This essay contains the contrast between the Greek histrion and Jacque Copeau ‘s theater attacks. This contrast is brought about by concentrating on three chief similarities in the plant of both periods and contrasting each one. The three key similarities are ( 1 ) the chorus, ( 2 ) the mask, and ( 3 ) the relationship between the histrion and the witness. The consequences of my assignment can be listed as follows: the development of the chorus, the different attacks of the mask over clip and eventually the uninterrupted relationship between histrion and witness is brought out. These three chief facets are to be the concluding consequences of my assignment.
In the two theater worlds, that of the Greeks and that of the 20th century of Jacque Copeau one can see that the Greek theater has been a solid foundation for the theaters that came after it. This is apparent in Jacque Copeau ‘s work as he ever strived to travel back to the beginning theater attacks, that is, of the Greeks:
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‘He dreamed of the possibility that theater might recover the socially consolidative and spiritually regenerative power that he believed it one time possessed during the Grecian period of theatre history such as that of ancient Greece ‘ ( Evans 2006: 75 ) .
hence, this is the purpose of my assignment, to indicate out three chief similarities between the Greek theater and that of Copeau.
The first cardinal similarity I will be discoursing is the Chorus. Harmonizing to Copeau the ‘chorus is the mother-cell of all dramatic poesy ‘ ( copeau in Paul 1987: 582 ) . Copeau ‘s liking towards the chorus came from the motion of Gallic literature known as ‘unanisme ‘ , this emphasised the societal over the single and searched for an environment where theater had the thought of a community based on theoretical accounts stated by copeau. One of the theoretical accounts was that of the Grecian chorus or Le choeur, which was made up of a figure of performing artists moving in an organized integrity within a common political, moral, societal and spiritual models ( Evans 2006:50-51 ) . Therefore, Copeau found the importance of the Chorus on the phase. In the Tulane Drama Review of 1963, Jacques Copeau and Leonards C.pronko explained the Grecian chorus as musical, really good trained, attentive to the flute that leads it, expressed through, dance, vocal, and declamation & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.jstor.org/stable/1125025 & gt ;
By stating this, one can see how Copeau looked a batch at the Greek theater in order to turn out his ain. The chorus has many maps in Grecian play. First of wholly, it sets out the ethical or societal models of the events, secondly, it is a function in the drama which gives advice, sentiments and asks inquiries. Third, it sometimes plays the function of an audience by responding to the public presentation in a manner the dramatist would hold wanted the audience to respond, fourthly, it contributes to put the temper of the drama, it besides increases motion and musicalness and it besides has a rhythmical map. ( Brockett and Hildy 2003: 23 ) . Therefore Copeau uses this peculiar attack of holding a chorus merely as the Greeks did.
The 2nd cardinal similarity is the usage of the mask in the two periods. The figure of histrions on phase in Greek theater could non transcend more than three histrions. When more than three histrions where needed in a drama, there came about the usage of masks, which were used as a agency of camouflage and more functions could be played. Masks were a major component in the Greek dramas. Masks in Greece were non merely used as a signifier of camouflage but besides for vocal consequence, as the masks may hold increased the sound of the voices of the histrions. Another usage of masks was to lend to the word picture, in a manner that characters could be exaggerated and easy to state apart. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.mask-and-more-masks.com/greek-theatrical-masks.html & gt ; in add-on another thought of the mask is that it may hold given the histrion a kind of catholicity so that the audience would judge the histrion for his actions and non for his visual aspect. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.greektheatre.gr/greek_theater_masks.html & gt ; . The usage of the Mask kept on being used particularly from the 19th century onwards. The fact that the usage of the mask kept on being re-emerged shows that ‘ the mask exteriorises a deep facet of life, and in so making, it helps rediscover inherent aptitude ‘ ( Barrault 1961: 76-77 ) . Copeau besides made usage of the mask. ‘ in copeau ‘s theater the mask could run holistically instead than politically ‘ ( Evans 2006:70 ) this means that due to the mask the histrion ‘s organic structure is released and combing the organic structure and will together, in order to hold self-generated physical expression. ‘ copeau ‘s captivation with both the yesteryear and the hereafter is absolutely encapsulated by the mask- it embodies the penetrations of a distant but critical yesteryear and is encapsulated by the mask- it embodies the penetrations of a distant but critical yesteryear and is at the same clip forever of the present, fictile and complex, representative of the dichotomy and complexness of the human nature which it is closely linked ‘ . Copeau goes beyond with the thought of the Mask, for him the mask was non merely a agency to hold more functions in a drama or to increase voice as the Greek. Copeau came up with a mask, known as the Neutral Mask. This mask groups together many of his techniques in learning. The purpose of the Neutral Mask is to ‘depersonalise ‘ the pupil histrion ‘ depriving off the idiosyncratic motion or behavior that is “ you ” ` ( Eldredge 1996:50 ) . Due to the impersonal mask the pupil is separated from the universe and from any ‘ noncritical credence of their psychophysical slef ‘ ( Evans 2006: 73 ) . due to this they are so able to re-make themselves harmonizing to their character ( function ) . ‘ the histrion would hold to be stripped every bit bare as the phase ; merely so could he show himself clearly and merely ‘ ( Eldgredge and Huston 1995: 121 ) . The intent of this mask is to take from the pupil the demand to move and set them in a place of ‘ understanding based on simple physical battle with the universe around them ‘ ( Evans 2006: 74 ) . Therefore the natural mask or sometimes besides referred to as the baronial mask, aims to ‘ ticket a new simpler genuineness in the pupils ‘ moving ` ( evans 2006: 74 )
Copeau in his work invariably refused to measure the theater of the hereafter: ‘ there is no play of the hereafter. Drama is basically a fact of the present, a modern-day phenomenon, a proposition whose destiny depends on the response and the response given to it ‘ ( copeaus 1990: 188 ) . Having said this copeau ever had a yearning to follow the great period of theatre history, that being of the Ancient Greeks, in fact he made strenuous attempts in his plants to be similar to that of the Greeks. This uninterrupted attempt of desiring to follow the same techniques as the Greeks is apparent in copeau ‘s theatrical production where he continuously wanted to make a profound relationship between the histrion and the witness. Copeau admired this in the popular theaters of the yesteryear as harmonizing to copeau they ‘touched on the very nature of human being ‘ .
The Grecian phase was made in such a manner that the histrion and witness where both on the same degree. The Grecian theater had no apron arch, a frame around the phase to divide the fiction of on the phase from the audience. the histrion and witness where 1 with each other, where the witness could experience portion of the action traveling on, on the phase by take parting along with the histrions. ( McConachie 2006: 94 ) this is what copeau wanted in his theater. A theater that will talk to everyone. This demand that copeau had for holding a histrion and witness relationship was driven from three of import personal strong beliefs of copeau. These where: the theater as one, his hankering to blend the bosom of fuss the performing artist and the witness and his great love towards the theater of the yesteryear, that is the Grecian theater. In copeau ‘s first production of ‘ Les Fourberies ‘ in 1917, the phase was left ‘ simple, gray and empty ‘ ( Evanss 2006: 75 ) , holding a little platform placed in the Centre of the phase. the apron arch was opened up, leting the phase infinite to link more straight with the audience. the purpose of holding a empty phase and a platform was to give importance to the histrion and to foreground his presence. However, on the other manus this was non the instance in Greek theater as the histrion of the Greek theater was non given much differentiation with the witness as there was no platform he stood on to foreground his presence, he was on the same degree with the audience. in add-on to go on the deficiency of differentiation given to the histrion from the audience in Greek theater is that both histrion and witness went in and out from common entrywaies and issues, therefore, stressing more the unity with histrion and witness. Traveling back to copeau and his bare phase, for him ‘ the phase is already action it gives material signifier to the action ‘ ) copeau in knapp 1988:208 ) . Having barely any props and excessive theatrical production, copeau ‘s histrion was to do usage of his accomplishments more as to do up for the deficiency of props and excessive theatrical production ( evans 2006: 74-75 ) . The histrion had ‘ to cite up non merely the semblance of character, but besides of topographic point, clip and atmosphere. ‘ ( Evanss 2006: 75 ) .
This essay has compared three chief key points which where the chorus, the mask and the relationship between histrion and witness taken from two different attacks in two different periods, the Grecian period and the 20th century harmonizing to Jacques copeau. These three chief similarities between the two periods have been identified, explored, discussed and have been seen from two different point of positions.