Adolf Loos born 10 December 1870 in Brunn, Moravia ( now Brno the 2nd largest metropolis in the Czech Republic ) a to a great extent fortified metropolis located near the boundary lines of both Slovakia and Austria. During the sixteenth century the metropolis of Brunn successfully defended itself from the going Swedish besiegings purpose on assailing Austria in the South. At this clip there was fusion of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The metropolis was recognised for its defensive attempts and the metropolis was renewed to its former robust solidarity. There was a strong Baroque influence throughout the metropolis. This artistic manner was present during the late 16th to the early eighteenth century but the version of the manner in the Czech Republic was different as it more apparent faced and the ornamentation was restricted. This fluctuation could be an indicant of the beginning development of modernism.
A boy to a male parent who ran a sculpting and a rock film editing concern which flourished during the Baroque period as sculpture and masonry was the footing of the manner. Loos was intrigued by the impression that something can be created by manus with such endearing passion and edification. He idolised his male parent and admired his work. Possibly this esteem could be the foundation to Loos ‘s originative development as he was invariably surrounded by his male parent ‘s plants as the workshop doubled as a house and storage ( Bock, 2007 ) Tournikiotis besides suggests that Loos ‘s ability to ease forms in rock is an influence from his male parent ‘s pace. His male parent passed off March 1879 at the age of 48. Loos at the age of 9 non merely lost his male parent but the lone influential male figure. This wedged Loos greatly and his behavior and attitude radically changed. The emotional bond that was shared with his male parent was non present with his two sisters and his female parent. His female parent assumed ownership of and successfully ran the concern.
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Loos ‘s destructive disobedient attitude was directed towards his female parent and health professional at the clip. The force per unit area of running a concern and go toing to her maternal duties led her to direct Loos to her parents in 1881, which were located in Iglau, Bohemia ( Bock, 2007 ) with the hope of construction and counsel. He attended the local high school where his noncompliance continued for the first twelvemonth ( which he repeated ) but in the succeeding twelvemonth he received an improved school study. His female parent hearing this intelligence brought him back to Brunn and re-enrolled him in school thought that he had reformed. His destructive tendency continued through school where he was continually in problem. In 1889, he graduated from a proficient high school in Brunn with the outlook of going an designer. It is unknown when he decided he wanted to go an designer but it would interesting to cognize whether he became an designer in honor of his male parent ‘s command of rock and aspire to go something greater, a maestro of all stuffs. Loos pays court in his essay ( Ornemnet e instruction, 1924, as cited by Tournikiotis, 1994, p185 ) “ an designer is a Mason who has learned Latin ” .
After graduation he enrolled in the Technical University of Dresden where he was influenced by the Hagiographas and plants of Gottfried Semper who antecedently taught at Dresden until 1848. Semper was a historicist who wrote about the beginnings of architecture. His influence is evident in Loos ‘s usage of classical elements in his undertakings. He was expelled from Dresden after two semesters for non paying his tuition fees.
He enlisted in the military service in 1890 presumptively to raise financess for his architectural surveies and effort to derive acknowledgment and admittance into a more “ baronial society ” . He attained the rank of Lieutenant in the militias which allow him a “ certain degree of prestigiousness ” ( Stewart, 2000, Page 4 ) . The one twelvemonth in the ground forces would hold doubtless helped construction his rebellious attitude in a constructive and positive manner. Leting him to consistently work as a squad member, become disciplined and an important figure which is reflected in his unvarying outsides and his continuity of promoting cultural etiquette.
In 1981 he continued his surveies but non at Dresden. He ventured to Vienna to go on his surveies but during this period he contracted pox from the whorehouses which left him unfertile ( Schachel as cited by Bock, 2007 ) . He spent many months in the infirmary battling non merely with delusional ideas provoked from the unwellness but the picks he had made, a psychological battleground ( Kennard, 2010 ) . Bing confined to a bed and the same room with a febrility for a long period of clip can interrupt even the strongest willed work forces. Infertility would go forth any adult male repenting his determinations and do him oppugn the intent of life. Can I do a difference, who will listen to my purposes like I had with my ain male parent? The effects were irrevokable.
After he was released from infirmary and the infection had subsided his female parent reluctantly agreed to house him. Loos ‘s female parent had high outlooks for him so the intelligence of his unwellness did non sit good. There was still animus between Loos and his female parent from old efforts at reform. Equally shortly as he had recovered wholly he returned to Dresden briefly and attempted his architectural surveies one time more. He did non obtain the needed consequence for his scrutinies nor did he win in reassigning to the Academy of Fine Arts, Vienna. ( Lustenberger, 1994 ) This marked the terminal to Loos ‘s formal instruction and the determination to go to America in 1893 followed.
Lustenberger describes his journey as “ a manner out of a hard, instead hopeless state of affairs ” . He is get awaying world or get awaying his failure to prevail at his architectural surveies. Stewart substantiates this by corroborating Loos ‘s “ Love of travel and his hard relationship to ‘home ‘ ” . His American enterprise is one of importance as it is the foundation to his cultural avowal, a righteous way of self instruction in western signifiers and comparative civilization. Bock confirms this by saying that “ Loos is an autodidact who neither completed a degree nor obsessed any other apprenticeship preparation ” .
His first finish was Philadelphia where his uncle Benjamin lived and so travelled to the World Exhibition in Chicago. Loos was pig-headedly proud about the high quality of the German civilization and depict his experience at the exhibition as follows “ I was still to the full convinced of the high quality of German humanistic disciplines and trades. In Chicago I went with a proud feeling interior of me [ … ] with commiseration I smiled as I looked at the American illustrations ” and so digresses by revoking his old feelings of pride and replacing them with embarrassment for the German humanistic disciplines and trade on show in Chicago. “ Today, I realize, that at that clip the stupidest Austrian had more refined gustatory sensation than me ” ( Bock, 2007 ) .
Loos assisted his uncle with some arduous undertakings in the aftermath of his uncles son ‘s decease. This period was important because it was Loos ‘s first unfavorable judgment of manner which was noted in his diary “ The Other ” the comparing of manner between the American husbandman and the Austrian husbandman. He introduces his uncle as “ a husbandman life near a town ” , in a “ Villa ” ; he is a adult male who dresses decently in the modern manner, and one who benefits from the “ approvals of civilization ” , whereas the Austrian husbandman still requires cultural development ( A. Loos, “ Das Andere ” , 1903, as cited by Lustenberger, 1994, p14 ) . At the terminal of 1903 he left his uncles and headed north to New York where he landed his first occupation as a draftsman in an architectural office. He spent the balance of his clip in New York until he was recalled back to the Vienna military militias. He did desire to return to Vienna as it no longer felt like place for Loos. He had detached himself from his Mother and his fatherland. Loos preferred the American and English civilization and adopted as his ain. The absence of a stable place to return to intend that Loos had no ground to return to Vienna and set up himself. The exhilaration of going was more appealing.
Bock describes his journey to America, England and so back to Austria as liberating and the differing civilizations would “ re-shape his life ” . It was besides the first realization that the refined adult male is one that does non stand out from the environment. The first indicant of his penchant for less ornamentation as cited by Bock “ There were bags, composing utensils, suit instances, bags etc. All of which were field, without cosmetic ornaments ” .
The animus with his female parent was still present as intelligence of Loos ‘s return to Vienna had led his female parent to anticipate Loos to come back and resume duty of the household concern and to back up her as his pa one time had. Loos did non desire this, as he wanted to educate and emancipate others in the western signifiers of civilization. After this incident he broke all connexions with her and he disowned himself from her as she had when he was in America.
His professional calling started in 1986 when working for the designer and maestro builder Carl Mayreder who was extremely regarded for cognition in classical architecture. Subsequently he was accepted into the literary society know as “ Young Vienna ” ( Lustenberger, 2004 ) where he met and formed womb-to-tomb relationships with the litterateur Karl Kraus, the poet Peter Altenberg and the composer Arnold Schonberg. ( Bock, 2007, p.15 ) Four friends with four different single professions all supported each other and propagated reactive thoughts to take topics. They besides provided a concern referral system where one would propose each other to possible clients. As Loos expressed involvement in Hagiographas he became closer to Kraus so the other two and his societal unfavorable judgment became an influencing factor Loos ‘s Hagiographas.
As antecedently mentioned, Loos had shown involvement in the societal differences of how an American husbandman would dress in comparing to an Austrian husbandman. This unfavorable judgment continued and strictly upheld by Loos himself. “ He now applied the significance of apparels for civilized people to his essays on architecture ” ( Bock, 2007 ) . He wore apparels that reflected a adult male ‘s stature and place in society. He would merely have on usage made English cuts from the best seamsters in Vienna. His penchant for high quality apparels allowed him to maintain regular contact with the proprietors of these constitutions which led to his first patronage. Manner was important in his unfavorable judgment for it was another manner to distinguish himself from his equals and solidify his place as a modern refined adult male. Ironically, a adult male that did non desire his apparels to stand out from the environment or to be a “ Giger ” ( Bock, 2007, page 14 ) succeeded when he chose to present English manner etiquette into the Austrian society.
An counter relationship formed between Loos and his classmate Josef Hoffman who associated with the Secession which was a society formed to continue the artistic manner and base against the preservation of historicism. Hoffman was commissioned to supply the insides of the edifice of Secession and Loos had requested to supply the meeting room pro bono but Hoffman denied his petition. ( Bock, 2007, p.15 ) Loos temporarily belonged to the Secession before this incident which led Loos to verbally degrade Hoffman and severe his friendly relationship out of resentment and malice. This aggressive reaction would bespeak a egotistic personality every bit described as being person that has had their self-importance deflated and will re-inflate by decreasing, corrupting or degrading the resistance ( Hotchkiss, 2003 ) . Furthermore, such conditions as racism, sexism and patriotism can be viewed as illustrations of egotistic inclinations ( Fromm, 1973 as cited by Emmons, 1987 ) which can be analysed and interpreted from Loos ‘s authorship manner ( Refer to notes for list of egotistic personality traits ) . Bigoted, unbelieving, one-sidedness false belief and condescending linguistic communication is found in “ ornament and offense ” . His personality is besides labelled by Keedy as an “ elitist, delusory, misogynous, racialist, xenophobic money-grubbing harangue ” .
This personality upset is repetitively displayed throughout his developing old ages with the initial rupture of his relationship with his female parent and defender at the clip, to the multiple friendly relationships and love affairs. This personality is presumptively developed from the loss of his male parent and the deficiency of academic success doing him to endeavor for high quality and in the procedure cannibalizing relationships. “ Kernberg sees narcissism developing as a effect of parental rejection or forsaking [ … ] the kid defensively withdraws and comes to believe that it is merely himself or herself that can be trusted and relied on and hence loved. ” ( Kernberg, 1976, 1980 as cited by Emmons, 1987 ) After the decease of Loos ‘s male parent he did non give his female parent the opportunity to supply a nurturing environment where there was an copiousness of love and fondness. She besides may hold non had clip to supply this relationship holding to cover with the loss of a hubby and running the household concern could hold taken precedence over her boy. At this clip Loos was looking to his female parent for comfort and reassurance which was so returned with rejection. This rejection would so hold developed into a feeling of forsaking and a demand for independency. So independent that he did non trust on anyone else and the determinations he made was strictly for his ain intent. The friendly relationships he managed to prolong were of a competitory nature ; as antecedently mentioned the litterateur, the poet and the composer all possessing properties that contribute to function his ain chosen calling, they serve his demands. The undermentioned statement from Karl Kraus in 1913 describes the competitory impression that civilization is a game and besides describes their friendly relationship. “ Adolf Loos and I, he in world, I verbally, have nil else to demo that there is a difference between an urn and a chamber pot and that this difference is necessary because it guarantees the game of civilization ” ( Tournikiotis, 1994 ) . The undermentioned transition reflects Loos ‘s continuity and use to be heard.
Adolf Loos has wormed his manner into my diary in the most punic manner, he has got my editor on his side by happening advertizers and has, behind my dorsum, set me out of action, ousted me! A universe of maliciousness, perfidy and beastliness! Curses and shame upon Adolf Loos and his ‘American Culture ‘ ! ( Barker and Lensing 1995: 231 as cited by Stewart, 2000: 32 )
On two occasions Loos had taken involvement in adult females that Peter Altenburg admired greatly. No regard was shown for this esteem as on both occasions Loos had used his assurance and appeal to carry the adult females as an act of competition or competiveness. The 2nd clip this happened it impacted their friendly relationship greatly, later the two parted. Both of the relationships were short lived and unfulfilling. A deficiency of company could be a consequence of the disregard from his female parent.
It was 1905 and Loos had merely begun seeing Bessie Bruce which Loos and Altenburg had met in a casino. Altenburg admired Bruce but Loos had one time once more won her over and this disloyalty caused struggle between the two. She was merely 19 at the clip but was already sick with a lung complaint. ( Bock, 2007 ) Loos passionately cared for this adult female and was afraid that he was traveling to lose another loved one so he devoted his clip caring for her passionately but she contracted TB in the later old ages which she was treated for at a sanatarium in Switzerland. He supported her until her decease in 1921 ( Lustenberger, 2004 )
1908, this was the twelvemonth in which Adolf Loos would ironically scratch the controversial ‘purest pronunciamento ‘ ( Tournikiotis, 1996 ) “ Ornament and Crime ” upon the history books and everlastingly change modernist architecture and functionalism. The heat of the bosom and the soundless exterior bring Forth the modern motion. “ The house should be soundless to the exterior, inside it should uncover all its wealth ” ( Loos, “ Regional Art ” as cited by Sarnitz, 2003 )
“ The false luxury – the decoration in general, and Art Nouveau in peculiar – could merely be combated through reform ” . Loos was considered a “ signifier dictator ” who created signifiers without consideration of the necessities or material feature. ( Sarnitz, 2003 ) “ The blue blood will non coerce social alteration, but will wait for it to happen ‘naturally ‘ ” and continues “ it would be nonsensical to enforce on people a cultural signifier which went against their interior feeling ‘ ” ( Loos, 1898 as cited by Stewart, 2000 ) . Loos wanted to instil a new radical manner that occurred of course without coercing it down the pharynx but his dictating linguistic communication would bespeak otherwise. Loos ‘s part had one intent: To enforce a ego elected position and standards of the modern cultured adult male without sing the reverberations of his cultural review for the subsequent coevalss of creative persons who want to unite their elected artistic professions with architecture. They will everlastingly be supporting any external cosmetic decoration that does non follow signifier or map.
“ The work of art is responsible to no 1, the house to each individual. The work of art wants to rupture people from their comfort zone. [ … ] Mankind loves everything that serves his comfort. He hates everything that wants to rupture him from his accustomed and safe place and that fusss him. And therefore he loves the edifice and hates art ” ( Loos, 1910, “ Architecture ” as cited by Tournikiotis, 1996, p178 )
Loos builds his functional and useful repute and continues his stance against ornamentation by ordering that world enjoys the feeling of safety and that art is secondary to the edifice and that it tears the individual from his comfort zone. This is a important contradiction as he is known as an flat specializer with 65 different flats in his archive of work ( Sarnitz, 2003 ) and is renowned for his extremely cosmetic ( artistic ) insides. If mankind loves everything that serves his comfort, why would Loos design such invigorating insides if he thought that such stimulating would do is dwellers feel uncomfortable in their ain place? His logic is flawed as his insides reflect a extremely cosmetic artistically designed inside. “ For all of Loos ‘s insisting on distinguishing between architecture and art, his domestic insides were constantly both ” ( Schezen, 1996 )
Schezen describes Loos ‘s insides as “ extremist ” and accompanied “ by one subtle disjuncture after another ” . Loos ‘s “ astylistic architecture ” consisted of several often used design methodological analysis and stuffs which he would repeatedly utilize throughout his undertakings. Half-timber ceilings with an surplus of lumber used in other countries, brick chimney chest and chimney corner, classical manners including Doric order columns, the aureate ratio and reproduced plaster dramatis personae frieze that lined the top of the walls, marble cladding applied to internal walls, the “ Raumplan ” procedure and the sober exterior the was removed of all otiose decoration. ( Schezen, 1996 & A ; Bock, 2007 ) “ Most of Loos ‘s insides are characterised by the usage of abstract cosmetic elements [ … ] by forms built-in in stuffs ( veining in marble, grains in wood ) ” ( Tournikiotis, 1996 )
An creative person can appreciate a piece of paper for all its intricate strands and translucent grain. He would so appreciate the form that has formed from the ink and hang it with pride. A civilized modern adult male would instead see this burnt and discarded as it is no longer functional. He can no longer compose down his ailments as the medium is scarred with ornament – He can no longer send those ailments to his chap cultured me as the paper no longer exists. Adolf Loos refused to adhere to the stylistic signifiers of Art Nouveau by making so he simplified architecture of this period to basic cubistic signifiers, picket of look and courage.