During the past twelvemonth and a half, the universe economic system has experienced its severest recession since the 1930s ( World Bank 2009 ; IMF 2009a ) . Most advanced economic systems have experienced falling end product, although the crisis has been chiefly intensely felt in the UK ( Weale 2009 ) because of the measure of dependance on the hard-hit fiscal services division and the inordinate degree of family liability ( e.g. OECD 2009 ; Simpson 2009 ) .
The UK has experienced falling Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) for five back-to-back quarters ( ONS 2009 ) – worsening GDP for two quarters constitutes the official UK definition of a recession. GDP has undergone a diminution equivalent to an one-year bead of 5.5 per cent, a greater autumn than the 3.5 per cent bead predicted by the Chancellor for 2009 ( HM Treasury 2009 ) .
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Other macroeconomic indexs reflect the diminution in concern activity. Unemployment has risen from 1.73 to 2.47 1000000s in the twelvemonth to July 2009 ( 7.9 per cent of the on the job age population ) , Bank of England involvement rate remains at a record depression of 0.5 per cent, and the Retail Price Inflation index is presently negative, standing at -1.3 per cent.
Recession conditions cause main menaces to, but perchance besides offer important chances for, concerns. The nature of these menaces and chances, and their impact on concerns, varies with the nature and beginnings of peculiar recessions. While the precise causes of the 2008/9 recession, and the weight to be affixed to them in distinguishable national contexts, persist to be debated, it is widely accepted that the planetary banking crisis, sparked off by the extended non-payment of aˆzsubprimeaˆY mortgage holders in the USA, is one of the primary triggers ( Peston 2008 ; Cable 2009 ) .
Recessions associated with fiscal crises, particularly when extremely synchronized across states, have been more rough and longer enduring than recessions connected with other dazes, and recovery tends to be slower ( IMF 2009b: ch3 ) .
The present crisis has had terrible deductions for the restructuring of banksaˆY balance sheets and liquidness and, accordingly, for the supply of recognition to concerns and to families. The crisis has led to the autumn down, Government bail-out or uncomplete nationalisation of main fiscal institutes in the US and Europe ; to chief plans of financial and pecuniary betterment ; and to promote for commercialism and householders in the UK every bit good as in another topographic point ( HM Treasury 2009 ; IMF 2009b ) .
The planetary range of the fiscal system has meant that no state has remained insulated from the crisis, although the construction of the banking system and its relationship with the little concern sector is variable internationally which contributes to differentiated impacts.
A twine of studies has highlighted the lessening in gross revenues, employment, investing and mentality during 2008 and into 2009 ( BCC 2009a ; CBI 2009 ; SERTeam 2009a ) although some observers report that the worst of the recession may now be over ( BCC 2009b ; NIESR 2009 ; Ernst & A ; Young 2009 ; IFF Research 2009 ; SERTeam 2009b ) .
A study of 165 little concerns highlights the diverseness of experience with one in 20 houses describing endurance to be threatened, 8 per cent coverage serious branchings and larger proportions describing negligible impacts or no noticeable effects ( Intuit 2009 ) .
A telephone study of 4,400 little concern proprietors by the Federation of Small Business in June 2009 found that over the old 10 months, a lifting proportion of proprietors reported an addition in trade and that the cost of finance was easing ( FSB 2009 ) .
Figures released last May 25 2009 showed the air hose possess a pre-tax loss of 401 million lbs ( 636 million U.S. dollars ) . The dip in concern is a powerful index of how the recession is altering the air power industry with worsening rider Numberss and diminished lading demands cited as chief grounds behind the losingss. ( Welham, 2009 )
Even in London, with its greater dependance on fiscal services, there are marks that the recession may be chairing. Business activity and orders both increased in July 2009 compared with June, and consumer assurance is less negative than in the remainder of the UK ( GLA Economics 2009 ) .
The Business Link in London Recession Poll of April 2009 found that although 69 per cent of little concerns reported being affected by the recession, 83 per cent planned to keep current staff degrees, 59 per cent were looking to turn in the following 12 months, 42 per cent were looking to spread out through sharply seeking new concern chances, 17 per cent offered new merchandises and services and 12 per cent reported engaging more people to increase capacity ( Business Link 2009a ) .
The new Business Link Diverse Business Confidence Index ( July 2009 ) found that of 3,264 London little concern proprietors surveyed, 84 per cent are be aftering to turn their concern over the coming twelvemonth, chiefly through increased selling activity ( 48 per cent of those meaning to turn within the following 12 months ) , come ining new markets ( 43 per cent ) and by establishing new merchandises ( 35 per cent ) ( Business Link 2009b ) .1
This paper investigates how a sample of London-based little endeavors has adapted to recession conditions and with what effects for public presentation. The analysis broadens our apprehension of how recession conditions shape little concern activities and public presentation, thereby lending cognition that will be of usage to concern proprietors, policy shapers and research workers. More specifically, the survey:
identifies the effects of the recession and fiscal crisis on British Airways ;
investigates responses in footings of lay-off ;
analyses concern public presentation result.
The paper is structured as follows. First, we consider old research on British Airways responses to recession and other environmental dazes. The 2nd subdivision proposes a conceptual model for understanding firmsaˆY versions under recession conditions. Then we discuss the methodological attack adopted before showing the findings and decisions.
Recessions impact unevenly on industries, parts and concerns, and this shapes the assortment of cognition of recession and of concern reactions. The survey conceptualises little concern version and public presentation under recession conditions as dependent both on human bureau and the wider societal constructions that enable and restrain their activity.
All concerns interact with other stakeholders and these dealingss influence concern activity and public presentation. The capital, labour and merchandise markets contained by which houses work, and the wider institutional background, every bit good as the measure and quality of support to concern from authorities and other beginnings, act upon how houses adapt and their subsequent public presentation.
Business proprietors ever have some caution refering the schemes they take on, even though the grade of pick is frequently purely limited by resources or conditions ( e.g. Whittington 1989 ) . Small concerns are co-authors of their ain fates, and non merely the inactive victims of external forces, although their capacity to determine results is variable.
Business tactic and public presentation differ with resources and abilities, owner-manager sentiments of the menaces faced and opportunities available ( Thomas et al. 1993 ) , and the wider organisational, market, institutional every bit good as cultural positions ( e.g. Clark and Mueller 1996 ; Schoenberger 1997 ; Whitley 2007 ) .
Performance depends on how good houses adapt to recession conditions comparative to others with whom they fight for resources and markets – without precognition of what constitutes aˆzbetteraˆY . Schemes to crush the recession are likely to be context-specific, different with sectoral and spacial scene.
There is, as a consequence, no individual aˆzrecession effectaˆY for concerns, nor as consequence in any peculiar aˆzbest practiceaˆY scheme of version appropriate to all concerns. Recessions produce contradictory tendencies, some restraining concern proprietors from achieving their aims, while others are enabling.
Recessions are characterised by falling aggregative concern gross revenues, and typically by downward force per unit area on plus monetary values, which is enabling for resource acquisition. To the extent that recession additions market issue, this is besides enabling for lasting houses.
Recessions, hence, present little concerns with a major quandary: to cut costs in order to continue endurance in the short-run at the danger of cut downing their capacity to accommodate adequately when recovery comes ; or, instead, to keep greater capacity, geting higher costs in the short-run, with the purpose of retaining the capableness to gain chances for long-run value creative activity when the upswing comes.
Both processes – constraining and leting living houses – go on at the same time, but unevenly, during recession. Designation of peculiar restraints and enablements, nevertheless, tells us nil about how houses become accustomed or why they do so, or what the results of version are.
This chapter contains the different trials that the research workers will utilize in order to find: identifies the effects of the recession and fiscal crisis on British Airways ; investigates responses in footings of lay-off ; and analyses concern public presentation result.
The different trial would seek to reply the undermentioned sub-problems, i.e. the effects of recession on the operations as a whole and in footings of their labour cut-off. The research paper will besides undertake how the different variable such as rising prices, affects a concern as a whole.
The design of the survey is a qualitative research design of historical research since it is intended to find: foremost, how recession affects the concern of British Airways ; 2nd, how concerns response in footings of cost film editing by lay-off ; 3rd, how recession affects the public presentation of the said concern.
Research is the systematic aggregation and nonsubjective rating of informations related to past happenings in order to prove hypotheses refering causes, effects, or tendencies of these events that may assist to explicate present events and anticipate hereafter events. ( Gay, 1996 )
It is besides a research of structural stableness since the research is intended to see how democracy is being affected by socio-economic, historical, and cultural factors. It will be analyzing how different factors would be a ground for destabilization and consistence of democracy.
The research workers visited the different libraries for diaries, articles and surveies needed for the research. The research workers gathered time-series informations from different authorities establishments to guarantee of its cogency and consistence. The research workers would besides garner different intelligence and articles sing the past events that involves or has the democracy as its chief issue. It would undertake groundss of how recession, rising prices, and unemployment factors affect concerns such as British Airways. They would besides research informations on other concern that was affected by recession and how they dealt with it. The research worker would garner informations from 1986-2005 to be able to guarantee consistence and dependability.
The different informations such as rising prices and recession would be the dependent variable and will stand as the fixed variable. The research workers used unemployment as the independent variable and will be used as altering variables.
The multiple additive arrested development theoretical account will take the signifier of:
S/I=b0 + Inb1 + Unb2 + U
b0 = different economic factors
b1 = informations on rising prices rate
b2 = information on unemployment rate
u = unobserved informations ( border of mistake )
S/I = Gross saless or Income
In = Inflation Rate
Un = unemployment
To be able to reason the justification of the survey, the research workers will detect the undermentioned trials:
Trial OF SIGNIFICANCE
The research workers will utilize t-test. This trial is a process by which sample consequences are used to verify the truth or falseness of a void hypothesis. ( Gujarati, Basic Econometrics, 4th Ed. ) If the trial showed a negative chance so it means that the independent variable being tested is non impacting the dependant variable. If the chance showed a consequence that is positive, so it means that it is positively correlated which means that the independent variable being tested do impact the dependant variable.
T = I?2 – I?2 a?sa?‘x2i
Trial OF STRUCTURAL STABILITY
The Chow Test is a anticipation failure trial. It can be use to prove the prognostic power of a arrested development theoretical account. It is most normally used in clip series analysis to prove for the presence of a structural interruption. ( Gujarati, Basic Econometrics, 4th Ed. ) Chow trial is used whenever there is a alteration in the variable, such as execution of jurisprudence, alteration in authorities control, alteration of president, and the likes.
( RSSR – RSSUR ) / K
F [ K1 ( N1 + N2-2K ) ]
( RSSUR ) / ( N1 + N2 – 2K )
The research workers will utilize Eviews 3.1 in carry oning these trials.
BUSINESS PERFORMANCE DURING THE RECESSION
A deteriorating macroeconomic environment of falling GDP does non impact every little concern in the same manner, at the same clip, or with the same effects for public presentation. The nature, timing and continuance of the impact for peculiar endeavors – every bit good as their responses and the public presentation outcomes achieved – are variable.
Some houses experience falling gross revenues and/or net income borders, while others achieve increased gross revenues and net income borders and yet others report no noticeable impacts. Online/mail study respondents were asked to describe whether the value of gross revenues and net income borders had increased between the first one-fourth of 2008 and the first one-fourth of 2009.
The period was considered sufficiently broad to embrace the start of the downturn5 and to supply an equal period over which public presentation alteration could be measured. The consequences demonstrate the scope of public presentation results among sample concerns ( Table 2 ) .
More houses reported lower gross revenues and net income borders than higher figures, but the informations show that even during recession periods, some houses are able to better public presentation: a one-fourth of concerns achieved higher gross revenues grosss, and one in five achieved higher net income borders during the period.
Timing OF RECESSION-RELATED IMPACTS
To obtain informations on the timing of recession-related impacts, concern proprietors were asked the month/year when their concerns foremost felt the recession. Business proprietors might comprehend the impact of recession through falling gross revenues or net income borders, increasing client late payment and bad debt, fastening recognition footings from loaners and providers or via other beginnings.
Respondents reported a broad scope of responses, from August 2007 through to July 2009, while about one in five reported no impacts at all therefore far ( Table 3 ) . A pronounced upward displacement in concern ownersaˆY studies of recession impacts occurred in September/October 2008, around the clip of the prostration of Lehman Brothers, the major US finance corporation, and the subsequent bustle of activity by western authoritiess, with a marked spike in January 2009 when 11 per cent of respondents reported foremost experiencing the recession.
Of concerns describing no recession effects, most reported additions in gross revenues and net income borders in the twelvemonth to Q1, 2009: 59 and 54 per cent severally, compared to 18 and 11 per cent among those describing experiencing the recession at some point.6
Businesss with a greater dependance upon public or voluntary sector gross revenues – 50 per cent or more of entire gross revenues – were somewhat more likely to describe that the recession had non affected them yet. Just over a one-fourth of houses ( 31 per cent ) with public and voluntary sector gross revenues of more than 50 per cent reported that they had non felt recession yet ; for those with lower gross revenues to the populace and voluntary sectors, the proportion is 22 per cent.7
This is likely to reflect Government efforts to back up the private sector through keeping degrees of public outgo. Weale ( 2009 ) found a positive correlativity between authorities ingestion and GDP growing across the 28 states for which the Administration for Economic Cooperation and Development provides quarterly informations.
Business RESPONSES UNDER RECESSION CONDITIONS
Business ownersaˆY responses under recession conditions are influenced by the nature and extent of the impacts experienced ( Geroski and Gregg 1997 ) . Recessions constitute menaces to concern in so far as economic activity lessenings, with deductions for concern turnover, but besides create chances for concerns in at least four ways.
One, recessions impart downward force per unit area on plus monetary values, which means inputs are frequently cheaper for houses to get. Investings in staff, premises and merchandise development that would otherwise be perceived as uneconomic might go worthwhile because inputs can be obtained at monetary values that facilitate profitable production and supply.
Second, recessions motivate concern proprietors to accommodate inputs, merchandises, procedures and monetary values in order to increase or keep gross revenues and net income borders and/or to cut costs and increase efficiency. Intensified competition stimulates houses to seek advanced solutions to gross coevals and film editing costs.
Third, buyers frequently adapt behaviors during recession periods, exchanging to new providers on either cost evidences, or because they are able to entree higher-quality goods and services that were antecedently unaffordable.
Fourth, worsening demand may take concerns to go out the market, go forthing lasting houses to vie to procure the aˆzvacantaˆY market portion. Examples of all of these influences are apparent in the sample endeavors.
Research workers have distinguished between houses set abouting retrenchment activities centred on cost-cutting and plus divestment, and those seeking to bring forth gross through investing, invention and variegation ( e.g. Shama 1993 ; Michael and Robbins 1998 ) .
Given that concerns might accommodate to recession conditions in a assortment of ways, how, in fact, do they react? Survey respondents were asked to bespeak which actions from a prompt list of classs ( plus an aˆzotheraˆY class ) they had taken since the start of 2008 ( Table 4 ) .
This diction was chosen instead than inquiring straight about responses to recession because it was anticipated that some respondents would describe that they have non been affected by recession or that they would hold taken the action anyhow irrespective of the recession.
Business proprietors might, of class, have been incognizant of the influence of recession on their actions ; for illustration, where providers cut down monetary values in response to their worsening gross revenues, this may make chances to procure better footings. Responses were categorised under nine wide types, listed in order of frequence of response:
alterations in gross revenues and selling ;
alterations in markets ;
alterations in employment ;
alterations in merchandises and/or services offered ;
alterations in finance ;
alterations in owner/manager behavior ;
alterations in production/business procedures ;
alterations in premises ;
alterations in concern administration.
Business proprietors reported a broad scope of responses to better or keep concern public presentation, including patterns intended both to command costs and to bring forth gross revenues. Almost all concerns ( 94 per cent ) reported taking at least one of the actions in Table 4 since the start of 2008.
The most frequent reported actions were: aˆzintroduced new or improved merchandises or servicesaˆY ( 58 % ) ; aˆzpersonally working longer hoursaˆY ( 58 % ) ; and aˆzincreased gross revenues effortaˆY ( 56 % ) . Conversely, fewer than one in 10 concern proprietors reported the undermentioned patterns: aˆzreduced the scope of products/services offeredaˆY , aˆzincreased usage of rational propertyaˆY , aˆzreduced employee trainingaˆY , aˆzopened subdivisions or outletsaˆY , aˆzclosed subdivisions or outletsaˆY , aˆznegotiated a alteration in the continuance of the leaseaˆY , aˆzincreased usage of unpaid household labouraˆY , and aˆzsold personal assets to counterbalance for hapless concern performanceaˆY .
The Intuit ( 2009 ) study besides reported a scope of cost-cutting and income-generating patterns.
Interestingly, given the public argument about the aˆzcredit crunchaˆY and the limited handiness and high cost of bank finance to concerns, it is possibly surprising that so few respondents reported finance-related actions.
Merely over a one-fourth ( 29 per cent ) reported aˆzrenegotiating footings with suppliersaˆY but less than one in five reported any of the other specified actions – including aˆzreducing debt to external sourcesaˆY or aˆzreducing investing expenditureaˆY . This might reflect the limited demand for recognition on the portion of little concern proprietors.
Merely 39 per cent of the sample concerns reported accessing external finance since the start of 2008, largely for working capital intents, although a figure of houses had used it to purchase fixed assets, develop new merchandises or services or set about a selling run.
Furthermore, these low figures do non look to be due to higher rates of refusal by recognition suppliers to appliers for finance: merely 15 per cent of the sample reported an unsuccessful, or merely partly successful, application for a bank overdraft since the start of 2008, 11 per cent reported an unsuccessful, or merely partly successful, application for a concern recognition card and 8 per cent reported an unsuccessful, or merely partly successful, application for bank loans.
Indeed, big proportions of the sample reported ne’er to hold used these beginnings of finance at all: 62 per cent reported ne’er holding a bank loan, 42 per cent an overdraft and 26 per cent a concern recognition card. Other beginnings besides report a limited impact of entree to recognition during the recession ( Intuit 2009 ) .
Sample concerns reported implementing, on norm ( average ) , 8.1 actions ( from the 39 prompted ) . Small firmsaˆY responses are, hence, extremely diverse under recession conditions although most combine wise cost-reduction activity, in order to conserve resources, with every bit carefully chosen revenue-generating activities – what might be termed an aˆzambidextrousaˆY attack to bettering or keeping public presentation.
Although many observers advocate cost-cutting during recession, the study findings show that little concerns are merely every bit likely to take action seeking to win new concern as they are to cut costs. Small concern proprietors are more likely to take both revenue-generating and cost-cutting actions instead than implementing either type of action entirely.
Very high proportions of the sample reported taking some action to increase gross ( 93 per cent ) and to cut costs ( 88 per cent ) , and 87 per cent reported taking both types of action. Following, we present interview informations to exemplify the scope of recession impacts and of little firmsaˆY versions under recession conditions.
Our intent is to foreground the heterogeneousness of experiences of, and responses to, recession and to associate these to concern ownersaˆY motives, resources and the wider context. Small concerns possess variable capacities to accommodate, with variable effects for public presentation.
Recession may non merely have diverse impacts upon little concerns, it might besides act upon the actions they take to pull off those impacts. It is arguable that concerns sing the most terrible inauspicious impacts will be those most likely to implement the most far-reaching alterations to concern scheme and pattern.
Firms sing less terrible dazes, arguably, present less rigorous steps. This may be reflected in the measure and quality of versions implemented. To research the relationship between perceived impact of recession and actions taken since the start of 2008, chi-square trials were performed.
As expected, possibly, houses describing experiencing the recession were significantly more likely to describe taking action to better or keep public presentation since the start of 2008 than those who did non ( 8.5 actions reported, compared to 6.2 ) . There were differences in the specific actions taken between the two groups. Those describing being affected by recession were more likely to describe the undermentioned actions ( all important at the 1 per cent degree, unless otherwise indicated )
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
This chapter discusses the different trial consequences for the variables in the theoretical account viz. rising prices rate, recession, and unemployment rate. The research workers used E-views to carry on the different trial.
4.1 Inflation rate on unemployment rate
Dependent Variable: Inflation
Prob ( F-statistic )
Appendix E shows the one-year informations of rising prices rate and unemployment rate for the old ages 1986-2005. T-test consequence shows that there is a important relationship between unemployment and rising prices rate, there is an addition of 24.57223 for the estimated mean value of rising prices rate and an estimated alteration of -1.667217 in the mean value of rising prices rate as a consequence of a per centum alteration in unemployment.
White Heteroskedasticity Test:
From the consequences of the White ‘s General Heteroscedasticity Test, the chance is 0.555100 which is greater than the degree of significance, therefore, it is homoskedastic.
Chow Breakpoint Test: 1998
Log likelihood ratio
In the Appendix B shows the deregulated and deregulated old ages used for running the Chow Test, it shows that there is structural stableness because its Log Likelihood Ratio chance 0.580356 which is higher than.05, that is the degree of significance.
4.2 Gross saless and rising prices rate
Dependent Variable: Inflation
Prob ( F-statistic )
T-test shows that there is a reverse relationship between gross revenues or income of the concern and rising prices rate. 9.285719 is the estimated lessening in gross revenues when there is a 0.078568 per centum alteration in rising prices.
White Heteroskedasticity Test:
White ‘s General Heteroscedasticity trial shows that there is an consequence in the public presentation of the concern due to the rising prices rate for the chance is 0.654712 demoing that it is higher than the degree of significance, .05.
4.4 Unemployment Rate and Inflation Rate on Gross saless
Dependent Variable: Gross saless
Prob ( F-statistic )
T-test shows that the independent variable, unemployment rate and rising prices rate, has an consequence with the gross revenues or income of the concern. It shows that when there is 0.082060 per centum alteration in gross revenues, if the rising prices rate is 26.30206. The unemployment shows a negative relation with gross revenues demoing that there is -1.677089 when rising prices rate is 26.30206
The 2008/9 UK recession has been reported as the worst since the 1930s, affecting a prostration of the banking system, every bit good as falling GDP. Observers have suggested that little concerns have suffered severely with many forced to shut. While this is doubtless true for some, the two-stage research design reported on here has enabled us to supply a more nuanced position of how recessions influence little concern activity and public presentation.
Several major findings are presented.
First, little houses experience recession in a broad assortment of ways. This assortment has been illustrated by separating instances of terrible daze, limited impact and no sensed impact. If little concerns are needfully vulnerable to recession, the survey might hold been expected to happen that all sample concerns have suffered well and struggled to last.
A deteriorating macroeconomic environment does non, nevertheless, impact all little concerns in the same manner. Simplistic statements that recession conditions needfully impede little concern public presentation must be rejected, since non all concerns suffer lower degrees of public presentation. Some houses experience significantly decreased gross revenues, while others are unaffected or go on to accomplish increased gross revenues. These diverse experiences motivate peculiar little concerns to move in peculiar ways.
Second, little firmsaˆY versions to recession conditions are diverse. Although many observers recommend retrenchment, implying cost/asset-reduction, it appears that most concern proprietors adopt an aˆzambidextrousaˆY attack, uniting both revenue-generation and cost/asset-reduction activity.
Business proprietors ever have some grade of pick as to how to react to altering fortunes, although there is no warrant that their versions will better the firmaˆYs lucks.
Entree to peculiar resources makes certain concern responses possible but it does non find them. There is an irreducible function for human bureau, the capacity of concern proprietors to construe their fortunes, to specify a set of aims and to take a class of action they believe ( fallibly ) will accomplish those purposes.
Some concerns may handle the recession as a market chance and seek to spread out through investing, invention and variegation ; others will retrench and concentrate on cut downing costs and assets. Through their actions, little concern owner-managers are able to act upon the impact of recession on their endeavors.
The effects of recession are partially due to firmsaˆY responses and non merely merely the result of the influence of the activities of others – for illustration, rivals, consumers and providers.
Third, little concern versions and public presentation are contingent upon a broad assortment of organisational, market and wider institutional singularity. What works in one context might non make so in another. How houses act, and with what grade of success, are contingent upon context, including the nature and timing of recession-related dazes. Organizational factors such as the resources available, and external influences, including merchandise, labour and capital market conditions are cardinal influences.
Small concern proprietors frequently lack the resources ( finance, accomplishments, webs ) to accommodate adequately to recession conditions and rivals may good accommodate more efficaciously. There is, hence, no necessary connexion between manner of version and public presentation ; nor, accordingly, any individual aˆzbest practiceaˆY scheme that assures concern continued being, or success, during recession.
To stop, the present recession stands for both a menace and an opportunity for UK concerns. Although unequal resources cause to be little houses vulnerable to alterations in the external environment, through their ain resource acquisition and mobilization activities they are able to use a important influence over their ain public presentation and continued being.
Vulnerability is non, hence, a given feature of little endeavors. Small concern proprietors are able, through their ain activities, to show resiliency, although the beginnings of this resiliency may act upon its sustainability and influence on longer-term concern public presentation.