History of America

December 21, 2016 History

Chapter 2 Assessment and Activities

Reviewing Key Terms – On a sheet of paper, use each of these terms in a sentence. 

1. Conquistador- A conquistador is another word for a conqueror.
2. Presidio- The Spanish people built forts that they called presidios.
3. Hidalgo- The conquistadors were low-ranking nobles known as hidalgos.
4. Encomienda- The encomienda system was a way to reward the men that had defeated the Aztec. 
5. Hacienda- The haciendas covered thousands of acres.
6. Vaquero- The vaqueros herded the cattle. 
7. Northwest Passage- King Francis I sent Giovanni da Verrazano to map North America's coastline and to find the Northwest Passage. 
8. Coureurs De Bois- Coureurs de bois were fur traders that lived among the Native American. 
9. Puritan- Puritans were people who objected the Catholic rituals. 
10. Joint-Stock Company- A joint-stock company founded Virginia. 
11. Privateer- To assist the Dutch revolt, Queen Elizabeth allowed English privateers to attack Spanish ships. 
12. Burgesses- The representatives of the new Virginia government were called burgesses. 
13. Headright- To entice new settlers to Virginia, the system of headrights was introduced. 
14. Proprietary Colony- Baltimore owned Maryland, making it England's first proprietary colony.
15. Separatist- The separatists were a group of Puritans. 
16. Pilgrim- In 1620, the pilgrims arrived in Massachusetts. 
17. Heretic-A Heretic is a person whose religious beliefs differ from those accepted by the majority. 
18. Pacifism- My mother told me that the word pacifism is the belief in a peaceful resolution. 

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Reviewing Key Facts 

Identify -Francisco Pizarro- Francisco Pizarro was a Spanish army captain.

John Cabot- John Cabot was an Italian navigator that hoped to find a western route to Asia. John Cabot also explored North America's coastline for England in 1497.

Walter Raleigh- Walter Raleigh was an English courtier, navigator, colonizer, and writer.

William Bradford- William Bradford was an English Puritan colonist in America.

Squanto- Squanto was a Native American who helped the English colonists in Massachusetts develop agricultural techniques.

John Winthrop- John Winthrop was an English-born American colonial administrator who was the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

Roger Williams- Roger Williams founded Providence, a community based on religious freedom and democratic ideals. Roger Williams also obtained a royal charter for Rhode Island in 1663.

Anne Hutchinson- Anne Hutchinson was an English-born American colonist and religious leader who was banished from Boston for her religious beliefs. 

Oliver Cromwell- Oliver Cromwell was an English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War.

Henry Hudson- Henry Hudson was an English navigator and explorer who discovered the Hudson River on an expedition for the East India Company.

William Penn- William Penn was an English Quaker colonizer in America. He founded the colony of Pennsylvania in 1681.

James Oglethorpe- James Oglethorpe was a wealthy member of Parliament.

20. Why were the Spanish able to defeat the Aztec in the Inca?

Hernan Cortes learned that the Aztec had conquered many people in the region and were at war with others, including the powerful Tlaxcalan people. He realized that if he acted carefully, he might convince the Tlaxcalan to join him against the Aztec. The Tlaxcalan eventually agreed to join Cortes. With the joint Spanish-Tlaxcalan force heading towards him, Montezuma decided to ambush Cortes the city of Cholula. Warned of ambush by Dona Marina, the Spanish attacked first, killing over 6,000 Cholulans. Montezuma now believed Cortes could not be stopped. On November 8, 1519, Spanish troops peacefully entered the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan. By the joint Spanish-Tlaxcalan force, the Spanish were able to defeat the Aztec in the Inca

21. What Factors determined social class in the Spanish Colonies?

The people of Spain's colonies in the Americas formed a highly structured society. Birth, income, and education determined a person's position.

22. What was the purpose of the Council of the Indies?

To govern the vast, diverse empire in Americas, the Spanish King created the Council of the Indies. The Council advised the King and watched over all colonial activities.

23. What role did Bartolome de Las Casas play in reforming Spain's policies towards Native Americans?

Bartolome de Las Casas maintained that the church and the King had a duty to protect the Native Americans. In this view, he had the support of the pope. Las Casas also published several books describing the destruction of the Native Americans. His books were read throughout Europe, creating pressure on the Spanish to change their policies. In response, the Spanish government stopped granting encomiendas and banned Native American slavery. 

24. How did the French treat the Native Americans?

The French individuals treated the Native Americans quite well. They learned their languages, customs, and often married Native American women. 

25. How did joint-stock companies help colonize North America?

By 1550 England was producing more wool than Europeans would buy, and the price fell. England's merchants began organizing joint-stock companies to find new markets to sell their surplus wool. For the first time since Cabot's voyages in 1497, the English had returned to America. At this time, the enclosure movement had left thousands of people without jobs in England. For these people, leaving England for a chance at a better life in America was appealing. 

26. How did tobacco save the Jamestown colony?

Tobacco saved the Jamestown colony by becoming its" primary source of income. John Rolfe, a Jamestown colonist, developed a new curing method of planting tobacco. The settlers soon began planting large quantities of it.

27. What caused Roger Williams to leave Massachusetts and found the town of Providence?

Roger Williams was a strict Separatist. He believed Puritans corrupted themselves by remaining as part of the Anglican Church. William became a teacher in Salem, where Separatist ideas were more accepted, but his continuing condemnation of the Puritan churches angered many people. William returned to Massachusetts in 1633, 2 years later, the General Court ordered him to leave the colony. William then headed south to find his own colony. He purchased land from the Narragansett people and founded the town of Providence. In Providence, the government had no authority in religious matters. Different religious beliefs were tolerated rather than suppressed. 

28. Why was Georgia founded?

In the 1720s, General James Oglethorpe, a wealthy member of Parliament, was appealed to find that many people in England were in prison simply because they could not pay their debts. He asked King George II for a colony south of Carolina where the poor could start over. King George granted Oglethorpe and 19 other trustees permission in 1732 to settle a region between the Savannah and Altamaha Rivers. The new colony was named Georgia, in honor of the king. Georgia became a royal colony in 1751. 

Critical Thinking

29. Analyzing Themes: Culture and Tradition 

How did the relationship between Native Americans and the Spanish differ from those between the Native Americans and the French? 

In 1511, the Spanish troops conquered Cuba. The Spanish took over the Native American villages. The Native Americans were then enslaved by the Spanish to work on the farms and mines. Smallpox swept across Cuba six years later, killing thousands of Native Americans. The French individuals, on the other hand, treated the Native Americans quite well. They learned their languages, customs, and often married Native American women. 

30. Evaluating 

How were England's royal colonies and proprietary colonies governed? 

England's royal colonies were governed by a governor appointed from the King. In the proprietary colonies, the proprietor could govern the colony any way he wished. In most respects, he had a king's powers. 

31. Identifying Cause and Effect

How did the English Civil War affect the English colonies in North America? 

Once the English Civil War began, England's colonies had to decide whether to support the King or Parliament. It was a very difficult situation for the colonies in North America because they had to choose sides and get involved. 

32. Categorizing 

Use a graphic organizer like this one to list the reasons for English colonization in North America.

The Reasons For English Colonization In North America.

-The English government had permitted new patterns of land ownership. 
-New types of worship.
-New kinds of government in its colonies.
-The colonist used self-government.
-Once established, practices became fixed principles.

Practicing Skills

33. Understanding the Parts of a Map 

Study the map of the Great Migration on page 68. Then use the skills described on that page to answer the following questions. 

A. In what directions did English Puritans travel when they migrated to New England and to the Bahamas? 
The English Puritans would have had to travel southwest to get to New England and the Bahamas. 

B. Using the map labels, estimate the total number of Puritans immigrants to the New World between the 1620s and the 1640s.
The estimated total number of Puritans that immigrated to the New World between the 1620s and the 1640s would be approximately 45,000 people. 


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