History Of English Language Teaching English Language Essay

August 13, 2017 English Language

Today, English is the universes most widely studied foreign linguistic communication. Five hundred old ages ago, Latin was the most dominant linguistic communication to be studied because it was the linguistic communication of concern, commercialism and instruction in the western universe. In the 16th century, nevertheless, Gallic, Italian and English addition in importance as a consequence of political alteration in Europe and Latin bit by bit became displaced as a linguistic communication of spoken and written communicating ( Richards and Rodgers, 2001 ) .

Latin became a dead linguistic communication. It was being started to read in the books as authoritative linguistic communication. Children started to come in in the ‘grammar school ‘ in 16th and 18th centuries to larn grammar regulations of Latin. To larn Latin linguistic communication became a “ mental acrobatic ” . In the 18th century, when modern linguistic communications began to come in in the course of study of the European states, these linguistic communications were taught by the same methods as Latin linguistic communication was taught. Grammatical regulations were memorized. Written patterns were done. The transitions were translated from the 2nd linguistic communication to the first linguistic communication and frailty versa ( ibid ) .

By the 19th century, this method was considered as a standard method of learning linguistic communication. The text editions were divided into chapters. Each chapter contained a certain grammatical regulation and regulation was patterns with a batch of written exercisings ( ibid ) .

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Methods and Approaches of English Language Teaching

Harmonizing to Asher and James ( 1982 ) , Methods are the combination of techniques that are used and plasticized by the instructors in the schoolrooms in order to learn their pupils and attacks are the doctrines of instructors about linguistic communication instruction that can be applied in the schoolrooms by utilizing different techniques of linguistic communication instruction. For illustration, if a instructor has an attack that linguistic communication is the communicating and larning a linguistic communication is in fact larning the significances, maps and utilizations of linguistic communication. So the techniques will be based on the communicative linguistic communication instruction and undertaking based methods.

Harmonizing to Freeman ( 2000 ) , Methods which are taught to the instructors make a base and give them believing about the applicable techniques and rules harmonizing to the state of affairs where they stand. They are clear about their attractive force towards certain methods and besides think that why have they repelled certain method. The cognition of method is really necessary because their cognition is base of instruction.

Grammar Translation Method

Grammar interlingual rendition method was the most popular and widely used method for linguistic communication instruction between the ages of 1840 to 1940. But this method was foremost used for learning and larning Latin linguistic communication which was non the linguistic communication of common usage at that clip. Latin was considered as a authoritative linguistic communication. The scholars were made able to analyze the literature of Latin linguistic communication through larning the grammatical regulations of linguistic communication and larning the vocabulary so that scholars may interpret the linguistic communication in their first linguistic communication and in the 2nd linguistic communication. Grammar interlingual rendition method was criticized intensively in the 19th century because it was considered that this method can non carry through the demands of linguistic communication acquisition in 19th century.

Direct Method

The direct method was the result of the reaction against the grammar interlingual rendition method. It was based on the premise that the scholars of foreign and 2nd linguistic communication should straight believe in English. This method is against the interlingual rendition of written and unwritten text and focuses on stating the significances of the words through action, presentation or existent objects. This method focuses on straight believing, making treatment and conversation in 2nd linguistic communication ( Richards and Rodgers, 2001 ) .

Purwarno ( 2006 ) described the purposes of the direct method. He described that direct method is an effort and attempt to organize a nexus between idea and look and between experience and linguistic communication.

Direct method was criticized due to the undermentioned grounds:

Direct method is successful in private linguistic communication schools because this method can be applied merely in little categories where all the scholars can acquire single attending.

In Direct method, the instructors abundantly excel in maintaining the female parent lingua of the scholars off from them.

Direct method demands the scholars to make unwritten communicating in the 2nd linguistic communication and it besides demands the pronunciation and speech pattern to be merely like the native talkers so there is demand for the linguistic communication school to engage the indigen talkers which really can be really expensive.

The success of the direct method depends on the instructor ‘s accomplishments and personality more than on the methodological analysis ( Richards and Rodgers, 1986 ) .

Structural Approach

The structural attack chiefly employs the techniques of the direct method but the reading and authorship accomplishments are non entirely neglected. The structural attack is based on the sound rules of linguistic communication acquisition. The structural attack says that the agreement of the words in such a manner as to organize a suited form and that form may do the significances of the linguistic communication clear to us. Any linguistic communication has its ain construction and skeleton which gives this linguistic communication a nice visual aspect. A construction is a form and a peculiar agreement of words which to bespeak grammatical significances. It may be a word, a phrase or a sentence ( Gauridushi, 2011 ) .

Structural attack was criticized because it was merely suited for lower classs. Continuous instruction of constructions and their repeat make the ambiance dull and drilling. It besides neglected the reading and composing abilities and there was besides a deficiency of skilled instructors ( Sharma, 2011 ) .

Oral Approach/ Situational Language Teaching

The unwritten attack is a method in which kids to utilize whatever hearing they get from their milieus. They besides take aid from the context to understand and utilize linguistic communication. The mark is to develop the accomplishments in the person so that he can pass on and work independently. This attack helps in the development of reading and composing accomplishments ( Richards and Rodgers, 2001 ) .

The unwritten attack was developed from 1930s to the sixtiess by British applied linguistics such as Harold Palmer and A.S. Hornsby. The chief difference between unwritten attack and the direct method was that the methods which were developed under this attack had theoretical rules about the choice, rating and presentation of the content and stuff. This sequencing of the content would take to better larning with a good cognition of vocabulary and grammatical forms. In this attack all the points of linguistic communication were to be presented in “ state of affairss ” which led to the 2nd name of the attack i.e. situational linguistic communication learning. Although, the instructors are non cognizant of this attack today but it had long permanent impact on linguistic communication acquisition. However, its focal point on unwritten pattern, grammar and sentence forms is still supported by the instructors ( ibid ) .

Audiolingual Method

Audiolingual method is besides known as ‘Army Method ‘ because after the eruption of World War II, the ground forces soldiers decided to be adept in the linguistic communications of their enemies. So a new larning method of foreign linguistic communications was discovered which is known as audiolingual method. This method is based on a lingual theory and behavioural psychological science. The audiolingual method was widely used in the 1950s and 1960s and the accent was non on the apprehension of the words instead on acquisition of constructions and forms in common mundane duologues ( Richards and Rodgers, 2001 ) .

The instruction of the unwritten accomplishments with accurate pronunciation, grammar and the ability to react rapidly and accurately is the chief aim of audiolingual method. Reading and composing accomplishments may be taught but they are dependent on the unwritten accomplishments ( Richard and Rodgers, 1986 ) .

Entire Physical Response

In Total Physical Response ( TPR ) , the instructor gives the pupils instructions and the pupils follow the instructions by utilizing whole organic structure responses. James J. Asher, a professor, of psychological science at San Jose State University developed the method Total Physical Response in late sixtiess to assist in larning 2nd linguistic communications ( Richards and Rodgers, 2001 ) .

Harmonizing to Asher ( 1977 ) , “ TPR is based on the premiss that the human encephalon has a biological plan for geting any natural linguistic communication on Earth including the mark linguistic communication of the deaf ” . We can see this procedure if we observe the linguistic communication larning procedure of an baby. The communicating between parents and the kid consists of both verbal and physical facets. When the kid is non able to talk, at the clip he/she is internalising the linguistic communication. This is the clip when codification breakage occurs. After this procedure the kid becomes able to talk and reproduce linguistic communication. In TPR, the instructor repeats the procedure in the category. Students respond to the bids of the instructor which require physical motion. TPR is most utile for novices. TPR is besides used for learning pupils with dyslexia or related learning disablements.

Silent Way

Silent manner is the method of linguistic communication learning which was proposed by Caleb Gattegno. This method is based on the position that the instructors should be soundless in the schoolroom every bit much as possible but the instructor must promote the pupils to talk and utilize the linguistic communication. The most of import facet of this method is its elements that are used for linguistic communication instruction i.e. colored charts and colored rods ( Richards and Rodgers, 2001 ) .

This method focuses on the scholars to detect on their ain instead than they remember or memorise something. The scholars are facilitated in larning by giving them some job to work out which involves the stuffs that are needed to be learnt ( ibid ) .

Communicative Language Teaching

Communicative linguistic communication instruction was developed in the epoch of revolutions in British linguistic communication learning traditions from late sixtiess. Before communicative linguistic communication instruction, situational linguistic communication instruction was in pattern in Britain for linguistic communication instruction. Communicative linguistic communication instruction was really developed in the resistance of audiolingual method which focuses on boring and memorisation. Communicative linguistic communication learning focal points on developing the ability of communicating in scholars in existent life state of affairss. It focuses on intending instead than truth ( Richards and Rodgers, 2001 ) .

Natural Approach

In 1977, Tracey Terrell proposed the natural attack of linguistic communication instruction. This attack was influenced by Stephen Krashen ‘s theory of linguistic communication acquisition. The natural attack focuses on communicating as the major map of linguistic communication. In this attack, linguistic communication is considered as the vehicle or agencies of conveying a message and information. The natural attack was really based on the observation and apprehension of the acquisition of the first and the 2nd linguistic communication in informal scenes ( Richards and Rodgers, 2001 ) .

Task-based Language Teaching

Task- based linguistic communication instruction is an attack that is based on the premise that undertakings are the major unit of linguistic communication acquisition. This attack is based on the job work outing position that the scholars should be given some undertakings to be solved. These undertakings are related to the linguistic communication structures that are required to be learnt. The scholars interact and communicate with each other during work outing these jobs. In these manner, they learn the linguistic communication ( Richards and Rodgers, 2001 ) .

Comparison between Grammar Translation Method and Communicative Language Teaching

Grammar Translation Method

Grammar interlingual rendition method was first known in the United States as Prussian Method. Grammar interlingual rendition method dominated European and foreign linguistic communication learning from 1840 to 1940.

Features of grammar interlingual rendition method.

Harmonizing to the Richards and Rodgers ( 2001 ) , the rule features of Grammar Translation Method are:

In Grammar Translation Method, the end of larning a 2nd or foreign linguistic communication is chiefly to be enabling to read the literature of that linguistic communication and is to acquire benefit from rational development that consequences from foreign and 2nd linguistic communication survey. Grammar Translation Method enables to larn elaborate grammatical regulations of mark linguistic communication and enables to interpret into and out of the mark linguistic communication.

In Grammar Translation Method, reading and composing accomplishments are focused while listening and talking accomplishments are wholly ignored.

In Grammar Translation Method, the memorisation of grammatical regulations of foreign linguistic communication and of the vocabulary points is focused. Vocabulary points are limited to the text that they are taught. Vocabulary points are memorized with the aid of their significances in the native linguistic communication.

In Grammar Translation Method, sentenced is the basic unit of instruction and linguistic communication pattern. The scholars are enabled to make elaborate analysis of a sentence through this method. The scholars are enabled to interpret a sentence into and out of the mark linguistic communication.

In Grammar Translation Method, truth is emphasized instead than eloquence. The basic intent of this method used to be able to go through the written scrutinies.

In Grammar Translation Method, grammar is taught deductively i.e. by showing and practising the elaborate grammatical regulations of mark linguistic communication. A course of study of grammatical regulations if followed in which regulations are consistently put in to a sequence get downing from the simple regulations to the complex regulations.

In Grammar Translation Method, pupils are directed and instructions are given in the pupil ‘s native linguistic communication so that they may easy understand the instructions. The pupils ‘ native linguistic communication is used to explicate new points and to enable them to compare two linguistic communications i.e. native linguistic communication of the scholars and foreign linguistic communication.

Main techniques associated with grammar interlingual rendition method.

There are some major techniques that are adopted in the instruction of 2nd or foreign linguistic communication through Grammar Translation Method.

Translation of a literary transition. Students translate a reading transition into and out of the mark linguistic communication. In checking of the interlingual rendition, the focal point of the instructor is on vocabulary and grammatical constructions. The interlingual rendition may be written or spoken or both. Students should non interpret parlances but must understand their significances.

Reading Comprehension Questions. A transition for reading and apprehension is given to the pupils and they have to reply the inquiries given at the terminal of the transition in the mark linguistic communication. The inquiries are put into a sequence. The first group of inquiries is related with the information drawn from the transition, 2nd group of inquiries require pupils to do illations based on their apprehension of the transition. The 3rd group of inquiries requires pupils to associate the transition with their ain experiences.

Antonym and equivalent word. Students are given a list of words and a transition. The pupils have to happen out the opposite word of those words in the transition. Similarly, the pupils can besides be given a list of words and can be asked to happen out the equivalent word of the given words from the transition.

Deductive application of regulations. Grammar regulations are presented before the pupils with the all possible information that can be given to the pupils associating to the grammatical regulations. The regulations are besides explained with illustrations. Once pupils understand a regulation, they are asked to use it for some different illustrations.

Fill in the spaces. The pupils are given a series of sentences with some losing words. The pupils have to make full in the spaces with some suited grammar points such a preposition and verbs with different tenses

Memorization. The pupils are given a list of vocabulary to memorise them with their significance in the native linguistic communication. Students are besides required to memorise the grammatical regulations.

Use words in sentences. In order to look into the apprehension of the significance and Sue of vocabulary, the pupils are asked to utilize the list of typical words in their ain sentences.

Composition. The instructor gives a subject to the pupils to compose about that subject in the mark linguistic communication. The subject is based on some facet of the reading transition of the lesson ( Freeman, 1986 ) .

Advantages of grammar interlingual rendition method.

Nazir ( 2002 ) narrated as “ The construction of a foreign linguistic communication is best learnt when comparison and contrasted with that of the female parent lingua. ”

Harmonizing to Ishtiaq ( 2005 ) , the Grammar Translation Method is based on a system and is in a sequence because in this method all the grammatical regulations are arranged into a sequence for the convenience of the pupils. This sequence starts from the simple regulations and finally leads to the complex regulations. When a book is written by an writer on grammatical regulations maintaining in position the sequence, he writes one lesson that is wholly based on one regulation of grammar. Each lesson is divided into certain regulations and these regulations dominate the lesson.

Larson ( 1986 ) narrated importance of Grammar Translation Method as “ in Grammar Translation Method, pupils are made to larn new words. Therefore, this method helps in bettering vocabulary. Reading and composing are the two primary accomplishments that are developed most so as to enable the pupils to read the literature in mark linguistic communication. Grammar is taught deductively and it makes usage of pupils ‘ female parent linguistic communication.

Disadvantages of grammar interlingual rendition method.

Neilson ( 2003 ) stated that in Grammar Translation Method, unwritten accomplishments i.e. speech production and hearing accomplishments are wholly neglected while the whole attending is given to merely reading and composing accomplishments. Through this method, the pupils become able to read the literature of the mark linguistic communication by interpreting it into their native linguistic communication but can non pass on into the mark linguistic communication and even can non understand the mark linguistic communication spoken by any native talker.

In Grammar Translation Method, the authorization of the schoolroom is wholly in the custodies of the instructor and instructor is at the Centre of the schoolroom. The communicating is merely from instructors to pupils non from pupil to teacher and non even from pupils to pupils. The pupils are considered empty minded which have needed to be filled with all the possible vocabulary and grammatical constructions that can be filled in their heads ( ibid ) .

The chief disadvantage of the Grammar Translation Method is that it is about impossible to interpret all the phrases and sentences into the mark linguistic communication because the chief focal point is the interlingual rendition of this method so such pupils who have been taught through this method go fail to pass on good in the mark linguistic communication ( ibid ) .

In the Grammar Translation Method, truth is emphasized instead than eloquence and pupils go on thought to accurate the grammatical regulations which really hinder their eloquence. In Grammar Translation Method, the instructor suddenly interferes and stops the pupils wherever they make the errors so they become witting while talking and pass oning in the mark linguistic communication and go unable to be fluid ( ibid ) .

Criticism of the grammar interlingual rendition method.

There have been assorted unfavorable judgments on the usage of Grammar Translation Method for the instruction of modern linguistic communication peculiarly English. There are some expostulations that have been put on the Grammar Translation Method.

Grammar Translation Method emphasizes on the reading and composing accomplishments on the disbursal of listening and talking accomplishments. But larning the hearing and talking accomplishments of a linguistic communication is more of import than tilting reading and composing accomplishments because it is a natural manner of larning a linguistic communication. In Grammar Translation Method, composing gives scholars a brooding opportunity to look at their authorship that whether they have written right spellings, vocabulary and grammatical regulations. The chief purpose and end of most of the scholars in larning modern linguistic communications is non merely to develop reading and composing accomplishments whereas they want to pass on good and understand the native talkers ‘ linguistic communication.

Grammar Translation Method demands the agreement of the grammatical regulations in a construction get downing from the simple regulations and taking to the complex regulations. While most of the scholars particularly adult scholars want to get down utilizing the linguistic communication straight manner because they have non got clip to larn all the grammatical regulations one by one and get down utilizing them after so. Grammar Translation Method emphasizes to do the pupils learn each regulation and pattern it one by one and after commanding a regulation move to the following 1. So there remains the demand to revise all the regulations once more and once more so that they may non acquire washed out of the scholars ‘ head.

In Grammar Translation Method, sentence is the basic unit of the linguistic communication. The scholars are made able to memorise certain regulations of grammar and certain vocabulary which they have to suit everyplace they find a opportunity to utilize them. But if scholars find some unusual state of affairs they become unable to suit their memorized regulations to suit in that state of affairs.

In Grammar Translation Method, grammatical regulations and vocabulary is memorized in modern ways of learning a linguistic communication memorisation is non regarded while exposure of a linguistic communication, experience and usage of linguistic communication is preferred and recommended. Peoples have different acquisition manners. Some people like to larn vocabulary, grammar regulations, phrase and sentences through memorisation. But when they have to action them, they must hold clip to halt and remember the memorized points.

In Grammar Translation Method, the focal point of the scholars is the use of the grammatical regulations and words to compose right sentences with prescribed content. But in larning the modern linguistic communications, it is recommended that the major focal point should be more and more on the unwritten pattern and look of the personal significances. The look of the personal significances may botch the construction of the grammar regulations and sentences.

In Grammar Translation Method, the instructors and the scholars largely speak in their first linguistic communication or native linguistic communication. While it is extremely recommended that usage of 2nd and mark linguistic communication should be maximized in larning the linguistic communication but here maximization does non intend instructors and scholars should all the clip speak in the mark linguistic communication. The speech production of the 2nd linguistic communication is besides advantageous because in linguistic communication schoolrooms we may besides hold multilingual scholars that may belong to different linguistic communications so a individual linguistic communication i.e. 2nd or mark linguistic communication will be convenient to utilize without indicating a individual native linguistic communication.

In Grammar Translation Method, instructor should explicate, depict the grammatical regulations, tell the significances of the words, interpret the transitions, conduct grammar patterns, right errors and instructor should authorise the schoolroom and scholars. But now it is extremely recommended that instructors function in the category should be as a usher and facilitator. Teacher ‘s function in the linguistic communication schoolroom should be less. Teacher should move behind the scene. Teacher should give the jobs to the scholars to work out, interact among each other and by and large it leads the scholars to be independent scholars.

In Grammar Translation Method, interlingual rendition is the basic technique. Translation is a manner of understanding the significances of the written and unwritten texts by change overing the texts into the first or native linguistic communication of the scholars. Translation is a manner of comparison and contrasting two linguistic communications i.e. first linguistic communication and 2nd linguistic communication. But now it is extremely recommended that interlingual rendition should be avoided because it leads to such a mental procedure which hinders or Michigans larning. The scholars should be encouraged to talk and even think in 2nd linguistic communication every bit much as possible.

In Grammar Translation Method, truth is emphasized instead than eloquence but it is now extremely recommended that truth should come at the last and eloquence should preferred foremost. If the scholars are corrected on their errors from the really get downing, they will go hesitating to talk in the mark linguistic communication. When they will get down to talk, their heads will suddenly go read to look upon the grammatical regulations that they are utilizing so I this manner they will go unable to be fluent in linguistic communication ( Jonathan, 2012 ) .


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