Importance of Management Functions and Principles

December 8, 2017 Management

Management is the coordination and oversight of the work activities of others so that their activities are completed efficiently and effectively. In order to carry out those responsibilities, management requires the application of several important functions, skills and roles to carry out the necessary activities in the organization effectively and efficiently. Effectively meaning doing things right so that the organizational goals can be attained and efficiently meaning getting the most output from the least amount of inputs.

Furthermore, management is entrusted with the responsibility of shaping the business objectives that is in line with the vision of the business, proactive planning for future growth, anticipating and planning for changes in the business environment, administering and controlling business activities and taking account of the business operation and results. However, these responsibilities can all be summarized into the four basic functions of management which includes planning, organizing, leading and controlling.

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Planning establishes objectives and devises programs to achieve them. It also involves choosing tasks that must be performed to attain organizational goals, outlining how the tasks must be performed, and indicating when they should be performed. Planning activity focuses on attaining goals. Managers outline exactly what organizations should do to be successful. Planning is concerned with the success of the organization in the short term as well as in the long term.

Organizing deals with the development of an organizational structure to implement strategies. Organizing as a function involves identification of activities, classification of grouping activities, assignment of duties, delegation of authority and creation of responsibility. Within the organizing function, tasks are organized so that the output of each individual contributes to the success of departments, which, in turn, contributes to the success of divisions, which ultimately contributes to the success of the organization.

On the other hand, leading involves guiding, motivating, supervising and influencing to get the best out of worker. It can be described as guiding the activities of organization members in the direction that helps the organization move towards the fulfillment of the goals. The main purpose of the leading function is to increase productivity. Human-oriented work situations usually generate higher levels of production over the long term than do task oriented work situations because people find the latter type distasteful.

Controlling is the function that involves monitoring, comparing and correcting performance. It is an ongoing process that helps to predict deviations before the actually occur. However, the main purpose of controlling is to ensure that everything occurs in conformities with the standards of the organization. Additionally, management roles are of extreme importance to the effective running of any organization. Managerial roles are specific categories of managerial behavior which involves interpersonal, informational and decisional roles.

These roles are keen to the management process as interpersonal roles involves the coordination and interaction with employees and it involves a leader who is Responsible for staffing, training, and associated duties, a figurehead who is the symbolic head of the organization and a liaison who maintains the communication between all contacts and informers that compose the organizational network. Informational roles involve collecting, receiving and disseminating information so as to avoid any problems.

The participants of the informational role involves a monitor who personally seeks and receives information so as to understand the organization, the disseminator who transmits all import information received from outsiders to the members of the organization and finally the spokesperson who transmits the organization’s plans, policies and actions to outsiders. On the other hand, decisional roles are basically the ability of management to make precise decisions and choices.

It can be categorized into an entrepreneur who seeks opportunities, a negotiator who represents the organization at major negotiations, a resource allocator who makes or approves all significant decisions related to the allocation of resources and the disturbance handler who is responsible for taking corrective action when the organization faces disturbances. According to Robert L. Katz, three essential skills are to needed to assist in the carrying out of business operations effectively and efficiently.

These skills required are technical skills, human skills and conceptual skills. Technical skills are job specific knowledge and techniques needed to proficiently perform work tasks and examples of technical skills are writing computer programs, completing accounting statements, analyzing marketing statistics, and writing legal documents. Human skills refers to the ability to work with, motivate, and direct individuals or groups in the organization whether they are subordinates, peers, or superiors.

It relates to the individual’s expertise in interacting with others in a way that will enhance the successful completion of the task at hand. Examples of human skills are effective communication (writing and speaking), creation of a positive attitude toward others and the work setting, development of cooperation among group members, and motivation of subordinates. In other words, it is the ability to work well with other people individually as well as in a group.

In addition, conceptual skill is the ability to understand the degree of complexity in a given situation and to reduce that complexity to a level at which specific courses of action can be derived. Example of where conceptual skills can be employed is when the reorganization of one department which ultimately affects the activities of other departments in the organization. These skills are very important as it allows one to think, conceptualize, understand the relationship among various subunits, communicate, motivate, lead and inspire.

Conclusively, management is the process of reaching organizational goals by working with and through people and other organizational resources. Therefore it is important for management to incorporate the important functions, skills and roles in their daily operations so as to carry out each operation effectively and efficiently. As a result, effective management results in business success while ineffective management results in failure.

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