By instilling human values in students and teachers, India can become an ideal country and example to the whole world. Values are those codes of conduct which are conditioned by one’s cultural tenets, guided by conscience according to which one is supposed to conduct himself and shape his life pattern by integrating his beliefs, ideas, attitude with a view to realize the cherished ideals and aim on life. Human values are closely integrated with human life. They are intertwined with our day to day chores. No human life is possible without values.
Social values: Social values are realized when an individual recognizes his place as no more than a part in the society and is willing to grant to all other individuals their due privileges. Religious values: Religious values arises as the individual practice his relation to God, the total person, in worship, fellowship and service. Process of value inculcation: The process of acquiring values begins at birth. Values develop through life and evolve from life experiences. They are formed by combining: intellect, will, emotions and spiritual needs.
Simply stated, values are beliefs on certain way of behaving on certain life goals. A value is a guide, a norm a principle by which a person lives. Values have seven criteria. These are: 1. A value must be chosen freely. 2. A value must be chosen from alternatives. 3. A value must be chosen after considering the consequences. 4. A value must be performed. 5. A value becomes a pattern of life. 6. A value is cherished. 7. A value is publicly affirmed. Value inculcation is building of values in our inner core.
This is a process that happens unconsciously since we start learning, but it is conscious as we start learning about values in schools. This happens when schools give us the moral education. Schools use four chief methods in moral education. Methods to inculcate human values: 1. Inculcation 2. Value clarification 3. Moral development 4. Value analysis Some schools use a combination of these methods in an approach called comprehensive moral education. Inculcation is an effort to teach children the values that educators believe lead to moral behaviour.
These values include honesty, compassion, justice and respect for others. One way of teaching such standards is to provide appropriate praise and punishment. Another means is to have teachers reflect the desired values in their own behaviour. Value clarification helps students develop their own values and moral standards by teaching them a decision making process. The learning procedure stress setting goals, choosing thoughtfully from alternatives and acting on one’s own conviction. Moral developments highlight moral and ethical principles and their application.
Value analysis includes analysis of issues and situations involving values. In modern age of science and technology , when social , moral, cultural and spiritual values are disintegrating, when religion is losing its hold, when power and knowledge are being misused for vested interest, when nations do not trust each another, when black marketing, corruption , barbarism, indiscipline, violence are fast spreading, it is essential that education should be value oriented. Only value oriented education can promote individual and social welfare, love , peace, goodwill and understanding.
Education without values is not only useless but also very harmful. This realization is particularly relevant at the present juncture of history when the horizons of knowledge have been immensely widened and the media and incidence of scams, Scandals threaten to disrupt value system and destabilize cultural base. Indian National Policy on Education therefore stresses the need for making “Education a forceful tool for the cultivation of social and moral values. ” Here comes the role of teacher in the inculcation of values among students, but for this purpose the teacher must reflect those values in his own behaviour.
Therefore the teachers at all levels are to be exposed to value oriented education. This is essential so that they can serve as models. Values are not taught but caught. The students are able to follow the teachers by observing their behaviour. The values are filtered from teachers to teach. The training of teachers is to be coordinated through different agencies of the state, non-governmental organizations and association of teacher. Adequate academic and financial support needs to be arranged for this purpose.
The teacher training institutions: District Institutes of Education, Colleges of Teacher Education, Institutes of Advanced study in Education, Regional Institutes of Education, State Institutes of Education are expected to provide quality pre-service and in service teacher education. The training in value education should be imparted by these institutions on priority basis. The teachers need training in approaches, techniques and methods of inculcation of values. The Education Commission (1964-66) rightly stated that when in doubt teachers teach in the way they were taught themselves and not in the way they were told to teach.
Therefore training of teachers in the inculcation of values needs careful planning on the part of training colleges. Approaches of Value Education The teacher must be trained in the following approaches for the inculcation of values:- 1. Direct Approach: The direct education approach prefers to deliberate systematic instructions in values in specially provided period. The values are explained and illustrated through stories of real life events etc. 2. Indirect Approach: The indirect approach of value education advocates the integration of values with regular curriculum.
Value education is imparted as an integral aspect of curricular and co-curricular activities. 3. Incidental Approach: In incidental approach, of value education implies imparting such education whenever an appropriate occasion arises for the same. For example, acts of courage, bravery, discipline etc. can be highlighted on various occasions such as morning assembly or sports day. Methods of Inculcation of values There are not to be one single method of inculcation of values. The best method is i) Presentation of example of self, as we know the individual learns through imitation.
Therefore teaching and behavior of the taught should be full of values which are to be developed among the individuals. ii) The discussion of behavior patterns and activities may be conducted in the classroom. This develops habits of listening and speaking. iii) Role playing activities may also help in developing values. Enacting a drama help an individual to understand the behaviour expected. iv)Film shows followed by discussion also help in value inculcation. v) Extension lectures and seminars on value education also prove beneficial. i)Value centered curriculum should be developed in order to inculcate values. vii) Book exhibitions, use of mass media, value oriented magazines and value oriented projects also help in development of values. Conclusion Our country is gradually but steadily moving towards science and technology. This movement has been greatly accelerated since independence. We as social planners should make proper use of science and technology for the ends of individual life and prevent the individual from being used as an instrument for the purpose of power.
It is here that the educator has to play his distinctive role. While the spirit of science should be all pervasive in our schools and colleges, the students must learn how to use their minds. It is the responsibility of the educators to ensure that the students are not dehumanized in the pursuit of science and technology. Society needs scientists and technologists, but more than that it needs good human beings who are sensitive to the beauty as well as the tragedy of life. Education must certainly sharpen knowledge, but it should not ignore the important task of fashioning beliefs among the youth.