Human Resource Management Essay, Research Paper
Human Resource Management 1 ) Human Resource Management & # 8211 ; is the use of human resources to accomplish organisational aims. I have come to acknowledge that this is the most cardinal and of import portion of HRM is to understand the map of it. The interior workings of HRM is run by the HR director, who is an single plant with other directors to assist them cover with forces demands of the organisation. The Human Resource Manager is chiefly responsible for organizing the direction to assist accomplish an organisations ends. They are the key to the organisations success, by engaging the right forces for a specific occupation, they consequence the entire end product and production needed to make the ends set by the organisation. 2 ) Human Resource Management Functions & # 8211 ; There are six countries in which the HR director works: human resource planning, enlisting, and choice ; human resource development ; compensation and benefits ; safety and wellness ; employee and labour dealingss ; and human resource research. Human resource planning is the procedure of reexamining the human resource demands to guarantee that the needed Numberss of employees, with the needed accomplishments, are available when needed. Recruitment is the procedure of pulling persons to use for occupations with the organisation. Choice is the procedure though which the organisation chooses, from a group of appliers, those best suited for the unfastened places and the company. HR development helps persons, groups, and the full organisation become more effectual. Compensation and Benefits is the system that provides employees with equal and just wagess for their parts to run intoing organisational ends. ( wage, holiday, ill leav! vitamin E, vacations, and medical insurance ) Safety involves protecting employees from hurts caused by work related accidents. Health refers to the physical and mental good being of the employee. Employee and labour dealingss refers to the manner they negotiate with the employees, and the brotherhoods that they belong to. HR Research is the map in which the full organisation work environment is the research worker & # 8217 ; s research lab. They research every facet of the company & # 8217 ; s interior workings to do certain they are making their best to accomplish the ends set. I have seen the interior workings of this portion of HRM first manus at my occupation. The company I work for has grown at a rapid rate within the past three old ages and if it were non for the HR director and the usage of these maps they would hold ne’er achieved the ends that were set when the company foremost opened for concern. 3 ) Recruitment is the procedure of pulling persons on a timely footing ; in sufficient Numberss, and with appropriate makings, and promoting them to use for occupations with an organization.Employee requisition is a papers that specifies occupation rubrics, section, the day of the month the employees is needed for work, and other inside informations. The following measure in the enlisting procedure is to find whether qualified employees are available within the house or must be recruited from external beginnings, such as colleges, universities and other organizations.Recruitment beginnings are topographic points where qualified persons can be found.Recruitment methods are the specific agencies by which possible employees can be attracted to the firm.Alternatives to recruitment normally include overtime, farm outing, contingent workers, and employee leasing.Overtime is the most normally used method of run intoing short-run fluctuations in work volume.Subcontracting attack has peculiar entreaty when the subcontractor really has greater expertness in bring forthing certain goods or services.Contingent Workers ( portion timers, temporaries ) comprise the fastest turning section of the U.S. economy.Employee Renting a house officially terminates some or most of it & # 8217 ; s employees. A leasing company hires these employees so leases them back to the company who so becomes the client. External Environment of RecruitmentLocal labour market conditions are of primary importance in enlisting for most nonmanagerial, many supervisory, and even some middle-management places. Legal considerations besides play a important function in enlisting practices.The house & # 8217 ; s corporate image is another factor that affects enlisting. Internal Environment of Recruitment The organisations & # 8217 ; ain patterns and policies besides affect enlisting. Recruitment is Human Resource Planning. An organisation & # 8217 ; s publicity policy can besides hold a important impact on recruitment.Promotion from within ( PFW ) is the policy of make fulling vacancies above entry-level places with current employees.Policies relate to the employment of relations may besides impact enlisting attempts. Methods Used In Internal Recruitment Management and accomplishments stock lists permit organisations to find whether current employees posses the makings for make fulling unfastened positions.Job Posting is a process for informing employees that occupation gaps exist.Job Bidding is a technique that permits employees who believe they posses that required makings to use for a posted occupation. External Beginnings of Recruitment1. to make full entry-level jobs2. to get accomplishments non possessed by current employees3. to obtain employees with different backgrounds to supply new thoughts Ad communicates the house & # 8217 ; s employment demands to the populace through media such as wireless, newspapers telecasting and industry publications.Employment Agencies & # 8211 ; Public and Private An employment bureau is an organisation that helps houses enroll employees and at the same clip, aids persons in their efforts to turn up jobs.Special events is a recruiting method that involves an attempt on the portion of a individual employer or group of employers to pull a big figure of appliers for interviewsInternships are particular signifiers of enrolling that involves puting a pupil in a impermanent job.Executive Search Firms are organisations that seek the most qualified executive available for a specific position.Retainer Search Firms work for corporations and governmental bureaus which pay the fees ; they are paid for each hunt regardless of whether a suited campaigner is recruited.Contingency Search Firms focal point on lower and in-between direction places, every bit good as proficient places with wages from $ 30,000 to $ 70,000. These Organizations are merely paid if they find a suited employee. 4 ) The environmental factors impacting HRM are interrelated. Such factor are portion of either the house & # 8217 ; s external environment or the internal environment. External environment are those factors that affect a house & # 8217 ; s HR from outside the boundaries of the company. These factors include labour force, legal considerations, brotherhoods, stockholders, competition, clients, engineering, and the economic system. Each factor, either individually or in combination with others, can put restraints on the human resource director & # 8217 ; s occupation. The labour force is the pool of persons external to the house from which the organisation obtains its workers. Legal considerations trade with the Federal, province, and local ordinances enacted which affect equal employment chance. Unions are groups of employees who have joined together for the intent of covering with the employer. Stockholders are the proprietors of the company, they are concerned with how such outgo determinations will increase grosss o! R lessening costs. Competition, a house major undertaking is to maintain and keep a supply of competent employees if it is to win, turn, and prosper. Customer are who really use the house & # 8217 ; s goods and services. Technology, a major concern to those in HRM is the consequence technological alterations have had or will hold on concern, and if they will be able to happen the people with the resources to utilize this new engineering. The economic system, if the economic system is non making good opportunities are that the organisation will endure. I have come to acknowledge all these external factor once more at my topographic point of work. I can really understand and pick up on these factors really easy. 5 ) Job Analysis: A basic Human Resource Tool:
A occupation consist of a group of undertaking that must be performed for an organisation to accomplish its goals.A place is the aggregation of undertakings and duties performed
by one person; there is a position for every individual in the organization.Job analysis is the systematic process of determining the skills, duties, and knowledge required for performing jobs in an organization. It is an essential and pervasive human resource technique. The purpose of job analysis is to obtain the answers to six important questions:1) What physical and mental tasks does the worker accomplish?2) When is the job completed? 3) Where is the job to be accomplished?4) How does the worker do the job?5) Why is the job done?6) What qualifications are needed to perform the job? Job analysis provides a summary of a job’s duties and responsibilities, its relationship to other jobs, the knowledge and skills required, and working condition under which is performed.Job analysis is performed on three occasions. First, it is done when the organization is founded. Second, it is performed when new jobs are created. Third, it is used when jobs are changed significantly as a result of new technologies, methods, procedures, or systems.Job description is a document that provides information regarding the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of the job.Job specification is the minimum acceptable qualifications a person should possess in order to perform a particular job.Reasons for conducting job analysisIn this rapidly changing work environment the need for a sound job analysis is extremely critical. New jobs are being created and old jobs are being redesigned. Job analysis helps organization address the fact that change is taking place.Types of job analysis informationThe job analyst identifies the job’s actual duties and responsibilities and other types of information. This information is used later to help determine the job skills needed. In addition the job analyst looks at job-related tangibles and intangibles, such as the knowledge needed, the materials processed, and the goods made or services performed. 6) Job analysis methods Questionnaires are typically quick and economical to use. The job analyst may administer a structured questionnaire to employees, who identify the tasks they perform.Observation the job analyst usually watches the worker perform job tasks and records his or her observations. This method is used primarily to gather information on jobs emphasizing manual skills.Interviews are used to get an understanding of a job you interview both the employee and the supervisor.Employee recording job analysis information is gathered by having the employee describe their daily work activities in a dairy or log.Combination of these methods in most cases works better than just one.U.S department of labor job analysis schedule (JAS) Functional Job Analysis (FJA) is comprehensive job analysis approach that concentrates on the interactions among the work, the worker, and the organization.Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) is a structured job analysis questionnaire that uses a checklist approach to identify job elements.Management Position Description Questionnaire(MPDQ) is a method of job analysis designed for management positions and uses a checklist to analyze jobs.Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis (GOJA) responds to the growing amount of legislation affecting staffing and involves a step-by-step procedure for describing the work of a particular job classification.Occupational Measurement System (OMS) enables organizations to collect, store, and analyze information pertinent to human resources by means of a computer database. 7) Job DesignThe process of determining the specific tasks to be performed, the methods used in performing these tasks, and how the job relates to other work in the organization.Job Enrichment is basic changes in the content and level of responsibility of a job so as to provide greater challenge to the worker.1) Increasing job demands2) Increasing the worker’s accountability3) Providing work scheduling freedom4) Providing feedback5) Providing new learning experiencesJob Enlargement involves changes in the scope of a job so as to provide greater variety to the worker.Employee Centered Work Redesign – A concept designed to link the mission of the job satisfaction needs of employees. 8) Earlier I spoke about legal consideration, I believe it goes much more in-depth than what I explained before. There are many law that affecting equal opportunity employment. If a HR manager does not abide by them the organization could be in serious trouble. Most of these law were passed by congress, but there are some that come directly from the President. These are called Presidential Executive Orders. There are also government agencies that are totally devoted to this cause such as the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Charges can be filed by one of the presidential appointed EEOC commissioners, by any aggrieved person, or by anyone acting on behalf of an aggrieved person. Charges must be filed within 180 days of the alleged act. These laws and organizations are important in our work place they see fit that every person has a fair chance at employment regardless of their race, color, sex, etc… It is extremely important for the HR manager to abide by! these laws so the company is not sued, fined, or even closed down for violating these laws. 9) Employee selection is the process of choosing from a group of applicants the individual best suited for a particular position. The HR manager in the selection process weeds out the unwanted applicants, then chooses the ones that have the skills required for the position. Choosing any applicant can be a disaster, it is very important for the company to maximize it’s profits. If you make the wrong choices in hiring people that are under qualified or not skilled enough for a specific job the company loses profit. By hiring people that are qualified for the position then your productivity goes and with that your profits do to. 10) Performance Appraisal is a formal system of periodic review and evaluation of an individual’s or team’s job performance. However, considering the multiple needs of PA data, most organizations are led to one conclusion: although it is difficult process to devise and administer, there is a genuine organizational and employee need to conduct performance appraisal. PA are used in seeing if a person merits a raise in pay. They are also used by the company in seeing if the employee is performing the job at a relatively high standard. The performance appraisal can be given in many different ways, and the results are kept on file by the HR manager. They use this information to keep track of the employee’s history with the company as well as to use as standards for the rest of the company. I personally have a performance appraisal twice a year. It is given by my direct supervisor and determines whether I will receive a raise or not. 11) Professionalization of HRMA professional is characterized by the existence of a common body of knowledge and procedure for certifying members of the profession. Performance standards are established by members of a common profession rather than by outsiders. These characteristics apply to the field of HR, and several well-known organizations serve the profession. 12) Ethics – Professionalization of HRM created the need for uniform code of ethics. Ethics is the discipline dealing with right and wrong, good or bad or with moral duty and obligation. There are many kinds of ethical codes, and most professions have their own. A growing number of firms are establishing ethical codes and communicating them to their employees. They vary primarily in the extent to which they are applied under particular circumstances. It is vitally important that the HR manager understand those practices which are unacceptable and make every attempt to act ethically in dealing with others. 13) Effective HRM is crucial to every organization’s success. In order to be effective, managers must understand and competently practice HRM. Without HRM no company stands a chance of succeeding. The reason for this is that without the HR managers vast knowledge and resources, the organization can not grow and prosper. The right choices in the hiring of employees can make or break a company. This course has lead me to believe this to be a true statement.