English 3201 FACT VERSUS OPINIONS A statement of fact expresses only what actually happened, or what could be proven by objective data. A statement of opinion expresses an attitude toward something – it makes a judgment, view, or conclusion, or makes a statement that cannot be proven true or false. A. WRITE O for opinion, or F for FACT. REMEMBER, if they are opinions, they can be topic sentences!!! B. Then, turn the information in the FACT items into opinions. _____1. There are only 4,000 to 6,000 of the northern spotted owl birds left in the USA. _____2.
If we aren’t careful with our resources, we could upset the balance of our beautiful blue planet. _____3 Seven million acres of forest in the USA were declared off limits to the timber industry in 1990. _____4 Puerto Rico is part of the Greater Antilles Archipelago. _____5. There are various advantages of getting a job after you finish college. _____6. The Game of Thrones HBO series is based on the George R. R. Martin’s cycle of fantasy novels. _____ 7. Walking on the beach at sunset calms me down after a stressful day at work. _____ 8.
Making your own clothes requires great patience, as well as skill. _____9. Selecting the right car for an adolescent is not an easy job. _____10. U. S. troops raided an insurgent facility in northern Iraq last Tuesday. _____11. K-Mart will hold a back to school sale during the last week of July. _____12. The old car that Ron bought from his neighbor turned out to be a real lemon. _____13. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is a fairy tale. _____14. Cabinet members in P. R. should accept salary cuts. _____15. The IVU tax was really unnecessary. _____16.
Finding the right place to study was my most difficult problem at college. _____17. The switch from guerrilla warfare to chemical warfare is cruel and unethical. _____18. If you are eighteen, a whole field of cultural geography is waiting for you. _____19. Puerto Rico cannot be compared to a state. _____20. Andre Benjamin went from rapping to skating in the movie Four Brothers. _____21. Maintaining a car nowadays can be very expensive. _____22. The Japanese diet is perhaps the healthiest diet in the world. _____23. The Governor’s Cabinet faced two major problems. _____24.
The writing of a research paper is an incredibly detailed process. _____25. Being an only child is not as bad as people think. _____26. An Olympic champion has five distinctive characteristics. _____27. That politician’s unethical financial dealings will have a negative impact in his campaign. ____ 28. The training of Japanese policemen is quite different from American police training. _____29. Rewarding children with candy or desserts is an unfortunate habit of many parents. _____30. A childhood hobby often develops into a rewarding career. | The Paragraph What is a paragraph?
A paragraph is a collection of related sentences dealing with a single topic. To be as effective as possible, a paragraph should contain each of the following: Unity, Coherence, A Topic Sentence, and Adequate Development. As you will see, all of these traits overlap. Using and adapting them to your individual purposes will help you construct effective paragraphs. 1. Unity:The entire paragraph should concern itself with a single focus. If it begins with a one focus or major point of discussion, it should not end with another or wander within different ideas. 2.
Coherence:Coherence is the trait that makes the paragraph easily understandable to a reader. You can help create coherence in your paragraphs by creating logical bridges and verbal bridges. logical bridges: * The same idea of a topic is carried over from sentence to sentence * Successive sentences can be constructed in parallel formverbal bridges: * Key words can be repeated in several sentences * Synonymous words can be repeated in several sentences * Pronouns can refer to nouns in previous sentences * Transition words can be used to link ideas from different sentences3.
A topic sentence:A topic sentence is a sentence that indicates in a general way what idea or thesis the paragraph is going to deal with. Although not all paragraphs have clear-cut topic sentences, and despite the fact that topic sentences can occur anywhere in the paragraph (as the first sentence, the last sentence, or somewhere in the middle), an easy way to make sure your reader understands the topic of the paragraph is to put your topic sentence near the beginning of the paragraph. (This is a good general rule for less experienced writers, although it is not the only way to do it). . Adequate developmentThe topic (which is introduced by the topic sentence) should be discussed fully and adequately. Again, this varies from paragraph to paragraph, depending on the author’s purpose, but writers should beware of paragraphs that only have two or three sentences. It’s a pretty good bet that the paragraph is not fully developed if it is that short. Some methods to make sure your paragraph is well-developed: * Use examples and illustrations * Cite data (facts, statistics, evidence, details, and thers) * Examine testimony (what other people say such as quotes and paraphrases) * Use an anecdote or story * Define terms in the paragraph * Compare and contrast * Evaluate causes and reasons * Examine effects and consequences * Analyze the topic * Describe the topic * Offer a chronology of an event (time segments)| This page is located at http://owl. english. purdue. edu/handouts/print/general/gl_pgrph2. html| What is a Unified and Coherent Paragraph? A paragraph is unified when every sentence develops the point made in the topic sentence.
It must have a single focus and it must contain no irrelevant facts. Every sentence must contribute to the paragraph by explaining, exemplifying, or expanding the topic sentence. In order to determine whether a paragraph is well developed or not, ask yourself: “What main point am I trying to convey here? ” (topic sentence) and then “Does every sentence clearly relate to this idea? ” There are several ways in which you can build good, clear paragraphs. This section will discuss three of the most common types of paragraph structure: development by detail, comparison and contrast, and process.
Finally, it will suggest that most paragraphs are built of a combination of development strategies. Paragraph Development by Detail This is the most common and easiest form of paragraph development: you simply expand on a general topic sentence using specific examples or illustrations. Look at the following paragraph (you may have encountered it before): Work tends to be associated with non-work-specific environments, activities, and schedules. If asked what space is reserved for learning, many students would suggest the classroom, the lab or the library.
What about the kitchen? The bedroom? In fact, any room in which a student habitually studies becomes a learning space, or a place associated with thinking. Some people need to engage in sports or other physical activity before they can work successfully. Being sedentary seems to inspire others. Although most classes are scheduled between 8:30 and 22:00, some students do their best work before the sun rises, some after it sets. Some need a less flexible schedule than others, while a very few can sit and not rise until their task is completed.
Some students work quickly and efficiently, while others cannot produce anything without much dust and heat. The topic sentence makes a general claim: that school work tends not to be associated only with school. The rest of the sentences provide various illustrations of this argument. They are organized around the three categories, “environment, activities, and schedules,” enumerated in the topic sentence. The details provide the concrete examples which your reader will use to evaluate the credibility of your topic sentence. Paragraph Development by Comparison and Contrast
You should consider developing your paragraph by comparison and contrast when you are describing two or more things which have something, but not everything, in common. You may choose to compare either point by point (X is big, Y is little; X and Y are both purple. ) or subject by subject (X is big and purple; Y is small and purple. ). Consider, for example, the following paragraph: Although the interpretation of traffic signals may seem highly standardized, close observation reveals regional variations across this country, distinguishing the East Coast from Central Canada and the West as surely as dominant dialects or political inclinations.
In Montreal, a flashing red traffic light instructs drivers to careen even more wildly through intersections heavily populated with pedestrians and oncoming vehicles. In startling contrast, an amber light in Calgary warns drivers to scream to a halt on the off chance that there might be a pedestrian within 500 meters who might consider crossing at some unspecified time within the current day. In my home town in New Brunswick, finally, traffic lights (along with painted lines and posted speed limits) do not apply to tractors, all terrain vehicles, or pickup trucks, which together account for most vehicles on the road.
In fact, were any observant Canadian dropped from an alien space vessel at an unspecified intersection anywhere in this vast land, he or she could almost certainly orient him-or-herself according to the surrounding traffic patterns. This paragraph compares traffic patterns in three areas of Canada. It contrasts the behavior of drivers in the Maritimes, in Montreal, and in Calgary, in order to make a point about how attitudes in various places inform behavior. People in these areas have in common the fact that they all drive; in contrast, they drive differently according to the area in which they live.
It is important to note that the paragraph above considers only one aspect of driving (behavior at traffic lights). If you wanted to consider two or more aspects, you would probably need more than one paragraph. Paragraph Development by Process Paragraph development by process involves a straightforward step-by-step description. Those of you in the sciences will recognize it as the formula followed in the “method” section of a lab experiment. Process description often follows a chronological sequence: The first point to establish is the grip of the hand on the rod.
This should be about half-way up the cork handle, absolutely firm and solid, but not tense or rigid. All four fingers are curved around the handle, the little finger, third finger and middle finger contributing most of the firmness by pressing the cork solidly into the fleshy part of the palm, near the heel of the hand. The forefinger supports and steadies the grip but supplies its own firmness against the thumb, which should be along the upper side of the handle and somewhere near the top of the grip. from Roderick Haig-Brown, “Fly Casting”) The topic sentence establishes that the author will use this paragraph to describe the process of establishing the “grip of the hand on the rod,” and this is exactly what he does, point by point, with little abstraction. Paragraph Development by Combination Very often, a single paragraph will contain development by a combination of methods. It may begin with a brief comparison, for example, and move on to provide detailed descriptions of the subjects being compared.
A process analysis might include a brief history of the process in question. Many paragraphs include lists of examples: The broad range of positive characteristics used to define males could be used to define females too, but they are not. At its entry for woman Webster’s Third provides a list of “qualities considered distinctive of womanhood”: “Gentleness, affection, and domesticity or on the other hand fickleness, superficiality, and folly. ” Among the “qualities considered distinctive of anhood” listed in the entry for man, no negative attributes detract from the “courage, strength, and vigor” the definers associate with males. According to this dictionary, womanish means “unsuitable to a man or to a strong character of either sex. ” This paragraph is a good example of one which combines a comparison and contrast of contemporary notions of “manliness” and “womanliness” with an extended list of examples. USING PRECISE SENSORY DESCRIPTION. Some key features of effective description: it is used as support for various purposes; it helps an underlying message or theme become clearer. * it is vivid and original. * it creates imagery: both mental pictures and emotional feelings. At its best, it almost seems to etch these images onto the reader’s mind * it can help to give the illusion of showing what a thing is like as opposed to mere telling. If you are told a person is evil, you might possibly believe the writer but if the evil is vividly described, you will not only be convinced, you will feel a cold chill run down your spine… effective description, surprisingly, does not rely heavily on the use of many adjectives or other describing words; instead, it depends far more on precise vocabulary with adjectives and adverbs take almost a secondary role to ‘help out’ those words that in themselves really do need extra description * the use of too many describing words detracts from the effectiveness of the description – and loses marks! Remember the old saying, ‘A picture is worth a thousand words’? If you can create mental pictures by using original, vivid similes and metaphors to describe sights, sounds, feelings, your description will be the better for it.
Here are some descriptions that use precise vocabulary and vivid similes and metaphors. You might think of such vocabulary as ‘muscular’ for it creates powerful images without relying on lots of extra adjectives. Underline the sensory images in the following sentences. 1. The swollen mass of people teemed forwards like a seething colony of crawling ants. 2. The mingling spices tingled our senses to create a glorious surge of appetite. 3. The summer rain spilled down and soused our sweltering faces with its refreshing coolness. 4. The flashes of lightning flooded the land with a fearful display of Nature’s power. . The children were like bundles of concentrated energy exploding with delight. 6. The very buildings themselves seemed to bow low as the town’s new hero approached. 7. The look of flame and anger in her eyes showed the world that she was indeed a rebel with a cause. 8. The darkening sky ushered in a forbidding, somber mood that set the scene for the grim news lying in wait for us. 9. Our noses were assaulted by the putrefying smell of rotting flesh it was like a wall of evil. 10. The creatures created a cacophony of calls that assaulted our ears. 11. The evening was aflame with the glorious sunset. 2. The incessant trumpeting of the dying beast’s cries filled their ears with sorrow. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER SENSORY DETAILS CHART Model Sensory Details Chart Event: A Day at the Beach Visual details | children playing in the sand| people lying on the beach and swimming in the water| sparkling sand with white-speckled shells| water meeting the blue sky at the horizon| lifeguard stand and hot dog stand| | Sounds | the splashing of swimmers| chatter and laughter of children | parents and children talking | the lifeguard’s warning whistle| the lapping of the surf against the sand|
Smells salty waterhot dogs roasting in BBQsuntan lotion | | | Tastes| salt water hot dogs| | Feelings| Textures heat of sun on back sweat, cool water, and towel on skins and between toes| | 7 SAMPLES of Descriptive Paragraphs Places As I walked into the room, the warmth radiated from all four walls, entrapping me in a web of love. The huge bed that had been freshly made still felt warm from the person who had slept there. The pillows stitched “Home Sweet Home” laid just off center at the foot of the bed. The light streaming through the window seemed to reach out and touch the bare spot in the carpet.
As I walked further, I saw the bookshelves lining the left wall, stacked with old favorites that brought so much joy. On the other wall, the memories were painted in the pictures that covered the old cracked wall. When I left the room, it was as if I had tasted a piece of heaven. – Danielle Hefner If there is one room that I have ever been in that sticks out most in my mind, it is the nursery at our church. When you first walk in, an almost blinding bright pink wall meets your eyes. On the floor there is a gray and pink variegated plush carpet. The ceiling is snow white.
On the left is a Xerox copier on an antique dark-wooden table. There is an air duct with pink paneling over it, between the copier and the tan loveseat, on which two regal stuffed Dalmatians peer out into the room. Directly ahead there is a small picnic table and an open red and gray toy box. Toys are everywhere. Casey Jordan and Sara Childress are both hard at play there. You can hear their laughter and pure, unadulterated joy. – Tim Capps As I enter my lovely new house I remember the labor of summers past. The sound of a saw is still fresh in my mind. The smooth kitchen floor which I helped sand not so long ago.
The room in which my family and I will gather together for social time adds a special sense of love. I can smell mom’s mouth-watering meals fresh out of the oven already. If you were to walk into my kitchen today, you would see tools and building supplies, I see love and hard work. – Josh Shearer As you walk into the room, you get the feel of a happy room where a lot of fun has taken place. If you look to the right you see a long, antique, dark wood table facing the wall. On the table there are flowers, angels, and other what-nots to give the room a livable feel. Next to that table, there is a corner piece that holds our many trophies.
To the next of our trophy table we have a couch, whose color reminds me of dark chocolate. On each side of the couch there is a Tiffany lamp and behind it there is a window. The window has beautiful beige drapes with crochet outlining. Next to the couch we have another corner table that displays an antique clock. On the wall next to the table sets a love seat matching the couch. Beside that there is a lamp table which is also of the Tiffany collection. Beside that lamp is an old tattered chair that everyone loves. On that wall there are deer heads and a pretty lighthouse picture with a matching wreath.
Finally, there sits another recliner, a gun cabinet, and a curio cabinet. On the walls hang plaques, pictures, and animals. We also have an entertainment center which holds our television. – Leigh Hanle People I notice her off in the distance; I watch her glide ever so gently into my life. She smelled of roses with a face more beautiful than any rose God created. Her smile reflected her golden heart, which would brighten up the darkest hour of night, and eyes that out shine any star. With hands as soft as silk and full of love, she embraced me as we walked into the sunset. – Josh Shearer
The one person I can never seem to forget is my ex-boyfriend, Jonathon. He was a little bit of everything, but most of all he was charming. Even the smell of his aroma was intoxicating. He would sit down and talk to you and you would hear the words, but you would find yourself staring into his enchanting eyes. If you were feeling sad, his hilarious yet weird sense of humor would make you smile. All of these things are what I considered the best and most wonderful qualities in a guy. If I ever find a guy as charming as him again, I’ll be sure to hold on to that one. * Ashley Short
The smooth movements of his body were evidence of his magical power. The soft twinkle of his eye as they met glances was enough to make her heart melt. To anyone else, the smell of the roses he bribed her with would have reeked of likes and deceit. To her, they were as sweet as her grandmother’s fresh baked cookies. On their second encounter, his “accidental” bump was too good to be true; in her eyes a pure act of fad. His deceiving power over her was a charm that someday she would surely regret. – Danielle Hefner This man was the single-greatest person to ever walk the face of the earth.
This person could be recognized by the sweet scent of flowers, his dark hair, and his snow-white gown. The touch by this person is not necessarily a human touch. This touch could be a touch of faith or a miracle. You see this person in portraits and pictures. You may also read about him all the time or should read about him all the time. His presence can be felt when you pray or in a church praising him. The man brings the strongest loving presence ever felt. – Nathan Newberry SAMPLE ILLUSTRATION PARAGRAPHS Great athletes do not reach the top by talent alone but by pushing themselves to the limit and beyond.
For instance, golf legend Tiger Woods keeps striving for perfection. Long after dark—even during tournaments—-he practices at the driving range, hitting ball after ball. Even after winning his first Masters Tournament in 1997, Tiger spent 18 months refining his swing. He even added twenty pounds of muscle to his lean frame with a secret training plan. ** Another example is hard-working tennis star Serena Williams, who practices on the court for hours each day with her sister Venus. Serena builds her speed and strength with yoga, running, weightlifting, and boxing.
By studying videotapes of all her matches, she constantly improves her game. ***Perhaps no player in any sport, however, can match the work ethic of Lance Armstrong. In 1996, this bicycle racer was diagnosed with testicular cancer that had spread to his brain and lungs. After surgery and chemotherapy left him weak and exhausted, Armstrong began a brutal training regimen, following a strict diet and cycling up to six hours a day. His commitment paid off when, in 1999 and every year through 2002, he won the Tour de France, cycling’s toughest race. Like many top athletes, he turned his talent into greatness through sheer hard work.
Many schools in the twenty-first century will look more like elegant shopping malls than like old-fashioned school buildings. The new Carl Sandburg High School in Chicago is just one example. Now being redesigned, the school will feature a main library with the comfortable, open layout of a super-bookstore like Barnes & Noble or Borders. The physical education facilities will include rock-climbing walls and other features now seen in health clubs. Carl Sandburg’s cafeteria will be laid out like a food court, not only giving students more choices, but eliminating the long lunch lines that caused delays in the old high school.
Retailers have learned how to create attractive, practical public spaces, and many modern school planners think it’s time that school officials learned the same lessons. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Aggressive drivers not only are stressed out and dangerous, but often they save no time getting where they want to go. Recently I was driving south from Oakland to San Jose. Traffic was heavy but moving. I noticed an extremely aggressive driver jumping lanes, speeding up and slowing down. Clearly, he was in a hurry. For the most part, I remained in one lane for the entire forty-mile journey. I was listening to a new audiotape and daydreaming.
I enjoyed the trip because driving gives me a chance to be alone. As I was exiting off the freeway, the aggressive driver crowded up behind me and raced on by. Without realizing it, I had arrived in San Jose ahead of him. All his weaving, rapid acceleration, and putting families at risk had earned him nothing except perhaps some high blood pressure and a great deal of wear and tear on his vehicle. NOW Circle the letter of any example that does not clearly illustrate the given topic sentence Example The museum contains many fascinating examples of African art. a. It houses a fine collection of Ashanti fertility dolls. . Drums and shamans costumes are displayed on the second floor. c. It was the home of Frederick Douglass. 1. The International Space Station is designed for efficient use of limited space. a. Food has been dehydrated so it can be stored in tiny packages. b. Special science laboratories onboard are the size of clothes closets. c. Daily life in the space station can be observed by 90 percent of the world’s population. d. Each little “bedroom” can be folded and stored in a single sleeping bag. 2. Today’s global companies sometimes find that their product names and slogans can translate into embarrassing bloopers. . Pepsi’s slogan “Come alive with the Pepsi Generation” didn’t work in Taiwan, where it meant “Pepsi will bring your ancestors back from the dead”. f. When General Motors introduced its Chevy Nova in South America, company officials didn’t realize that no va in Spanish means “it won’t go”. g. In Chinese, the Kentucky Fried Chicken slogan “finger-lickin? good” means “eat your finger off”. h. Nike runs the same ad campaign in several countries, changing the ad slightly to fit each culture. 3. Natural remedies are now widely used to treat common ailments. [diseases] i.
Asthma is more common than ever and has become a serious problem among children. j. Many people take the vitamin niacin to lower high cholesterol. k. Thousand claim that the herb St. John’s Wort lift their depression, without the side effects of antidepressant medications. 4. Some writers use strange tricks to overcome writer’s block and keep their ideas flowing. l. To help himself choose the right word, the German playwright and poet Schiller sniffed rotten apples that he kept inside his kept. m. Benjamin Franklin believed that he had to write in the nude to do his best work, and he often wrote in the bathtub. . Argentinean writer Jorge Luis Borges went blind, but he kept creating brilliant stories packed with learning, philosophy, and magic. o. To inspire herself before she started writing, Dame Edith Sitwell would lie for a while each morning in an open coffin. 5. In the Arizona dessert, one sees many colorful plant and flowers. p. Here and there are patches of pink clover. q. Gray-green saguaro cacti rise up of like giant candelabra. r. Colorful birds dart through the landscape. s. Bright yellow poppies bloom by the road. 6. Many important inventions were rejected when they were first introduced. t.
Chester Carlson was laughed at for his dry copy process, xerography, but it later made him rich and gave a company its name, Xerox. u. The invention of NutraSweet happened accidentally in 1965 when a chemist noticed that a chemical he had spilled tasted sweet. v. When John Holland first invented the submarine in the late 1800s, the Navy saw no use for it and treated him like a kook. 7. The United States offers many unusual tourist attractions for those who venture off the beaten path. w. Visitors to Mitchell, South Dakota, can stop at the Mitchell Corn Palace, a castle covered with murals made of corn, grass, and grain. . One of the most popular tourist stops in the country is the Washington Monument in Washington, D. C. y. Hard-core Elvis fans can visit the Elvis Museum in Pigeon Forge, Tennessee, to see Elvis’s razor, hair dryer, and nasal spray applicator. z. On Route 115 in Colorado, driver can gawk at the World’s Largest Hercules 8. Many months in our calendar take their names from Roman gods or heroes. a. Mars, the Roman war god, gave his name to March. b. January was named for Janus, the god of doorways, whose two faces looked both forward and back. c. August honors Augustus, the first Roman emperor and the second Caesar. d.
December took its name from decem, the Latin word meaning ten”, and was the tenth month in the Roman calendar. NOW CREATE 3 SUPPORTING DETAILS for the following generalizations 1. A few contemporary singers work hard to send a positive message. 2. In a number of ways, this college can make it easy for working students to attend courses. 3. Believing in yourself is 90 % of success. 4. Many teenagers believe they must have expensive designer clothing. 5. Growing up in a large family can teach the value of compromise. 6. Children can say surprising things. 7. Sadly, violent crimes seem more and more common in Puerto Rico.
WORK with a classmate and revise these dull topic sentences and make them more vivid by using sensory description. 1. There were too many people at the convention center. 2. The aroma was tempting. 3. The rain refreshed ourselves. 4. The lighting was frightening. 5. The children were full of energy. 6. The hero was acclaimed by everybody in town. 7. The rebellious girl was angry. 8. The atmosphere was sad. 9. The smell of rotting flesh was disgusting. 10. The creatures were too noisy. 11. The sunset was beautiful. 12. The people were sorry about the pain of the dying beast. HOMEWORK :
Choose 5 of the following topics and write adequate topic sentences 1. Women in military combat 2. Violence portrayed in movies 3. Gun control legislation 4. Abortion rights 5. Bilingual education in our schools 6. Breastfeeding in public places 7. Treating adolescent criminals as adult offenders 8. Homosexual marriage 9. Censorship on the Internet 10. The right of hate groups to freedom of speech REVISING A PARAGRAPH FOR UNITY OMIT THE SENTENCES THAT BREAK THE UNITY IN THE TEXT Many of the dangers of modern life are not out on the highway or in the work place. Instead, dangers n lurk where they are least unexpected at home.
I do not mean the dangers of faulty wiring, cheap ladders, or leaking microwaves. No I have found that trying to keep a clean home can be very hazardous to my health. For one thing, it does not pay to keep a clean kitchen. The oven, for instance, fights back. Whenever I stick my head into the oven greasy interior to spray Easy Off, I end up being choked by a chemical cloud. I am glad I do not live in the city, where I wound have to put up with air pollution as well. When I scrub off the foam, I always break off my nails on the black rock hard globs cemented on the oven door.
Cleaning the refrigerator can be very dangerous too. As I lean down to wipe out the vegetable drawer, the open freezer lies in wait. It knows I must straighten up again, and that I will inevitably band my head on the freezer door. Garbage bags also resist tidiness. When I pull a bag out of the kitchen can, seams split and liquid seeps out onto my shoes. A jagged can lid slices through the bag, ready to slash my legs if I should bump the bag. The only bags that do not rip open, it seems, are the ones that cost a fortune to buy. The living room becomes another danger zone when I attempt to clean.
The light fixtures on the ceiling, for example, resent being taken on for cleaning. They refuse to come loose from the screws that anchor them , then they drop like rocks to the floor. Moving furniture to vacuum the rug underneath causes trouble too. If I drag a heavy armchair across the rug, one of its legs will snap off. If I try to lift one side of the heavy sofa, the vacuum cord will wrap around my ankle and trip me. Moving furniture in general is a lot easier to do when you have someone to help you. Finally, the most dangerous room to clean is the bathroom.
The bathtub will seek revenge if I try to clean it, for instance. It will become so slippery that even a rubber bathmat won t stay put. My particular bathtub has such a curved bottom anyway that it is a hazard to stand in whether it is clean or not. Taking a shower in my clean tub can end up in a disastrous slip. The bathroom floor, too, enjoys a layer of dirt. A clean, waxed floor will attract any stray drops of water in the room in order to turn itself into a slippery skating rink. A job that always leads to danger is cleaning out the medicine cabinet over the sink.
And finding all the missing slivers is impossible no matter how well I clean up. Later, as I pad into the bathroom, a glass splinter will dig itself into my foot. After the experiences I have had in my house. I have decided that keeping a clean house is not as important as I thought. I would rather live with the dust and grime and stay healthy. IMPROVING COHERENCE 1. Chronological order…. time order narration 2. Spatial order [Used in description] Right to left Left to right Top to bottom Bottom to the top 3. Emphatic order………order of importance least…. most psychologically effective
PRACTICE 1 USE NUMBERS TO ORGANIZE THE INFORMATION USING CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER A) ______First, lie on your back with your knees comfortably bent. _____ Next, put your hands at your sides or fold them over your chest. ______ Finally, focus on your abs and do your crunches slowly, three sets of ten each. ______Lift your torso until the shoulder blades leave the floor, and then slowly roll back down. ______The perfect crunch should be done slowly and deliberately, working the whole abdominal wall. B) ______In 1957, The Cat in the Hat made famous both its hat-wearing tomcat … nd its author. ______Before he died in 1991, Seuss inspired millions to love language with such creations as the Grinch… and fox in sox. ______Green Eggs and Ham came out in 1960 and told a memorable story, using only 55 different words. ______In his long career, Theodor Geisel, better known as Dr. Seuss, wrote 46 books, now read all over the world. ______His first book was rejected by 28 publishers, who found it “too strange for children. ” ______In 1937, when it finally was published, readers loved the rhythmic march of tongue- twisting, invented words and the wacky characters. C) ____The judge later deeply regretted his part, but the sorry chapter in American history has never been forgotten. ______Two books “proving” that witches existed, by the famous Puritan ministers Increase Mather and his son Cotton Mather, further fanned the hysteria in 1693. ______The stage was set for the terrible Salem witchcraft trials. ______Nineteen so-called “witches and wizards” were hanged; one was pressed to death. ______In 1692, when two girls in Salem Village, Massachusetts, had fits, they blamed the townspeople for bewitching them. PRACTICE 2 USE NUMBERS TO ORGANIZE THE INFORMATION USING SPATIAL ORDER
A) Describe a firefighter’s uniform bottom to top __fire-retardant pants, called “turnouts” __black, hard plastic helmet with flashlight attached __steel-reinforced black rubber bunker boots __bright yellow, fireproof Kevlar jacket __compressed-air face mask B) Describe a city scene top to bottom ______dented trash cans in the alley ______a bird riding the wind in blue sky ______rusty metal fire escape zigzaging up from the ground ______laundry flapping on a line near the eighth floor ______glimpse of the old wooden rooftop water tower C) Describe a gift. OUTSIDE TO INSIDE ______white rectangular box _____big blue bow ______flannel nightgown with Minnie Mouse design ______white tissue paper, the innermost wrapping ______flowered wrapping paper PRACTICE 3 IDENTIFY ELEMENTS OF COHERENCE A) Underline the repeated words and pronoun replacements that make this paragraph coherent. I have always considered my father a very intelligent person. His intelligence is not the type usually tested in schools: perhaps he would have done well on such tests but the fact is that he never finished high school. Rather, my father’s intelligence is his ability to solve problems creatively as they arise.
Once when I was very young, we were driving through the desert at night when the oil line broke. My father improvised a light, squeezed under the car, found the break, and managed to whittle a connection to join the two severed pieces of tubing; then he added more oil and drove us over a hundred miles to the nearest town. Such intelligent solutions to unforeseen problems were typical of him. In fact, my father’s brand of brains-accurate insight, followed by creative action-is the kind of intelligence that I admire and most aspire to. B) Underline the repeated words and pronoun replacements that make this paragraph coherent. 1)The blues is the one truly American music. (2) Born in the Mississippi Delta, this twelve-bar cry of anguish found its durable, classic form in the searing soliloquies of poor black men and women who used it to ventilate all the aches and pains of their condition—the great Bessie Smith, Robert Johnson, Ma Rainey, Lightnin? Hospkins and Son House, Mississippi John Hurt, John Lee Hooker and Blind Lemon Jefferson. (3) And, ever since, the blues has served as the wellspring of every major movement in this country? s popular music. C) Underline TIME TRANSITIONS 1) In the annals, of great escapes, the flight by seventeen-year-old Lester Moreno Perez from Cuba to the United States surely must rank as one of the most imaginative. (2) At 8:30 on the night of Thursday, March 1, Lester crept along the beach in Varadero, a resort town on the north coast of Cuba. (3) Working quickly, he launched his sailboard—a surfboard equipped with a movable sail—into the shark-haunted waters off the Straits of Florida. (4) At first guided by the stars and later by the hazy glow from electric lights in towns beyond the horizon, Lester sailed with 20-knot winds toward the Florida Keys, 90 miles away. 5) All night he balanced on the small board, steering through black waters. (6) Just past daybreak on Friday, Lester was sighted 30 miles south of Key West by the Korean crew of the freighter Tina D. (7) The boom on his tiny craft was broken. (8) The astonished sailors pulled him aboard, fed him chicken and rice, and finally radioed the U. S. Coast Guard. D) Underline the repeated words and pronoun replacements that make this paragraph coherent. (1)Mrs. Zajac seemed to have a frightening amount of energy. (2) She strode across the room, her arms swinging high and her hands in small fists. 3) Taking her stand in front of the green chalkboard, discussing the rules with her new class, she repeated sentences, and her lips held the shapes of certain words, such as “homework”, after she had said them. (4) Her hands kept very busy. (5) They sliced the air and made karate chops to mark off boundaries. (6) They extended straight out like a traffic cop’s, halting illegal maneuvers yet to be perpetrated. (7) When they rested momentarily on her hips, her hands looked as if they were in holsters. (8) She told the children, “One thing Mrs.
Zajac expects from each of you is that you do your best. ” (9) She said, “Mrs. Zajac gives homework. ” (10) I’m sure you’ve all heard. (11) The old meanie gives homework. ” (12) It was in part a role. (13) She worked her way into it every September. PRACTICE 4 ADD ELEMENTS OF COHERENCE A) PROVIDE appropriate synonyms or substitutions for the boldfaced words. Christopher Reeve’s story includes an extraordinary twist of fate. This star played Superman, the comic book character who inspired fans with his ability to overcome obstacles and save others from harm.
How ironic that this (1)____________was paralyzed from the neck down in a horse-jumping accident in 1995 and came to personify that kind of human perseverance himself. Before his accident, Reeve was not only a/an_(2)____________but a pianist, an athlete who performed his own film stunts, a pilot, and an all-round outdoorsman. On June 1, 1995, during an equestrian competition, (3)__________ was thrown from his horse and landed on his head, breaking his neck. From then on, he lived depending on a ventilator to breathe and operated his wheelchair by sipping or puffing on a straw.
In spite of his accident, this (4)____________ directed and narrated award-winning films, wrote the best-selling autobiography Still Me, and inspired thousands of people through speeches and interviews. He also raised millions of dollars for research on spinal cord injuries. Indeed, Christopher Reeve became a (5)_____________of a different kind; his heroism depended not on his physical strength but on courage, optimism, and a sense of purpose. He died of a heart attack on October 10th, 2004 in Mount Kisco, New York. B) Add transitional expressions to this essay to guide the reader smoothly throughout the text.
Consider the relationships between sentences indicated by the words in parentheses. Then ADD the transitional word or phrase that best expresses this relationship. USE the list provided by the professor. Oldest Child, Youngest Child—Does It Matter? A number of studies show that birth order—whether a person is the firstborn, middle, or last-born child in the family—can affect both personality and career choice. A__________(ILLUSTRATION), first-borns carry the weight of their parent’s expectations and ______________ (TIME) are urged to be responsible and set a good example for their younger siblings. ____________(RESULT) they may develop leadership skills and a strong motivation to achieve. Many eldest children ____________(TIME) become leaders. High percentages of U. S. presidents and CEOs, ________________ (ILLUSTRATION) are first-borns. Middle children, _____________, (CONTRAST) get less attention and applause in childhood. ______________, (RESULT) they tend to become flexible and good at resolving conflicts. ______________(ADDITION) , some middle children become rebellious or creative as they make their place in the world. _____________, (TIME) many choose careers as entrepreneurs, negotiators, or business people. ______________ (ADDITION) , later-born or last-born children, in order to compete with their older siblings, may become rule breakers or family clowns. Professionally, babies of the family tend to become musicians, adventurers, and comedians. _________________, (CONCEDING A POINT) there are countless exceptions to these general trends, ________________, (CONTRAST) it is interesting to ponder the evidence that our birth order _______________ (EMPHASIS) helps shape who are. Transition and Connection Words and Phrases Transitional Words Showing Spatial Order: above, across, adjacent, alongside, around, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, by, in front of, in the middle, opposite, throughout, under upon, within * Transitional Words Showing Time, Place, and Chronological Order: first, meanwhile, next, second, later, presently, finally, eventually, opposite to, sooner or later, adjacent to, in the beginning, then, prior, prior to, here, before, during nearby, following, at length, at the point, afterward, at the end, soon, now, moments later, in the meantime, at the moment, formerly, at last * Transitional Words Showing Order of Importance: first, in the first place, a second factor, equally important, furthermore, of major concern, of minor concern, best of all, finally, least important, most important * Transitional Words that Compare / Contrast: equality, similarity, the same, in the same way, just as, likewise, in the manner, however, on the other hand, despite, otherwise, but, yet, conversely, on the contrary, unlike, nevertheless * Transitional Words that Show Cause and Effect: affect, as a result, because, causes, consequently, then, effect, results, therefore, why, so, thus * Transitional Words that Add Ideas to Previously Stated Ideas: moreover, furthermore, besides, equally important, and, and then, in the same fashion, further, likewise, too, not, again, in addition, also * Transitional Words That Illustrate or Sum Up an Idea: for example, in any event, in brief, in other words, as I have said, in short, to sum up, for instance, in any case, on the whole, in fact, as a result, in particular, namely, also. * Transitional Words for Conceding a Point: granted that, no doubt, to be sure * Transitional Words for Paraphrasing or Summarization: in other words, to conclude, to sum up * Transitional Words that Draw a Logical Conclusion: accordingly, consequently, as a result, hence *
Transitional Words Used as Diversion: by the way, incidentally * Transitional Words Showing Emphasis: above all, chiefly, with attention to, especially, particularly, singularly * Transitional Words for Generalization: as a rule, as usual, for the most part, generally, generally speaking, ordinarily, usually Using -ed / -ing adjectives to describe feeling and things Many English adjectives of emotion/feeling are formed from the -ed / -ing forms of verbs: -ing/ed adjectives This grammar point is something that many students find confusing – the difference between adjectives ending in –ed or –ing! The main thing to remember is this: adjectives with –ing are the cause of the feeling/situation and adjectives with –ed are the feelings of the person/animal affected For example: “This is a boring movie. ” (cause) “I’m very bored. ” (feeling) RELAX 1.
I love listening to ___ music at home. BORE 2. I was very ___ in class yesterday. CHALLENGE 3. That test was very ___. EXCITE 4. Action movies are ___. ENTERTAIN 5. My friend was ___ when she watched the show. DISAPPOINT6. I’m very ___ with my results. STARTLE 7. I read some ___ statistics recently. AMAZE8. I saw an ___ concert recently. FRUSTRATE9. I’m so ___ his stupid attitude! INTEREST 10. English is a very ___ language! | | | | FRUSTRATE | 11. Grammar are not logical. They are so __________. | | | BORE| 112. They frustrate me but they don’t bore me. I am never __________when I study grammar. | | | BORE | 13. 13. Sometimes philosophy bores me. And I’m not the only one.
Many students find this class very __________. | | | Positive Feelings Verb form| -ed Adjective| -ing Adjective | Noun form| You ____ me! | I’m _____! | How _____! | What _____! | amaze| amazed| amazing| amazement| amuse| amused| amusing| amusement| astound| astounded| astounding| astonishment| bewitch| bewitched| bewitching| bewitchment| captivate| captivated| captivating| a captivation| challenge| challenged| challenging| a challenge| charm| charmed| charming| charm| comfort| comforted| comforting| comfort| concern| concerned| concerning| concern| convince| convinced| convincing| conviction| encourage| encouraged| encouraging| encouragement| nchant| enchanted| enchanting| enchantment| energize| energized| energizing| energy| entertain| entertained| entertaining| entertainment| enthrall| enthralled| enthralling| enthrallment| excite| excited| exciting| excitement| exhaust| exhausted| exhausting| exhaustion| fascinate| fascinated| fascinating| fascination| flatter| flattered| flattering| flattery| fulfill| fulfilled| fulfilling| fulfillment| gratify| gratified| gratifying| gratification| gratify| gratified| gratifying| gratification| humiliate| humiliated| humiliating| humiliation| interest| interested| interesting| interest| intrigue| intrigued| intriguing| intrigue| move| moved| moving| | lease| pleased| pleasing (pleasant)| a pleasure| relax| relaxed| relaxing| relaxation| relieve| relieved| relieving| a relief| satisfy| satisfied| satisfying| satisfaction| soothe| soothed| soothing| | surprise| surprised| surprising| a surprise| tempt| tempted| tempting| temptation| touch| touched| touching| | thrill| thrilled| thrilling| a thrill| titilate| titilated| titilating| titilation| Negative Feelings Verb form| -ed Adjective| -ing Adjective | Noun form| | | | | You ____ me! | I’m _____! | How _____! | What _____! | aggravate| aggravated| aggravating| aggravation| alarm| alarmed| alarming| alarm| annoy| annoyed| annoying| annoyance| ewilder| bewildered| bewildering| bewilderment| bore| bored| boring| boredom| confound| confounded| confounding| | confuse| confused| confusing| confusion| depress| depressed| depressing| depression| devastate| devastated| devastating| devastation| disappoint| disappointed| disappointing| disappointment| discourage| discouraged| discouraging| discouragement| disgust| disgusted| disgusting| disgust| dishearten| disheartened| disheartening| disheartenment| dismay| dismayed| dismaying| dismay| displease| displeased| displeasing| displeasure| distress| distressed| distressing| distress| disturb| disturbed| disturbing| disturbance| embarrass| embarrassed| embarrassing| embarrassment| xasperate| exasperated| exasperating| exasperation| fatigue| fatigued| fatiguing| fatigue| frighten| frightened| frightening| fright| frustrate| frustrated| frustrating| frustration| horrify| horrified| horrifying| horror| insult| insulted| insulting| an insult| irritate| irritated| irritating| irritation| mortify| mortified| mortifying| mortification| mystify| mystified| mystifying| mystification| overwhelm| overwhelmed| overwhelming| overwhelmingness| perplex| perplexed| perplexing| perplexity| perturb| perturbed| perturbing| perturbation| puzzle| puzzled| puzzling| puzzlement| shock| shocked| shocking| a shock| sicken| sickened| sickening| sickness| terrify| terrified| terrifying| terror| hreaten| threatened| threatening| a threat| tire| tired| tiring| tiredness| trouble| troubled| troubling| trouble| unnerve| unnerved| unnerving| | unsettle| unsettled| unsettling| unsettledness| upset| upset| upsetting| | vex| vexed (vext)| vexing| vexation| Parallel Structure EXAMPLES OF PARALLEL STRUCTURE A) Opening lines of the novel A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, e had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way… B) Fragment of the poem “If” by Rudyard Kipling| If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue, Or walk with kings–nor lose the common touch, If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you; If all men count with you, but none too much, If you can fill the unforgiving minute With sixty seconds’ worth of distance run, Yours is the Earth and everything that’s in it, And–which is more–you’ll be a Man, my son! | When a structure consists of two or more parts, those parts should be parallel (similar in form). Example: I like skiing and skating.
In the above example, the two objects of the verb like are skiing and skating. Notice how they are parallel (or similar) in form. It would sound very awkward to say I like skiing and to skate or I like to ski and skating. These structures sound awkward because they are not parallel. It is common for students to make errors in parallel structure with items in a series. Examples: (a) Gerry and his wife have lived in France, Italy, and in Switzerland. This series is not parallel. There are two ways to correct the error: Gerry and his wife have lived in France, Italy, and Switzerland. (A series of three nouns sharing the preposition in) Gerry and his wife have lived in France, in Italy, and in Switzerland. A series of three prepositional phrases) (b) I love to dance, to read, and watch movies. Again, the series is not parallel; there are two ways to correct the error: I love to dance, read, and watch movies. (A series of three verbs sharing the word to) I love to dance, to read, and to watch movies. (A series of three infinitives) (c) Sue has trouble doing algebra, physics, and understanding grammar. Again, there are two ways to correct this non-parallel structure: Sue has trouble doing algebra, learning physics, and understanding grammar. (A series of ing word groups) Sue has trouble with algebra, physics, and grammar. (A series of nouns sharing the preposition with)
It is important also to use parallel structure with coordinating conjunctions [FAN BOYS] as well as with correlative conjunctions. Correlative conjunctions are two-part conjunctions: both . . . and . . . either . . . or . . . neither . . . nor . . . not only . . . but also whether . . . or Examples: I like both skiing and skating. (Two ing words) We will travel either by car or by bus. (Two prepositional phrases) Many people in the world can neither read nor write. (Two main verbs sharing the helper can) The boys have not only cut the grass but also weeded the garden. (Two main verbs sharing the helper have) I can’t decide whether to read a book or to watch television. (Two infinitive word groups) PRACTICE EXERCISES
I Underline and identify the parallel structures in the following sentences. 1. After the game ended, the audience applauded, screamed and cheered. 2. When I visited grandma, she always gave me some drawing paper some crayons and a coloring book to entertain myself. 3. Jerry really loves to eat cheese, to take naps and to tease Tom. 4. I was disturbed by his constant whistling, muttering and cursing. 5. You will find the museum at the end of the boulevard, next to the shopping center. 6. The Administrative Board discussed how much the parking would cost and when it would be finished. 7. Summertime in Puerto Rico is usually a very hot and pretty dry season. 8. The old lady walked slowly and elegantly. 9.
If you work hard and if we save enough money, we will be able to afford a vacation this year. 10. During the field trip to El Yunque, one of the boys got lost and one of the girls tore her blouse. 11. Sara really enjoys to go swimming and to go surfing in Rincon. 12. Jesus said: ”Blessed are the merciful, for they will be shown mercy, Blessed are the pure in heart, for they will see God. ” II Correct the errors in faulty parallelism 1. The car started to sputter, to spurt oil and a black cloud came out of it. 2. My friends like to party, to tell jokes and going to the beach is something they also enjoy. 3. When I was a little girl, I read a lot, I also liked to play board games. 4.
The thief jumped over the fence, hit the policeman and then he started his car and escaped. 5. Waves are described in terms of their height, wave length and something of great importance is the period. 6. The model walked swiftly and she was full of glamour. 7. You may borrow my notes, make photocopies, or you may keep them if you want to. 8. You should not forget who you are and the reasons you began studying medicine. 9. She looked for her lost wallet inside all the drawers, under the furniture and she also opened the car trunk to check if it was there. 10. Theresa has finished a BA in business administration, an MA in computer programming and she would also like to finish a PhD in marketing.
III Correct any errors in parallel structure in the following sentences. Two of the sentences are correct. 1. David has neither done the dishes nor has he made his bed. 2. Janet hopes to finish college, get a job, and to find her own apartment. 3. To learn proper grammar and writing effectively are my goals. 4. I plan to travel this summer either in Europe or Central America. 5. The suspect has sold his house, packed his belongings, and has left town. 6. Greg can’t decide whether to enroll in Social Services or to choose General Arts. 7. He is both tired from jet lag, and he is irritated by the long line-ups. 8. Mr. Ames will write the report, proofread it, and mail it before tomorrow. 9.
That student is studying English, psychology, and is taking two computer courses as well. 10. Not only are we paying for our daughter’s wedding but also for the honeymoon. IV Correct any errors in parallel structure in the following sentences. 1. The shape of the rock, how big it was, and its color reminded me of a small elephant. 2. Chia, my dog, is overweight and moves clumsily. 3. Your job consists of arranging the books, cataloguing new arrivals, and the pamphlets have to be alphabetized. 4. A thin film of frost coated the trees. The hedges and shrubs had it also. 5. He is an affectionate husband, a thoughtful son, and kind to his kids. 6.
He is a poet of great talent and who is insightful. 7. Every afternoon in the mountains, it either rains or there is hail. 8. His writing reveals not only intelligence but also it is humorous. 9. Marvin was happy to win the bowling tournament, and he also felt surprised. V Correct any errors in parallel structure in the following sentences. 1. Teresa is a gifted woman- a chemist, does the carpentry, and she can cook. 2. The shape of the rock, how big it was, and its color reminded me of a turtle. 3. He is an affectionate husband, a thoughtful son, and kind to his kids. 4. Marvin was happy to win the chess tournament and he also felt surprised. 5. Dr.
Tien is the kindest physician I know; she has the most concern of any physician I know. 6. Joe would rather work on a farm than spending time in an office. 7. Every afternoon in the mountains, it either rains or there is hail. 8. Sesame Street teaches children nursery rhymes, songs, how to be courteous and being kind. 9. Alexis would rather give orders than taking them. 10. His writing reveals not only intelligence but also it is humorous. VI Complete the sentences adding parallel ideas 1. When he was twenty, he worked seven days a week in a fruit store;________________________________________________. 2. The child in me wants to run away from problems;_____________________________________________. 3.
The home team charged enthusiastically onto the field;________________________________________________________. 4. “Work hard and keep your mouth shut’ is my mother’s formula for success; 5. “Work hard and consistently” is my father’s; _____________________________________________________ is mine. VII The following paragraphs contain both correct and faulty parallel structures. Revise the faulty parallelism. 1 During World War II, the United States Marines who fought in the Pacific possessed a powerful weapon that was also unbeatable: Navaho Code Talkers. 2 Creating a secret code, Code Talkers sent and were translating vital military information. 3 Four hundred twenty Navahos memorized the code, and it was used by them. It consisted of both common Navaho words and there were also about 400 invented words. 5 For example, Code Talkers used the Navaho words for owl, chicken hawk. and swallow to describe different kinds of aircraft. 6 Because Navaho is a complex and uncommon language , the Japanese military could not break the code. 7 Although Code Talkers helped the Allied Forces win the war, their efforts were not publicly recognized until the code was declassified in 1968. 8 On August 14, 1982, the first Navaho Code Talkers Day honored these heroes, who not only had risked their lives but also had developed one of the few unbroken codes in history. VAN GOGH ] Vincent Van Gogh sold only one painting in his lifetime, but his oil paintings later influenced modern art and establishing him as one of the greatest artists of all time. 2] Born in Holland in 1853, Van Gogh struggled to find an inspiring career. 3] After failing as a tutor and being a clergyman, he began to paint. 4] Van Gogh’s younger brother Theo supported him with money and sending art supplies. 5] Eventually, Van Gogh went to live with Theo in Paris, where the young artist was introduced to Impressionism, a style of painting that emphasizes light at different times of day. 6] Using vivid colors and also with broad brush strokes, Van Gogh made powerful pictures full of feeling. 7]His favorite subjects were landscapes, still lifes, sunflowers, and drawing everyday people. ] Perhaps his most famous picture, “Starry Night,” shows a wild night sky over a French village, with the moon and stars swirling in fiery circles. 8]When mental illness or feeling depressed clouded Van Gogh’s spirit, Theo gently and firmly urged him to keep on painting. 9]Gradually, however, the penniless Van Gogh sank into insanity and feeling despair. 10] “Cornfield with Crows,” completed shortly before his death, shows a darkening sky spattered black with crows. 11] Van Gogh committed suicide in 1890; his devoted brother died six months later. 12] Theo’s widow Johanna took the paintings back to Holland and working hard to get recognition for her brother-in-law? s genius. 3] Thanks to Theo’s encouragement during Vincent’s lifetime and Johanna who made efforts after his death, the dynamic paintings of Van Gogh today are admired, studied, and receive love all over the world. HOMONYMSlose:| to misplace something How can you lose your wallet? | loose:| not tight, to set free We let the dog loose during the day. | have:| a verb meaning to possess They have eight children. | | Caution: don’t contract have to of as in “This might of worked. ” It should be, “This might have worked,” or “This might’ve worked. ” | | | | | there:| (1) indicates direction: The dog is over there. (2) subject: There are five cookies left. | their:| shows possession: That is their new home. | hey’re:| contraction of they are: They’re going to be late. | | | | | | | were:| verb: The twins were tired. | where:| direction or place: Where did I leave my glasses? | weather whether whose:| Refers to climateRefers to optionsshows possession: Whose dirty shoes are on the carpet? | who’s:| contraction of who is: Who’s coming for supper? | your:| shows possession: Those are your dirty shoes. | you’re:| contraction of you are: You’re always late for supper. | Practice Exercise on homonyms Read each sentence and fill in the blank with the correct word. 1. Some students are going to the races this evening. (Their/ There/They’re) __________________ going to have fun. 2.
The students parked ______________(their/there/they’re) cars near the racing area. 3. (Their/ There/ They’re) ___________many cars parked in that area. It is crowded! 4. (Who’s, Whose) __________________ car is parked in the driveway? 5. The students __________(were/where) happy to see old friends at the racing event. 6. Some students got late to (their/there/they’re) __________ homes because they forgot__________ were/where) they had parked (their/there/they’re) ____________cars. 7. I do not know (weather/whether)______stay home or go to the movies. 8. The (weather/whether)______is certainly perfect for going on a picnic today! SUBJECT VERB AGREEMENT Subject-Verb Agreement
Basic Principle: Singular subjects which have the verb TO BE in the predicate or which are expressed in any Present Tense need to add an S to the verbs. Plural subjects do not need to add anything!!! A) INDEFINITE PRONOUNS Some indefinite pronouns — such as all, some — are singular or plural depending on what they’re referring to. (Is the thing referred to countable or not? ) Be careful choosing a verb to accompany such pronouns. Some of the beads are missing. Some of the water is gone. On the other hand, there is one indefinite pronoun, none, that can be either singular or plural; it often doesn’t matter whether you use a singular or a plural verb — unless something else in the sentence determines its number. Writers generally think of none as meaning not any and will choose a plural verb, as in “None of the engines are working,” but when something else makes us regard none as meaning not one, we want a singular verb, as in “None of the food is fresh. “) None of you claims responsibility for this incident? None of you claim responsibility for this incident? None of the students have done their homework. (In this last example, the word their hints the use of the verb with no S. ) Some indefinite pronouns are particularly troublesome Everyone and everybody (listed above, also) certainly feel like more than one person and, therefore, students are sometimes tempted to use a plural verb with them. They are always singular, though.
Each is often followed by a prepositional phrase ending in a plural word (Each of the cars), thus confusing the verb choice. Each, too, is always singular and requires a singular verb. Everyone has finished his or her homework. You would always say, “Everybody is here. ” This means that the word is singular and nothing will change that. Each of the students is responsible for doing his or her work in the library. Don’t let the word “students” confuse you; the subject is each and each is always singular — Each is responsible. The conjunction or does not conjoin (as and does): when nor or or is used the subject closer to the verb determines the number of the verb.
Whether the subject comes before or after the verb doesn’t matter; the proximity determines the number. Either my father or my brothers are going to sell the house. Neither my brothers nor my father is going to sell the house. Are either my brothers or my father responsible? Is either my father or my brothers responsible? Because a sentence like “Neither my brothers nor my father is going to se