Identify Viruses – influenza, common cold, HIV/AIDS,

March 25, 2019 General Studies

Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.

Bacterial and fungi infections are easy to cure with anti biotics, viruses can be harder to cure or vaccinate against. Parasites invade the body and can be the cause of disease.

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Identify common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.

Bacteria – food poisioning, ear infection, tonsillitis, pneumonia, MRSA.
Viruses – influenza, common cold, HIV/AIDS, herpes, warts.
Fungi – athletes foot, ring worm, yeast infection.
Parasites – worms, malaria.

Describe what is meant by ‘infection’ and ‘colonisation’
Colonisation – occurs whenever any one or more species populate an area.
Infection- is the invasion of body tissues by disease, causing micro-organisms.

Explain what is meant by ‘systemic infection’ and ‘localised infection’.
localised infection is limited to a specific body part or region for example tonsillitis.
Systemic infection is when the infection is throughout the whole body, an infection in your blood stream such as HIV/AIDS or diabetes.

Identify poor practices that may lead to the spread of infection.
Poor hand hygiene.
Dirty equipment.
Overflowing waste bins.
Lack of correct PPE.
Infected food handlers.

Understand the transmission of infection.

Explain the conditions needed for the growth of micro-orgainsms.
To multiply and reproduce micro-organisms require the following :-
moisture – bacteria must have moisture to saty alive.
nutrients – like all living things bacteria needs nutrients to survive.
temperature – ideal temperature for bacteria to multiply is arounf 37c
time – in the right conditions with the right nutrients bacteria will reproduce quickly.

Explain the ways an infective agent might enter the body.
Direct contact
Indirect contact.
Airbourne – cough or sneeze.
Consumption – food/water.
Exposure to blood.
Parasite bites.
Sexual contact.

Identify common sources of infection.
Poor hand hygiene
Poor cleaning procedures.
Lack of PPE.
Air bourne infection.
Contaminated linen/clothing.

Explain how infective agents can be transmitted to a person.
see ways an infective agent might enter the body.

Identify the key factors that will make it more likely that infection will occur.

Personal care tasks.
lack of personal hygiene.
Open wounds.
Contact with bodily fluids.
Dirty/ contamiinated areas/ equipment.
Age – very young/ very elderly.
Close proximitty to infected person.


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