Federation for Australia was when six independant Brisitsh colonies were no longer divided. It was the year “1901” when Federation happened for Australia. Federation took place because of the need to be more organised, to improve the defence of Australia, better transportation, stronger communication, to unify the economy and to strengthen the pride of being Australian. The idea of six colonies uniting as one had an apeal to people which lead to motivating the spirit of Australia and being as one.
However, it was a long process to Federation, requiring referendums and the Queen’s approval. Each and every colony would have had a different system whether it was their laws, taxes, railway systems, tariffs and transport, this was a problem. The transport in each colony was different such as, the railways. Many people found it hard travelling on one train and getting on another train just to cross the colony borders just because of the different rail tracks. After Federation all the railway tracks amongst the country were identical.
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One of the main reasons why Federation started was to create a better, yet stronger defence force because each individual colony was not strong or big enough to protect Australia’s coastline. Many colonies found it difficult to defend Australia’s coastline and so many colonies suffered by the small number of soldiers fighting and protecting Australia. So uniting Australia would have the benefit of having a large and stronger army. By this it was easier to unite as one, making it easier to control and even easier by using one command.
An important reason why Federation occurred was that the trade between the colonies got stronger which lead to better trades, telegraph lines and identical railway lines. This was one of the better ways to communicate amongst the whole of Australia. After this happened Australia’s economy grew larger and stronger and then the colonies started to feel united and finally feeling like Australians. However, not everyone agreed to Federation. People often said that if we had Federation the taxes would be higher and it would be expensive to set up a new central parliament.
Other people living in smaller colonies and lesser powerful colonies were afraid that New South Wales or Victoria would dominate these colonies which is why they disagreed to Federation. Other colonies argued that the Federal Government would tighten the immigration laws and said that they were able to cope keeping Australia a “White country all on their own. The year “1846” was the year when the first recorded suggestion for Federation but the idea didn’t click. Until Seventeen years later, in 1863 the first ever conference in Melbourne was held. Many delegates in this conference discussed differing matters regarding Federation.
Sir Henry Parkes, a familiar face, also known as “The Father of Federation” was the Premier of New South Wales who called for a convention on Federation in the year “1889”. As he delivered the speech known as “The Tenterfield Oration” he amazed more and more conventions. Soon after the “The National Australasian Convention” occurred in the city of Sydney. Many delegates approved on the name “The Commonwealth of Australia” afterwards beginning to draft up a constitution. Sir Henry Parkes lost his office in 1892, and the power towards Federation was temporarily lost.
He did however, in June 1892, complete his important work ‘Fifty Years in the Making of Australian History’, during this year . Meanwhile, Edmund Barton, New South Wales Attorney General, took over as leader of the Federation movement on Parkes retirement. In 1893, a Federation Conference was held in Corowa, New South Wales, between the 31st of July and the 1st of August, and was called by the Australasian Federation League. It was a long road until the constitution was made in 1900. This involved delegates having to travel to London in order to to receive a referendum from the British Parliament.
On the 1st of January was the official date when the existence of the Commonwealth of Australia occurred when the six colonies no longer were independent but states and united as one country. As of today the 1st of January still reminds us of the importance of Australia. Who knows what could have Australia been like if Sir Henry Parkes didn’t make a commitment in order to improve Australia. All of this changed after Federation happened, Australia now has a better and united economy, wonderful lifted Australian Spirit, stronger defence force and the Pride of our Australians today.