Health and safety issues

July 31, 2017 Health


In this study I will be looking at Health and safety issues related with the industry of icebox including the usage of natural stuff, storage and disposal of its byproducts. Furthermore, I will besides be foregrounding relevant H & A ; S statute law associating with the usage of icebox, which includes ; bringing, storage and client service during usage and disposal of any residues.

The word icebox refers to an contraption, a cabinet or a room used for hive awaying nutrient and other substances at low temperature by a procedure called infrigidation. Refrigeration is the procedure of pull outing and reassigning it from the heat beginning. It maintains the temperature of the heat beginning below that of its milieus while reassigning the extracted heat to a heat sink or air. The first known effort to develop a icebox was taken by William Cullen from the University of Glasgow in 1748. In a icebox, the procedure involves speedy vaporization of a liquid which allows a volume of gas to spread out. As H2O vapor rises, it causes the information and kinetic energy of the H2O molecules to increase. Similarly, this procedure absorbs energy from its milieus doing the chilling consequence. [ 1 ]

Types of Refrigeration

Refrigeration based on assorted constituents and equipments, connected in a systematic sequence. For case, refrigerant is required, which is the primary working fluid used for absorbing and conveying heat. It can either be individual chemical compound or a mixture of several compounds. The sequence usually classified by the type of energy input and the infrigidation procedure itself. One of the normally adopted systems is the vapour compaction system, which consist of a compressor triping the refrigerant bring forthing vapors to bring forth refrigerating consequence during vaporization. [ 2 ]

Another normally used method of infrigidation is the Absorption system, infrigidation consequence is produced by input of thermic energy. Heat is absorbed from the chilling medium organizing refrigerating vapor which is so absorbed by an absorbent.

Furthermore, Air or gas can besides be used in infrigidation system. Air is compressed by high force per unit area doing its temperature to diminish followed by enlargement to a low force per unit area ensuing in chilling consequence. [ 3 ]


Guidelines in Industry

During early 1900 century ; the usage of Chlorofluorocarbons-CFCs were introduced as refrigerants which presumptively thought to be safer than other chemicals non cognizing that CFC gases causes ruinous harm to the ozone bed in our stratosphere.

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In 1990 ‘s, statute law was approached from Montreal Protocol, a worldwide established program brokered by the industrialized states. EU statute laws were commenced and bureaus of the European Committee Regulations were advised stage out demands for CFC and HCFC.

Even though, EC Regulations are straight suited in the UK, domestic policies are required for effectual enforcement. Consequently, in twelvemonth 2000 the section of Environment, Transports and the Regions-DETR approved that, HCF will successfully be banned for usage within new big air conditioning. Similarly, refrigerants incorporating Chlorofluorocarbons or Hydrochlorofluorocarbons were happened to be controlled waste, requires suited disposal by a accredited contractor obeying subdivision 34 of the Environment Protection Act 1990 which declare responsibility of attention for each person who handle controlled wastes. [ 5 ]

In infrigidation industry ; most accidents and jeopardies are non due to the refrigerating itself but more attributable to mechanical or general issues. However, depending on the maker such as Sanyo E & A ; E Corporation, who are affiliated with The Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers ( AHAM ) , which is supported with U. S. Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ) in the understanding with cut downing Hydroflorocarbon ( HFC ) emanation by recommended guidelines, issued in November 2005. [ 4 ]

These recommended guidelines were put in topographic point to avoid wellness and safety and environmental issues that can be caused by HFC. Finding alternate ways in understating HFC emanation degree during and after production. Recycle or destruct used HFC where technically and economically possible. Similarly, full proficient preparation should be promoted for forces covering with HFC to vouch fulfillment with ordinances and patterns.

Despite of recommendations ; implementing all these guidelines on a specified mill is evidently impractical due to typical conditions in any definite mill.

Harmonizing to the recommended guidelines during bringing, transportation and storage of Refrigerants and Blowing Agents in Tanks, Trucks or cylinders ; bringing log should be kept for any chemical delivered into the workss saying its specifications.

To avoid inadvertent emanation releases, all transfer pumps should be inspected on regular footing for any of mark of escape or weariness without go againsting safety commissariats. Besides, all connexion points such as electronic controls and pump connexions should be monitored at all times Process and storage lines should be sealed and welded, if necessary. Pressure equalization line should be used during armored combat vehicle to tank transportations to avoid any vapor that otherwise would hold escaped during the pumping procedure. The batch armored combat vehicle should non be vented and the temperature must be monitored during transportation to the batch blending armored combat vehicle. If possible, closed armored combat vehicle should be used for blending of rosin etc. Similarly, the blending armored combat vehicle, the recirculation procedure piping should be indicated high pressured to avoid unintended discharge.

To avoid cross-contamination ; equipments such as containers should merely be used with the chemical indicated on the given container. Low breathing seal cap valves should be specified, where appropriate. During trying, refrigerating recovery should be provided. All equipments must be emptied after trying via disposal lines.

During proving ; the refrigerating sample should ne’er be discharged into the ambiance. Used refrigerant should be recovered at terminal of usage and stored in a suited container.

Guidelines for Disposal

Even though disassembly and life rhythm clime public presentation ( LCCP ) are non portion of the production procedure, they should be taken into consideration during design and production.

Harmonizing to recommended guidelines of AHAM ; scattering merchandise ‘s constituents ; important consideration demands to be taken for case, refrigerating liquid should be recovered from the chief unit before trashing to avoid any environmental taint by HFC. Similarly, recovery equipment should be available to all qualified forces both in production every bit good as at the research labs. All forces should be trained and certified for managing refrigerant by an independent administration. The cured refrigerant should be stored in a safe container, recycled or disposed ethically. [ 4 ]


Harmonizing to the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, this comes under common judicial jurisprudence. It states that employers are accountable for guaranting the safety of their work force. This answerability is reinforced by ordinances such as Compressed Air Regulations 1996 supply a frame construction for wellness and safety hazards related with tight gas. Employers have to see issues such as ;

  • Work presentment to HSE
  • Guaranting safe environment for workers
  • Health review with medical intervention and their records
  • Training and proviso of works and equipment.
  • Emergency processs such as fire.
  • Undertaking specified functions by competent forces. [ 6 ]

997 words Excluding, Front page, Table of contents, Headings/sub headers and mentions


[ 7 ] ASHRAE HANDBOOK [ 2006 ] Refrigeration-American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Inch-pound edition, 1791 Tullie Circle, N.E. , Atlanta, GA 30329.

[ 3 ] Cambridge infrigidation engineering, Safety and Hazards in the Refrigeration Industry, pdf file [ online ] hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed on 05th February 2010 ] [ 1 ] The Canon group, Innovative solutions for icebox fabrication, pdf file [ online ] hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed on 05th February 2010 ] .

[ 4 ] Environmental protection bureau EPA, Recommended Practices for Minimizing HFC Emissions from Refrigerator-Freezer Factories, pdf file [ online ] hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed on 05th February 2010 ] [ 2 ] Ezinearticles, Geting Cooler with Age – The Fridge [ online ] hypertext transfer protocol: // ? Getting-Cooler-With-Age — -The-Fridge & A ; id=1353173 [ Accessed on 05th February 2010 ] [ 6 ] Health and Safety Executive, Work in Compressed Air Regulations 1996 [ online ] hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed on 5th February 2010 ] [ 10 ] Holton, James R. ; Curry, Judith A. ; Pyle, John A [ 2003 ] Encyclopaedia of Atmospheric Sciences, Volumes 1-6, Elsevier.pp.2154-2155

[ 5 ] The Office of Government Commerce ( OGC ) , OZONE DEPLETING REFRIGERANT GASES – New REGULATIONS AND REMINDER, pdf file [ online ] hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed on 10th February 2010 ] [ 8 ] Shan K. Wang [ 1993 ] Handbook of Air-conditioning and infrigidation. Second edition, Mc-Graw Hill.



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