1. The two most of import influences on Enlightenment idea were who? John Locke and Isaac Newton 2. After 1688. Great Britain permitted spiritual acceptance to which groups? Lutherans. Jews. and Muslims 3. This state was significantly freer than any other European state at the beginning of the Enlightenment. What state is this? Great Britain 4. An spread outing. literate public and the turning influence of layman printed stuffs created a new and increasing influential societal force called what? public sentiment 5. Written by Voltaire in English and subsequently translated to French. this book praised the virtuousnesss of the English. particularly their spiritual autonomy. and implicitly criticized the maltreatments of Gallic society. What is this book’s rubric? Letterss on the English 6. Doctrines criticized the Christian church for many things. but non for what? Taking excessively limited a function in national political relations.
7. The two major points in the Deists’ credo were what? The belief in an hereafter dependent upon one’s earthly actions and the being of a rational God. 8. Which of the undermentioned figures came closest to atheism in their spiritual thought? Baron d’Holbach 9. Harmonizing to Ethics. the most celebrated of his plant. this adult male closely identified God and nature. an thought for which his coevalss condemned him. Who was this? Spinoza 10. This eighteenth century philosopher was known as the “Jewish Socrates” . Who is this adult male? Mendelssohn 11. Pascal and other critics saw this as an exceptionally animal or sexually promiscuous faith because of its instruction that Eden was a topographic point of sensuous delectations. What is this faith? Islam 12. The Encyclopedia did what? secularized acquisition and dispersed Enlightenment thoughts throughout Europe 13. He published On Crimes and Punishments. in which he applied critical analysis to the job of doing penalties both effectual and merely. Who is this? Marquis Cesare Beccaria 14. Adam Smith advocated what? The stoping of England’s mercantile system.
15. Harmonizing to Smith. authorities should supply what? Schools. ground forcess. naval forcess and roads. 16. Harmonizing to Smith’s four-stage theory. human societies moved from where to where? Barbarism to Civilization 17. The most of import political idea of the Enlightenment occurred in what state? France 18. He contended that the procedure of civilisation and the Enlightenment had corrupted human nature. Who is he? Rousseau 19. Based on his thoughts and traditions. most 18th-century political minds regarded human existences as persons and society as a aggregation of persons pursing personal. selfish ends. Who is this? John Locke 20. Most European minds associated with the Enlightenment favored what? the extension of European imperiums across the universe 21. Herder is celebrated for his early positions refering what? cultural relativism
22. The doctrines by and large were non what? devouring feminists 23. He maintained that adult females were non of course inferior to work forces and that adult females should hold a wider function in society. He was besides sympathetic in his observations refering the value placed on women’s visual aspect and the prejudice adult females met as they aged. Who was he? Montesquieu 24. Which of the undermentioned manners of art utilizes lavish. frequently blithe ornament with an accent on pastel colourss and the drama of visible radiation? Rococo 25. Which of the undermentioned manners of art embodies a return to figurative and architectural manners drawn from the Renaissance and the ancient universe? Neoclassicism 26. Neoclassic pictures were didactic instead than emotional and their capable affair normally concerned what? Public life or public ethical motives. 27. He was a strong royalist who in 1759 published a History of the Russian Empire under Peter the Great. which declared. “Peter was born. and Russia was formed! ” Who said this? Voltaire 28. Monarchs such as Joseph II and Catharine II made “enlightened” reforms as portion of their thrust to make what? Increase grosss and derive political support.
29. This sovereign embodies enlightened tyranny more than any other. He/she forged a province that commanded the trueness of the armed forces. the Junker aristocracy. the Lutheran clergy. and a turning bureaucratism? Frederick the Great 30. Monarchs associated with enlightened tyranny included all of the undermentioned swayers: Maria Theresa. Joseph II. Frederick the Great. Catherine II 31. Of all the lifting provinces of the eighteenth century. this province was the most diverse in its people and jobs. What is this province? Austria 32. Maria Theresa of Austria did all of the followers: limited the sum of labour the aristocracy could demand from provincials ; established a really efficient revenue enhancement system ; expanded primary instruction ; created cardinal councils to cover with political jobs 33. Joseph II of Austria: sought to better the productiveness and societal conditions of the peasantry 34. Catherine the Great of Russia did what? built a strong confederation with the aristocracy
35. As portion of her territorial aspirations. Catherine the Great painlessly annexed what freshly independent province in 1783? Crimea 36. King Louis XVI convened the Estates General in order to make what? raise revenue enhancement grosss 37. The Gallic parlements spoke for the involvements of what group? The Aristocracy 38. He was responsible for the debut of the radical land revenue enhancement that all landholders would hold to pay regardless of their societal position. Who is he? Charles Alexandre de Calonne 39. The parliament of Paris declared that merely the_______________ could set up new revenue enhancements. Estates General 40. The Second Estate of the Estates General was made up of what group? The Nobility 41. By the undermentioned manner the nobility attempted to restrict the influence of the Third Estate. What is this effort? They demanded that each estate have an equal figure of representatives 42. The cahiers de doleances presented to the male monarch included all of the undermentioned grudges: Government waste. corruptness. indirect revenue enhancements. and the runing rights of the nobility.
43. The Tennis Court Oath refers to an curse taken by what party? National Assembly to give France a fundamental law 44. Throughout the winter and spring of 1789. the high monetary values for what trade good produced many public violences? Bread 45. “The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen” was proclaimed by what group? the National Constituent Assembly 46. During the Great Fear what happened? Peasants reclaimed rights and belongings they had lost to blue revival. 47. Which of the undermentioned best describes the signifier of authorities pursued by the National Constituent Assembly? constitutional monarchy 48. Harmonizing to the right to vote judicial admissions of the Constitution of 1791. about how many of France’s 25 million citizens were qualified to vote? 50. 000
49. The Chapelier Law did what? forbade workers’ associations 50. The Roman Catholic Church condemned the _________________________ . Gallic Revolution 51. The undermentioned statement about the Jacobins are non true: they were the most conservative political group in the National Constituent Assembly 52. The term “sans culottes” was used in radical France to mention to what? Workers 53. The sans culottes wanted what above all else? Democracy 54. Louis XVI was condemned to decease on the charge of what? Conspiring against the autonomy of the people. 55. As Prime Minister of England. William Pitt the Younger did what? Suppressed reform AND popular motions 56. The undermentioned best summarizes Edmund Burke’s position of the Gallic Revolution: He believed it was shortsighted and politically nescient
57. By April 1793. the undermentioned states were at war with France: Spain. Great Britain. Austria. and Prussia 58. Issued in August of 1793. the levee en masse was a what? military requisition on the full population 59. By late 1794. the Gallic ground forces was the _______________________ in European history. Largest ground forces 60. The nucleus value of the democracy of virtuousness created by the revolution was what? Public good over private good 61. The followers was non portion of the political orientation embraced by Maximilien de Robespierre? Embrace Christianity 62. Many victims of the Reign of Terror were capable to what “humane” signifier of executing? Guillotine
63. The Law of 22 Prairial. passed on June 10 of 1794. permitted the _________ __________________________ without significant grounds. strong belief of counterrevolutionists 64. The Thermidorian reaction resulted in all of the followers: a pull back from the extremist revolution ; a new fundamental law ; the shutting of the Paris Jacobin Club ; the decrease of the political power of the sans culottes 65. The “Bands of Jesus” did what? murdered suspected Jacobins 66. The undermentioned best summarizes the comparing of freedoms exercised by adult females before 1789 versus after 1795? Womans had more freedom before 1789 67. The Gallic Revolution has frequently been considered a triumph of what group? Bourgeoisie 68. The Treaties of Basel in March and June 1795 concluded peace with whom? Spain and Prussia