History of Psychology

History of Psychology

History of Psychology

 University of Phoenix History of Psychology2 The Development of Psychology The foundations of psychology go back in history to ancient philosophers. These philosophers had a combination of interests with the human mind, body, and knowledge. Each philosopher had different interests, studies, and experiments. Some of them agreed with the theory’s of other philosophers whereas others had different points of view. These philosophers began the study of psychology, and became the foundation of psychology today.

The foundation of psychology forms around questions involving how humans accumulate knowledge of the world, how the mind is organized, how senses work, and if knowledge is built into the system (Goodwin, 2008). Rene Descartes (1596-1650) When Descartes was 18 years of age he left college because he was not satisfied with his education. He was more interested in finding information out for himself, rather than relying on authority. His main scientific interests were encompassed geology, astronomy, botany, anatomy, aeronautics, engineering, and weaponry.

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In the early 1620s, Descartes studied physics, optics, geometry, and physiology. He combined his interests, and demonstrated how various disciplines could be united through the careful use of reason based on a mathematical foundation (Goodwin, 2008). John Locke (1632-1704) John Locke spent most of his adult life as a tutor, and lecturer at Oxford. He led the life of a philosopher with a political and diplomatic career. Locke explains how knowledge is required, and how humans understand our world.

Locke believed that empiricist thinking could be applied to all aspects of the education of children. Locke studied human knowledge and its acquisition (Goodwin, 2008). George Berkeley (1685-1753) George Berkeley’s main focus was on analysis of sensory processes. He published two books when he was in his twenties that became an important part of psychology. In one of his books he shows how our perceptions of the distance, size, and locations of objects are judgments based entirely on History of Psychology3 experience (Goodwin, 2008). David Hume (1711-1776)

David Hume used experimental methods with careful and systematic observations of human thinking and behaviors. He used a logical analysis of the process to uncover basic laws of the human mind. Hume’s laws of association include resemblance, contiguity, and cause, and effect (Goodwin, 2008). David Hartley (1705-1757) David Hartley was a contemporary of Hume, but was not under his influence. Hartley considered psychological and physical events separately. He studied both the mental and physical side of the human body, and believed that man came with two parts, mind, and body.

His main law of association was experiencing events together. He believed that the strength of association relies on repetition. He relied on the building block structure taking ideas from individual component parts (Goodwin, 2008). John Stewart Mill (1806-1873) John Stewart Mill believed that all knowledge developed through experience, and under the proper circumstances anyone could become knowledgeable. In 1843, Mill published a book that included his beliefs about association and mental chemistry, and included an argument approach to the study of psychology.

Mill used logic for a series of methods of agreement, difference, and concomitant variation (Goodwin, 2008). Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was a mathematician and the coinventor of calculus. His interests included politics, mathematics, engineering, alchemy, and philosophy. With his approach to the mind-body problem, he had a different theory than Locke. Leibniz expresses different levels of awareness with some of the earliest experiments in psychology (Goodwin, 2008).

History of Psychology4 Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) Immanuel Kant argued that psychology could never become a science like physical sciences. Physical objects can be compared, observed directly, and could be defined and measured. He pointed out with mental phenomena, this was not possible. Kant agreed that our knowledge is based on our experiences, but what was most important is the process in which that occurs (Goodwin, 2008). References Goodwin, C. J. (2008). A history of modern psychology (3rd ed. ). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

What is Psychology? Psychology is said to be the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. The study of human behavior, development, and learning; and also seeks to understand and explain thought, emotion, and behavior. Today the question we are doing falls under the History of Psychology. It deals with the earlier schools (Structuralism and Functionalism) and compares them with the most recent schools of psychology (Gestalt psychology, Psychoanalysis and Cognitive Psychology). Structuralism What is structuralism (voluntarisms)?

Structuralism is said to be an approach to the human sciences which attempts to break conscious experience, down into objective sensation. Such as sight or taste, and subjective feelings, such as emotional response, will and mental images like memories or dream. Example Ryan calls Makita, she is conscious of him calling her, now she has to make that into response yt actually using her senses and responding. Founder of Structuralism Psychology became recognized as a formal academic discipline when Wilhelm Wundt (1832–1920) founded a laboratory for structuralism for psychological study in Germany in 1879.

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Wundt is often called the “father of experimental psychology” for this reason. However, structuralism is mainly identified with Edward B. Titchener (1867–1927), a student of Wundt. Structuralism involved a method called introspection (to engage in one’s own mind and feelings). It was self-observed by involving observers that describes elements of an object or experience rather than calling it by a familiar name. Both structuralism and introspection were later criticized, and eventually faded away as newer ideas advanced. Structuralism also deals with elements of experience.

Functionalism What is functionalism? The school of functionalism focused on behaviorism in addition to the mind (consciousness). It is concerned with how the mind functions, rather than the structure. Functionalists looked at how our experience helps us function more adaptively in our environments. They dispute about the stream of conscious is fluid and continuous and experience cannot be broken down into objective sensations and subjective feeling as the structuralist maintained. Example How habits help us cope with common situation.

Who created functionalism? William James (1842-1910) brother of the novelist Henry James has been called the first true American psychologist. I wish by treating psychology like a natural science to help her become written by Mr. William James. Functionalism also involved a form of introspection called introspection by analogy. Introspection by analogy assumed that the same mental processes that occur in a human mind must also occur in the minds of animals. Just as structuralism was, functionalism was also criticized. Gestalt Psychology

What is Gestalt Psychology? Gestalt psychology focuses on perception and how perception influences thinking and problem solving. In contrast to the behaviorist, Gestalt psychologists argued that we cannot hope to understand human nature by focusing only on overt behavior. In contrast to the structuralists, they claim that we cannot explain human perceptions, emotions, or thought processes in terms of basic units. Perception is more than the sums of their parts: Gestalt psychologists saw our perceptions as wholes that give meaning to parts.

The German word Gestalt translates roughly to “patterns” or “organized whole”. Why created Gestalt Psychology? Gestalt Psychology began to develop in 1910. This school of psychology was founded by a group of psychologists in the 1930’s led by Max Wertheimer (1880-1943), Kurt Koffka(1886-1941),and Wolfgang Kohler (1887-1967). Psychoanalysis What is Psychoanalysis? Psychoanalysis is the school of psychology that emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and conflicts as determinants of human behavior. It digs beneath the surface.

Who’s The Father of This theory? Psychoanalysis is the school of psychology founded by Sigmund Freud. It differs from the other schools in both background and approach. Freud theory has invaded popular culture, and you may be familiar with a number of its concepts. Freud came to believe that unconscious processes, especially sexual and aggressive impulses, are more influential than conscious thought in determining human behavior. He thought that most of the mind is unconscious – a seething caldron of conflicting impulses, urges, and wishes.

People are motivated to gratify these impulses, ugly as some of them are For example Perhaps a friend has tried to “interpret” a slip of the tongue you made or has asked you what you thought might be the meaning of an especially vivid dreams. Cognitive Psychology This is… The investigation of ways in which we perceive and mentally represent the world, how we learn, remember the past, plan for the future, solve problems from judgements, make decisions, and use a language.

Psychologists with a Cognitive perspective venture into the realm of mental processes to understand human nature (Sperry 1998). They Cognitive Psychologists, in short, study those things we call the mind. Who Is the Founder? We find Cognitive Psychology have roots in Socrates, structuralism, functionalism and Gestalt Psychology, each of which , in its own way, addressed issues that are of interest to Cognitive Psychology An example of Cognitive Psychology Is It’s the basic everyday life. It is what we go through from infancy to old age.

Our understanding of behavior has grown tremendously in the past several hundred years; however the majority of the advancements have been recent. Psychology, as sciences go, is one of the “new kids on the block”. Philosophers of ancient Greece and Rome argued for hundreds of years about some of the same issues that psychologists consider today. The most well known philosopher of Ancient Greece was Aristotle. Aristotle compared human behavior to the movements of the stars and seas in that; both are subject to rules and laws. Socrates, another Greek philosopher, believed that humans should rely on rational thought and introspection.

The formal beginning of psychology has been set in the year 1879, when William Wundt established the first psych lab in Leipzig, Germany. His aim was to study the building blocks of the mind. Wundt founded the school of psychology known as structuralism. Structuralism argues that the mind consists of three basic elements: sensations, feelings, and images. Wundt believed psychology was the study of conscious experience, which broke down into two parts: objective sensations and subjective feelings.

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At about the same time Wundt was establishing his lab in Leipzig, William James was setting up one of his own in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The main perspective that replaced structuralism as psychology grew is known as functionalism, founded by James. Functionalism concentrated on what the mind does and how behavior functions, rather than on the mind’s components. Another perspective of psychology was the Behavioral perspective. Behaviorism was founded by Watson in the 1920s. Watson believed that one could gain a complete understanding of behavior by studying and changing the environment in which people lived in. B.F. Skinner and he looked for reinforcement patterns. Gestalt psychology, founded by Wertheimer, Koffka, and Kohler, was another reaction to structuralism in the early 1900s, focusing on how perception is organized.



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