealing to their emotions by doing antic entreaties and promises. The article “With these Words. I can Sell You Anything” is really edifying. It has made it clear how they twist the linguistic communication to direct their message efficaciously. It is a finely engineered linguistic communication that creates strong images on the heads of audience. I have found it really exciting to cognize the how the advertizers play on the people with their linguistic communication. ( 419 words ) Chapter7: Censoring and Free Speech Freedom of address is cardinal to American democracy.
It enables every American to freely show his thoughts. sentiments and beliefs. Any bounds to the freedom of address are seen as a menace to the rights of Americans. It is interesting to observe that the treatment lays accent on the equality in basking one’s rights. No adult male or adult female has the right to ache the feelings or sentiments of others. It is by esteeming others rights that we can bask our rights good. The censoring is against the rights given in the fundamental law. However. it is required in some countries. The censoring and books. biased linguistic communication and hatred address and certain bounds on campus address have lead to interesting argument.
The first amendment has non merely given the right to show thoughts freely but it besides has given the right to cognize others’ thoughts. The censoring on books has been a much debated issue with different sentiments. It is beyond my understanding why some books are banned wholly and some are censored. When a book raises inquiries that lead to controversy and debate. it will assist people to cognize what precisely the truth is. Banning is non the solution for it. The contention over Harry Potter books. which have attracted 1000000s of kids all over the universe. seems pointless.
Censoring on books is unsafe as it blocks all new originative and original thoughts. Censoring on colored linguistic communication and hatred address is rather utile as it raises many inquiries in the practical usage of linguistic communication. It is really hard and about impossible to sort what makes a hate address and colored linguistic communication. I feel it is extremely impossible to do a jurisprudence in the absence of any valid rules sing what comes under colored linguistic communication and hatred address. Sometimes. the words may be good but the tone in which they are delivered could be full of hatred.
Censoring on free address on the campus has some good in it. as it reduces misconstruing among the pupils who come different parts of the universe. The campus is a topographic point where tolerance is largely needed. The regulations forbiding certain speech Acts of the Apostless is good for the minority pupils. But it does non vouch that no racialist address is of all time heard on the campuses. ( 378 words ) Chapter -8 The English Language Debate The argument whether English should be made official linguistic communication of the US or non. is really interesting conveying out valid statements on both the sides.
The United States. the state of immigrants. respects cultural differences of people coming from different states. Respecting other linguistic communications. the US has non declared English as the official linguistic communication. I find it really great quality of the American people for their regard other civilizations. It shows their multi cultural tolerance and national integrity. The integrity of American people has come more from their similar mindedness in political and societal values and self respect than from holding one linguistic communication. The treatment on what is Standard English has made it clear how different forces work on linguistic communication.
Robert MacNeil has explored good what makes American English and what precisely it is. The statement for Standard English has its ain virtues with clear focal point on lucidity in thought and what we are stating. It argues for attention and cautiousness in the usage of linguistic communication as it is cardinal for placing an person. If a individual neglects his linguistic communication and uses it causally. it will non assist him or her in the long tally. As the writer has justly put it “casualization” everything in civilization has led to insouciant attitude to linguistic communication usage every bit good. The ‘growing informality’ of linguistic communication is one of the major concerns of linguists.
The bookmans and syntacticians who prescribe regulations on how linguistic communication should be used are justly called “Prescriptivists. ” Particularly. John Simon. who is called the Prince of Prescriptivists. holds the position that the present twenty-four hours linguistic communication is hapless. unhealthy and hopeless. He represents those who argue for perfect usage of linguistic communication as it helps you to pass on clearly what you are. It is with the usage of linguistic communication merely that a individual can demo his differentiation. If the differentiation is lost. he or she will be among many who can non state clearly what they mean.
It becomes a serious challenge. I feel at that place should be certain rules which can non be sacrificed in the usage of linguistic communication. The “Descriptivists” . on the other manus. merely depict how the linguistic communication is used by people. They do non order any regulations sing how English should be used. They are permissive and digest the new looks and the informality in looks. They argue that a linguistic communication is called a life linguistic communication merely when it is spoken. When it is spoken it is natural to hold alterations in the linguistic communication as no two people can articulate the same word in the same manner.
They are free to let new words into English as alteration the jurisprudence of life and of linguistic communication. It shows tolerance towards people who speak the same linguistic communication with some regional differences. There are many illustrations when the linguistic communication of the Black people is accepted by the syntacticians and included in the lexicons. It helps the linguistic communication to turn and reflect the present twenty-four hours civilization. The frights about what will go on to American English seem justified. but cipher can halt the alterations that take topographic point in society. I feel the alterations in English are an indicant of alterations in society. and linguistic communication is merely reflecting the same. ( 534 words )