By September 10, 2017 Medical


South Africa presently has the highest figure of HIV positive people shacking in a individual state worldwide, and yet this state is still far from being the most educated towards HIV bar, proving and intervention. I will get down by explicating what it exactly means to be HIV positive and the assorted ways in which this diagnosing can be made. After being diagnosed as HIV positive, stigma can happen. HIV related stigma refers to any bias, maltreatment or negative attitude and shame directed at people populating with HIV, doing their lives even more complicated. Stigma can take on two signifiers, chiefly felt or enacted stigma. My response will depict some of the possible stigmas experienced by the two guest talkers present at the “Me and HIV/AIDS” workshop. I will besides discourse the ideas and feelings they evoked in me while associating them to my behavior, experiences and future pattern. Last, I shall demo what I have discovered about myself and measure the value of each dimension throughout my response as an emerging incorporate wellness professional.

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Bing diagnosed as HIV positive agencies that you have been exposed to and acquired the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. This diagnosing can be made through assorted types of trials. Knowing one’s personal HIV positive position has two critical benefits. First, it protects one’s personal wellness by obtaining early entree to antiretroviral intervention, thereby assisting to remain good, hold or avoid the oncoming of AIDS and dramatically slow disease patterned advance. Second, it besides protects the wellness of other people by being able to set about preventative actions against the spread of HIV to spouses, kids and others.

HIV proving determines whether a individual is infected with HIV. Some HIV trials check for antibodies that the immune system produces in reaction to HIV infection, mensurable from 3 months after infection. Other HIV trials look for grounds of the virus itself by observing antigen within yearss after infection. Different trials can be done at a figure of locations, runing from rapid home-use kits to expensive and ultra-sophisticated trials in research labs.

The Rapid Test is presently the most popular and quickest hence its name. It is able to look into a bead of blood or saliva-mouth swab for the presence of antibodies to HIV in merely a few proceedingss, leting patients to have consequences without holding to go forth the clinic or proving country. These trials are inexpensive or provided free of charge in some communities. To avoid false positive consequences, each positive trial has to be confirmed by a 2nd ( different ) Rapid trial or utilizing a more expensive but extremely specific Western smudge, line immunochemical assaies ( LIA ) or immune-fluorescent antibody check ( IFA ) performed in a research lab.

HIV antigen sensing confirms infection within yearss compared to HIV antibody trials which have a window of 3 months and the possibility of false negative consequence. The earlier the diagnosing, the Oklahoman the start of intervention and excess safeguards to forestall HIV transmittal. The drawbacks of these trials are that they are much more expensive to execute and necessitate sophisticated methods.

It is of import to observe that a healthcare professional has the ethical responsibility to obtain informed consent as a stipulation for HIV proving and to keep confidentiality of trials. Pre- and post-test-counselling should be given.


Stigma is defined as the shame or shame attached to something regarded as socially unacceptable. It may make a feeling of separation. Peoples who are stigmatised are labelled as different and discriminated for that difference.

Enacted stigma refers to Acts of the Apostless that abuse or know apart against people populating with HIV whereas felt stigma is directed towards experiencing stigmatised and the fright of sing it. These jobs are really existent and present in South Africa. They continue to impact the lives of people populating with HIV. The two signifiers of stigma intertwine, for illustration, a patient’s sense of felt stigma can be the consequence of past discriminatory beginnings of enacted stigma.

The causes that Alonzo & A ; Reynolds ( 1995:303 ) spring for the happening of HIV/AIDS stigmatising behavior can be reduced to four major factors, viz. : the personal duty for undertaking the virus, the ascertained infectivity of HIV, perceived badness of AIDS and the association of undertaking HIV with immoral and aberrant attitudes.

Ogden and Nyblade ( 2005:3 ) divide the looks and signifiers of stigma into four slackly defined groups: physical, societal, verbal and institutional stigma. The effects of HIV stigma include a negative impact on bar, proving, revelation every bit good as on intervention of HIV. The two guest talkers revealed assorted causes, looks and effects of stigma experienced.

Cindy Pivacic mentioned that a felt stigma she experienced was due to the age at which she became septic. Many people feel that mature and responsible grownups should cognize better than to go septic with HIV. There are many stereotypes experienced by people populating with HIV. Being infected with the virus is normally seen by people in the community as the consequence of immoral behavior and unfaithfulness. In many African civilizations it is regarded as penalty for their actions and foolhardy behavior.

The most often felt stigma is that of fright of rejection after unwraping one’s position. It amendss the mental well-being of people populating with HIV. Fear of isolation and unacceptance interruptions down assurance to seek aid and medical attention, in bend impacting physical well-being. It besides continues to draw up a wall of silence and shame about people populating with HIV. An even more tragic happening is that positively diagnosed people even refrain from seeking and originating antiretroviral intervention as the physical alterations due to the side effects of intervention could signal their position. It is hideous to believe that people choose to decline intervention due to all the negative effects associated with HIV stigma. Rejection is non the lone fright nowadays when unwraping HIV position. Lombeka stated that she was afraid of being physically hurt by household members or the community. Women and homosexual household members are the most at hazard of being maltreated by a fellow member of the household or community.

The health care system is non ever confidential. The opinion made by professionals about a person’s HIV position, behavior, sexual orientation or gender individuality can be disrespectful ( Stutterheim et al. , 2009:23 ) . Some professionals even reveal the HIV position of their patients to relations, friends and colleagues without the proper consent as in the instance with Cindy. The workplace is another beginning of stigma. It is a known fact that people populating with HIV are at a disadvantage if they unwrap their position to employers. This may ensue in the expiration or refusal of employment and isolation by co-workers in the workplace.


A powerful tool in the conflict against stigma is for people populating with HIV to step into the limelight and portion their narratives. The life narrative of Cindy and Lombeka were oculus openers for me, giving me a better thought of how people live with HIV and what it means to them. They showed that being HIV positive is no longer dangerous, merely life-altering. The best manner for undertaking the stigma is to battle the fright that drives stigma, fright frequently created by misconceptions.

I think there was a spread between my purposes non to stigmatise and my actions which were sometimes stigmatising, bespeaking a deficiency of cognition about the nature of stigma. This made me experience surprised and ashamed. After listening to the felt and enacted stigma experienced by the talkers I have an improved consciousness of what stigma is and an apprehension of how stigma is harmful. This new cognition, combined with self-reflection will assist halt my accidental stigma from happening.

I learnt that people populating with HIV are often stigmatised and that this can do their lives highly hard. As a future wellness professional I will hold to be cognizant of their rights and do it my responsibility to do certain they are implemented. This requires me to move empathically and without opinion. My cognition dimension besides increased as I learnt about assorted types of HIV proving.

Looking back at my response and the HIV/AIDS workshop I attended, I feel much more cognizant of the current state of affairs in South Africa. I understand what it means to be HIV positive and how this diagnosing can be made. I am able to recognize stigma towards people populating with HIV and strive to forestall it. I found out that confidentiality can be a complicated subject and that it requires the incorporation of all three dimensions to stay impersonal towards a individual populating with HIV.

Alonzo, A.A & A ; Reynolds, N.R. 1995. Stigma, HIV and AIDS: An geographic expedition and amplification of a stigma flight.Social Science & A ; Medicine. 41 ( 3 ) :303-315

Stutterheim, S.E. , Pryor, J.B. , Bos, A.E. , Hoogendijk, R. , Muris, P. , Schaalma, H.P. 2009. HIV-related stigma and psychological hurt: the harmful effects of specific stigma manifestations in assorted societal scenes.AIDS.23:17

Ogden, J & A ; Nyblade, L. 2005.Park at its Core: HIV-Related Stigma across Contexts.Washington, DC: International Center for Research on Women.

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