The paper trades with the latest tendencies in “ Green Technology ” with a specific importance to automotive & A ; air power engine developments to cut down or in some instances wholly nullify harmful emanations. The latest developments such as biofuel, H fuel cell & A ; intercrossed engine developments have been discussed.
Introduction to improved engine designs in autos and some of the more eco friendly options in automotive and air power have been discussed. Some of the engineerings that have been implemented in modern eco friendly autos have besides been discussed.
Bio-diesel, compressed air, H etc are fast going the most sought after engineerings in footings of ecological engine designs. The best thing about these engine designs is that they run on fuel that is renewable and do small injury to the environment in footings of pollution as compared to petrol and other non renewable beginnings.
BIO FUEL BASED ENGINES:
Biodiesel is made from 100 % renewable vegetable oil and from waste oil beginnings. Vehicles can be made to run about wholly on biodiesel. Biodiesel can be used as a feasible beginning for replacing crude oil. Biodiesel engine is nil but a conventional Diesel engine.
Fig1. Biodiesel & A ; Environment rhythm
DIESEL TO BIODIESEL:
The solution to Diesel is surely non petrol or gasoline. Biodiesel autos have become such popular picks with people who think about and care for the environment and the hereafter of world. Biodiesel engines are fundamentally diesel engines. We can blend Diesel and biodiesel to some extent and utilize them as an surrogate nevertheless, if we want to exchange over to biodiesel wholly, there are some minor alterations to be made in the engine. Biodiesel degrades articles made of natural gum elastic. Hence before exchanging to biodiesel we should replace the gum elastic parts with polymers like FKM. Biodiesel has a inclination to lodge together in cold conditions hence we use a warmer to preheat the oil. Using a mixture of bio-fuel for a long clip may eat the engine ‘s oil filters. Hence there is a demand to constantly alter the oil filters.
Recent IMPLEMENTATIONS OF BIOFUELS:
Biofuels are being implemented throughout the universe in a assortment of Fieldss from biofuel powered trucks to airplanes. Besides the cost of biofuel is less compared to conventional fuels, merely under $ 1 per litre and its processing is really easy with added eco friendly advantages. Some recent executions of this engineering are as follows.
MCDONALD ‘S BIODIESEL:
McDonald ‘s, the universe renowned fast nutrient eating house is utilizing the biodiesel made from 85 per centum McDonald ‘s waste lubricating oil and 15 % pure canola oil. McDonald ‘s claims to utilize 6.1 million litres of its used oil as bio-fuel which has a capacity to salvage nearly1625 tones of C every twelvemonth.
Fig ( I ) A McDonald ‘s Biodiesel truck.
VIRGIN ATLANTIC JUMBO JET TEST FLIGHT Virgin Atlantic late carried out a trial flight on a elephantine jet to the full powered by bio-fuel to demo it can bring forth much less C than other companies. The jet flew from Amsterdam to London. Environmentalists and scientists praised the company for its accomplishment. However some critics blamed that it was merely a promotion stunt. Although it is a courageous new measure it may non come into usage until a much farther day of the month.
BIOBIKE, A BIODIESEL MOTORCYCLE MADE IN AUSTRALIA, GETS OVER 100 MPG
Fig2. The Bio-Bike
The Yan-mar 400cc Bio-Bike developed by an Australian crew to vie in The World solar motorcycle Challenge. The motorcycle has proven its effectivity on the field and its utilizations a CVT transmittal. Although there are no programs to present the motorcycle commercially there are negotiations of constructing them.
COMPRESSED AIR ENGINES ;
Angelo di Pietro foremost found the air engine construct in 2004.It green goodss high torsion when compared to most other air engines doing it more suited and efficient for nomadic applications. It is really rather with high torsion with merely 1 PSI force per unit area needed for it to get down. This innovation has the possible to bring forth emanation free conveyance.
Working OF AIR ENGINE:
Fig.3 Di Pietro rotary pneumatic engine.
The infinite between stator and rotor is subdivided into six enlargement Chamberss. These splitters follow the gesture of the shaft driver as it rolls around the stator wall. The cylindrical shaft moves due to the force per unit area of the air eccentrically, thereby driving the motor shaft by agencies of two turn overing elements mounted on bearings on the shaft. The turn overing gesture of the shaft is cushioned by the air movie. The timing of the operations of the motors is governed by detectors mounted on the exterior of the thrust shaft. Motor velocity is merely controlled by increasing or diminishing the air velocity. It has soft start capablenesss and high torsion at zero RPM.
COMPRESSED AIR CAR Model:
One CAT ( Compressed Air Technology ) is an upcoming compressed air auto. India ‘s Tata Motors is join forcesing with Air engine developer Guy Niger of MDI to bring forth the vehicle. The vehicle contains air armored combat vehicles that can be filled in four hours by stop uping the auto into a standard electrical stopper. The easiness of refueling and production of tight air make these a suited option for an environmental friendly hereafter. Compressed air engines cut down the cost of vehicle production, because there is no demand to construct a chilling system, flicker stoppers, starting motor motor, or silencers. It has zero emanations.
Fig.5 Air auto & A ; engine.
Air expands in an engine and must be heated to keep its ambient temperature.
Conversely, when air is compressed and stored in a armored combat vehicle its temperature lessenings and it expands.
BATTERY ELECTRIC VEHICLE:
An Electric auto or an electric vehicle derives its power from an onboard battery battalion instead than a conventional fuel armored combat vehicle and its premier movers are motors alternatively of engines. Normally any auto that is powered by batteries and that which run on motors are known as Battery Electric Vehicles or BEV ‘s. The undermentioned describes the spending and working of BEV ‘s.
Working OF BEV ‘s:
Fig.6 Outlay of BEV.
The general spending of an electric auto is as shown above. The parts are as follows:
Electric autos can utilize AC or DC motors:
DC motors normally need about 92 to 192 Vs to map. DC motors used in electric vehicles normally come from the forklift industry.
AC motors, normally 3 stage AC motors run in a power scope of about 240 Vs on standard 300 volt battery battalion.
Fig.7 Control of motor
There is an AC accountant which hooks to the AC motors and there are six parallel senders than convert the 300 Vs DC power into 240 Vs of AC power and gives it to the 3-phase motor, the accountant besides provides a system for bear downing of the DC battery packs through a DC-DC convertor and a bear downing port.
DC motors tend to be in the scope of 20000 to 30000 Wattss and are less expensive than other beginnings. The scope of a typical accountant will be around 40-60000 watt scope. DC motors have characteristics like the overdrive ( i.e. ) a 20000 W DC motor can defy a burden of 100000 and give extra Equus caballus power to the vehicle.
Fig.8 Electric Motor
Fig.8 Li-ion Battery Pack
Basically in Li-ion battery packs the transportation of negatrons between anode and cathode green goodss current with easy reloading capablenesss. Li-ion batteries are the most suited beginnings of power in today BEV ‘s since they provide high power end product, are compact and can be recharged easy. Further they have comparatively long life compared to other battery beginnings.
There is a opportunity of the motor acquiring self distrusted due to over drive and warming.
Lithium-ion batteries are prone to short circuiting and over charging.
They are dearly-won.
SOME LATEST ELECTRIC CAR DESIGNS:
The Leaf is the first mass-produced electric auto for sale from a major maker introduced in Dec/2010. Its estimated scope is 117 kilometres with an energy ingestion of 765 kJ/km and has a fuel economic system of 99 stat mis per litre of gasolene. It does non bring forth any tail pipe pollution or any green house gases and has zero emanations.
Fig.9 Nissan Leaf with Battery battalion and motor unit
Fig.10 Tesla Roadster.
The Tesla Roadster is a battery electric vehicle ( BEV ) athleticss auto produced by the electric auto house Tesla Motors in California. The Roadster is the first production car to utilize lithium-ion battery cells and the first production BEV ( all-electric ) to go more than 200A stat mis ( 320 kilometer ) per charge. It is the fastest electric vehicle in its category boulder clay day of the month and can make up to velocities of 125-145 miles per hour with an estimated acceleration clip 0-60 in 3.9 seconds.
HYDROGEN FUEL CELL POWERED ENGINES:
HYDROGEN FUEL CELL:
The basic fuel cell agreement has centrifuge home bases, membranes, anode, cathode, gaskets and some clip heating elements. Fuel cells merely need Hs and O to bring forth power. When used right they can supply good power to about all our demands. Thermocouples and temperature detectors are sometimes provided for accurate control of power.
The power end product of a fuel cell is limited hence fuel cells are grouped together in tonss usually known as fuel cell stacks that generate the necessary power needed for the needed application.
Fig.11 ( a ) Hydrogen Fuel Cell
Hydrogen atoms enter at the anode where a accelerator enhances the reaction that strips off the negatrons which are negatively charged and ionizes the H atoms which become positively charged. Thus the negatrons are fundamentally converted to DC current and H2O is obtained as a by-product as shown in the below reaction.
2 H2 ( gas ) + O2 ( gas ) 2 H2O + energy
Fig.11 ( B ) Fuel-cell renewability
A power system integrating H from renewable beginnings and a fuel cell is a closed system, as none of the merchandises or reactants, H2O, H and O are lost to the outside environment. The H2O consumed by the electrolyzer is converted to gases. The gases are converted back to H2O. The electrical energy produced by the solar panel is transferred to chemical energy in the signifier of gases. The gases can be stored and transported, to be reconverted back to electricity.
Fig.12 A Common Hydrogen Fuel cell
ADVANTAGES OF FUEL CELLS:
Fuel cells are efficient. They have no burning processes
Fuel cells are clean. It has zero emanations with H2O as a by-product.
Fuel cells are quiet. Since they do non hold any traveling parts they are really soundless.
Fuel cells are environmentally safe and have no risky by-products that may foul the ambiance like other conventional beginnings.
DISADVANTAGES OF FUEL CELLS:
Fuel cells must obtain mass-market credence to win.
Platinum is a scarce natural resource. At present Pt is a cardinal constituent to fuel cells.
At present a big part of the investing in fuel cells and H engineering has come from car makers.
FUEL CELL POWERED VEHICLES:
HONDA FCX CLARITY:
The Honda FCX Clarity is a H fuel cell car manufactured by Honda. The design is based on the 2006 Honda FCX Concept. The FCX Clarity demonstrates electric auto qualities such as zero emanations while offering 5 minute refueling times and long scope in a full map big saloon.
The vehicle has a 100kw fuel cell tonss and is made merely on order. In this the free energy is captured and used for interrupting. The electric power is stored in a 288w Li-ion battery battalion and is used by the electric motor to bring forth a HP rated at 135. The scope of the fuel cells is about 280 stat mis giving about 70 stat mis per charge.
Fig.13 HONDA FCX CLARITY
FUEL EFFICIENCY CONCEPTS
THE 5-STROKE ENGINE Concept:
Fig.14 A Proposed 5-Stroke Engine
It consists of three cylinders of which two are conventional cylinders and the Centre cylinder plants based on the two cylinders
It works on the rule of back-to-back burning and fumes.
The first and the 3rd cylinder work like a normal four-stroke engine whereas the heat from the fumes is used to drive the Centre cylinder.
Estimated Fuel efficiency for these types of engines is up to 30 km/litre in gasoline engines.
Fig.15 Gasoline-Electric Hybrid
Gasoline-electric intercrossed autos contain the undermentioned parts:
Gasoline engine – This is same a conventional engine except that it is much more fuel efficient than others.
Fuel armored combat vehicle – This is chiefly used to hive away gasolene to be used as fuel for the engine
Electric motor – The electric motor on a intercrossed auto is really sophisticated. It acts a motor every bit good as a generator.
Generator – It produces the electric power needed for the auto to run. Basically it converts DC to AC and delivers it to the electric motors.
Batteries – Battery battalions provide the necessary power to the electric motors of the auto to map. They are provided with a bear downing port for easy recharging of the batteries.
Transmission – It is the same as in any conventional vehicle.
SOME LATEST HYBRID CARS:
The first commercial loanblend vehicle.
Has public presentation equal to that of any normal gasolene vehicle.
Newer versions have really hardy transmittal and interrupting systems.
HONDA CIVIC HYBRID:
About the same public presentation as the gasoline version of the vehicle.
Effective transmittal and engine.
About 40-45 stat mis per liter of gasolene.
Smooth in managing.
Therefore some of the latest developments in green engine constructs and the engineerings behind the have been discussed. The utilizations they provide and the possible behind each engineering has besides been briefly discussed. Conversion to these types of more “ greener ” engineerings can turn out really effectual in protecting our planet from planetary heating and other, more serious issues. Therefore I conclude by stating that a greener Earth is a cleaner Earth and we must all endeavor in protecting our environment by following such utile engineerings.