This paper analyses the theories and constructs of leading of cardinal characters in the film, Invictus. The cardinal characters analysed are President Nelson Mandela and Francois Pienaar, captain of the South African rugger squad.
Based on a book written by John Carlin, Playing the Enemy: Nelson Mandela and the Game That Changed a State, the film is directed by award-winning manager Clint Eastwood. Staring Morgan Freeman as President Nelson Mandela and Matt Damon plays Francois Pienaar, who is the current captain of the Springboks, the South African rugger squad, it was released in the United States in mid-December 2009.
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2.0 SYNOPSIS OF MOVIE
The narrative centres around events before and during the 1995 Rugby World Cup, hosted in South Africa shortly after the autumn of apartheid with the release of political captive Nelson Mandela. Mandela was held in a prison on Robben Island for near to 27 old ages. As the new elected President, Mandela vowed to unify the South Africa population which is presently divided into two groups: the white people who originated from Europe and came to South African in the seventeeth century known as Afrikanders and the native black population of the state. The film fundamentally shows President Mandela ‘s effort to unify both groups in back uping the state ‘s rugger squad, the Springboks ( rugger was traditionally a white athletics ) and maneuvering the squad as it made a historic thrust towards winning the 1995 Rugby World Cup Championship.
Despite all odds and initial opposition, the black indigens of South Africa shortly began to demo involvement in the Springboks. As the squad wins more and more games, they continue to have lifting support from both the Afrikaners and the black indigens. The squad achieved unexpected success in the 1995 Rugby World Cup concluding, get the better ofing the strongest opposition in the tourney, New Zealand, which brought cheer non merely to the Afrikanders but besides to the black indigens all over the state as they celebrated the squad ‘s triumph. This necessarily began to bridge the divide between the two groups that had been at that place for centuries due to apartheid.
The rubric Invictus is translated from the Latin as undefeated or unbeaten, and is the rubric of a verse form by English poet William Ernest Henley ( 1849-1903 ) . The stoping saw the recitation of poetries from the verse form:
“ Out of the dark that covers me, Black as the cavity from pole to punt,
I thank whatever Gods may be For my unconquerable psyche.
In the fell clasp of circumstance I have non winced nor cried aloud.
Under the bludgeonings of opportunity my caput is bloody, but unbowed.
Beyond this topographic point of wrath and cryings Looms but the Horror of the shadiness,
And yet the threat of the old ages Finds and shall happen me fearless.
It matters non how strait the gate, How charged with penalties the coil,
I am the maestro of my destiny: I am the captain of my psyche. ”
Leaderships in the film
There are clearly two distinguished leaders in the film:
President Nelson Mandela – despite holding to confront other pressing issues to construct the state in his first term as president, Mandela is committed to his pledge to reunite the people of South Africa. He tries to accomplish this through athleticss, viz. rugger in which the state is hosting in the undermentioned twelvemonth.
Francois Pienaar, captain of the Springboks ( South African Rugby squad ) . Pienaar faces a tough challenge from President Mandela to drive his squad to win the 1995 Rugby World Cup Championship, something he ne’er thought possible before.
Role of leaders
Newly-elected President Nelson Mandela plays a prima function as the individual who tries to unify the divided groups of white Afrikaners and the black South African indigens with the terminal of apartheid. He believes that it can be achieved through rugger, which is the figure one athletics for the white Afrikaners. With his strong belief in the power of the game, Mandela went against the wants of his ain staff and follows his inherent aptitudes to prosecute his mark.
Mandela calmly leads by illustration, exposing great leading accomplishments through his quiet brooding assurance in contemplating determinations, his committedness to accomplish whatever he sets out to make and the manner he touches other peoples ‘ lives and emotions with his personal communicating manner.
Meanwhile, Francois Pienaar admires President Mandela ‘s aspirations to unify the people of South Africa and was inspired by his dedication and doggedness to accomplish his end. Through his leading and committedness, Pienaar steadily builds his squad ‘s assurance and began to win more and more lucifers, and finally brought his squad to triumph against the strongest opposition, New Zealand, in the concluding lucifer of the 1995 Rugby World Cup.
3.0 LEADERSHIP ASPECTS
Incidents within the film affecting the leaders
One incident shows a sporting organisation where all commission members are black indigens, and they agree to go through a gesture to alter the name, coloring material and logo of the rugger squad to accommodate a different and blacker South Africa. Currently, the rugger squad represents the pride of the Afrikaners and is despised by the black indigens as they see it as a symbol of apartheid. However, President Mandela who arrives at the meeting merely after the vote procedure asks the commission members to rethink their determinations in the context of integrity for the state and the good of the population. In the terminal, he manages to garner 13 ballots on his side which is adequate for him to maintain the Springboks.
Mandela ‘s manner of participative leading is really admirable. He ever encourages those working under him to believe otherwise about environing issues.A A good illustration would be the one refering his personal security group. Alternatively of being leery about the trueness and committedness of his white security staff, he directed the security caput, a black Soth African indigen, to work together with their extremely experienced opposite numbers and learn from them. He besides treats the white security staff good even though some of them were against him when he was in prison.
Dayss before the concluding lucifer, Pienaar as captain of the rugger squad claims that the squad needs a interruption. They head to Robben Island with their girlfriends to take their heads off the game. There, Pienaar visited the gaol where Mandela was held. Standing inside Mandela ‘s existent gaol cell, Pienaar is dismayed to detect how little the cell is and with nil to kip on except a thin sheet on the bare land. Yet the adult male who was held in this cell for about 26 old ages can easy forgive those who put him in prison, and has great programs to unify the people of the state.
Incidents and leaders ‘ interaction within the context of the film
President Mandela invites Pienaar to tea for their first meeting. Mandela believes that he can accomplish the integrity that he planned for through rugger and needed Pienaar ‘s aid to acquire the support of the Afrikaners. Pienaar was charmed by Mandela ‘s personal manner and heat upon his reaching at the Government House. He besides observed that Mandela treated everyone around him with great regard, even the lady who served them tea.
During the brief meeting, Mandela skilfully challenges Pienaar to believe positively about winning the approaching Rugby World Cup Championship. He shared his vision on the importance of winning the title to South Africa – to unify the people via a World Cup triumph. Pienaar who was impressed with the president ‘s quiet leading, personal committedness and motive to accomplish the vision shortly began to see the odds of winning the cup as a possibility, therefore inspires him to take this squad to develop harder that earlier.
Leaderships ‘ behavior and features
In this film, Mandela skilfully demonstrates his people-oriented leading manner. For case, even on his first twenty-four hours in office as the newly-elected President of South Africa, he showed great courtesy to all his staff, inkinesss and Whites, by recognizing and smiling at everybody whom he passed by on his manner to his suite. This earned him great regard from all staff, particularly the white Afrikaners who thought they would be sacked one time a black leader assumed office.
Mandela besides decided to keep the former white staff and builds an administrative squad of both groups. The same besides applies to his security staff. In order to take by illustration and to accomplish the integrity he had long planned for, he believes that his squad must reflect his vision.
4.0 DESCRIPTION AND DISCUSSION OF LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOUR
Leadership manners are of import to successfully lead squads in administrations. There are assorted manners of leading that can be observed and are practised by leaders in today ‘s administrations, but theories largely centre these two:
The first group displays task-oriented behaviors, whereby the leader merely manages the day-to-day activities of his subsidiaries towards carry throughing a undertaking which was predetermined.
The 2nd set involves people-oriented behavior, besides known as participative leading. Leaderships in this group usually supply a supportive function by promoting his subsidiaries to acquire involved in determination devising on the undertaking that they are working on. This consequences in a positive work environment which increases productiveness of the squad as they feel that they are portion of the determination devising procedure and therefore “ ain ” the project.A
Obviously, both sets of behaviors are of import to make a balance in successful leading. President Mandela magnificently displayed both task-oriented and participative leading manners in his pursuit to construct the state. He sought the aid and engagement of Pienaar to transform the image of the Springboks in the eyes of the black indigens. Through Pienaar ‘s leading, the squad members successfully won the Black Marias of the black indigens and garner their support which steered the squad to triumph.
Change agent capablenesss
Basically, a “ alteration agent ” is person who can actuate others around him to bring forth higher grade of end product, to make more and to accomplish better things in their lives.
Change agents require emotional intelligence to guarantee people are wholly engaged in a undertaking. Peoples who are extremely supportive of the intent and are extremely committed to accomplish the aims of the undertaking will lend to better productiveness and opportunities of run intoing the ends and aims are maximised. A alteration agent demands to hold high competences in soft accomplishments, viz. first-class people and communicating accomplishments, to promote people ‘s engagement and minimise opposition. He or she must be able to make out to the inner values and beliefs of the people involved in the undertaking in order to implement alteration with the people.
Clearly, President Mandela has demonstrated his capablenesss in going the “ alteration agent ” for South Africa ‘s integrity and advancement. President Mandela demonstrates these managerial traits efficaciously through taking by illustration and motivation people through his great regard for others and personal humbleness. His softly confident mode and strong committedness in conveying his visions and aspirations besides encourage others around him to make astonishing things that they ne’er thought they are capable of making before.
Able to back up, able to develop new thoughts and acknowledge accomplishment
Despite the ill will shown towards his support for the Springboks, President Mandela stood his land and diligently and bravely attended the rugger lucifers. He even made an attempt to memorize the names of all the participants and greeted them personally by their name before the lucifers and during patterns.
In order to advance foreign investing in constructing South Africa ‘s economic system with is besides loaded with issues, Mandela administrative squad attempts to guarantee that President Mandela receives broad imperativeness coverage whenever he meets with other universe leaders to discourse bilateral relationships.
5.0 IDENTIFICATION AND EXPLANATION OF INCIDENTS
Executive sum-up of the two incidents selected.
President Mandela read the new refering the turbulence in direction of the Springboks squad after he assumes the new place. He started to invent how to unify the people of South Africa and saw rugger as the vehicle that might work to bridge the divide. He understands that most Afrikanders are afraid of losing their individuality when a black leader becomes president of the state and that the Springboks rugger squad is traditionally really of import to the white population. He so decides to utilize the Springboks as a agency to unify the population and the approaching Rugby World Cup Championship as the event that will convey them together. Subsequently when Mandela came to cognize that a athleticss commission which comprise all black members voted to alter the individuality of the rugger squad by altering the name, logo and coloring material of the Springboks to reflect a new and “ blacker ” South Africa, he personally hurried to go to the meeting and asked the commission members to rethink their determinations and explicate the deductions that their determinations might convey onto the integrity of the South African population. He managed to acquire a little followers of 13 ballots on his side ; nevertheless, the little bulk was plenty to maintain the Springboks intact. He so forges in front with his program to unify the black and white population through rugger.
Pienaar besides does his portion to back up President Mandela ‘s committedness to unify the people of South Africa and transfuse pride in his teammates towards aunited state. In his first effort to acquire the message across, Pienaar tries to do his squad really sing the South African national anthem by giving them transcripts of the anthem ‘s wordss. However, his teammates show clear neutrality and simply crump up their transcripts. Subsequently, they are forced by the President to take occasional interruptions from rugger and travel out into the poorer countries of South Africa and learn rugger to the indigens as a manner to instill involvement of the game to the black indigens. At first, merely Chester who is the squad ‘s exclusive black participant is welcomed by the black kids but finally, after many efforts, the whole squad is accepted by the rural population. The squad so volitionally assist present the athletics to a new coevals of kids and instil national pride, irrespective of race.
Engagement of the selected leaders within the incident
In the first incident, President Mandela takes it upon himself to do certain that the Springboks are able to keep their name, logo and colorss despite dissension from the black athleticss commission members. He stood his land and clearly conveyed the message across that what he did was for the good of the state ‘s integrity.
In the 2nd incident, Pienaar tried to alter the attitude of the squad participants towards encompassing their national anthem. Even though he was non successful on his first effort, the fact that he went on to sing the anthem displayed his willingness to take by illustration, trusting that the others will follow suit.
Making determination within squad, group and single scene
A strategic leader has a squad of determination shapers to assist him make a consensus when doing of import determinations. This procedure of decision-making improves the quality of the determinations, particularly when developing important planning and policies impacting the state.
A strategic leader needs a competent squad to back up his function. Coupled with his cognition and accomplishments, a strategic leader can take a squad of high executing persons to make and develop strategic vision and programs using available resources and implementing national policies. Due to the complexness of today ‘s universe economic system and planetary issues, a strategic leader of a state requires the aid of a advanced squad of executives to hammer in front with his programs to accomplish his vision.
Charismatic and transformational functions
There are really few leaders who are capable of transformational leading. However, this is non considered unfortunate as a leader ‘s ultimate occupation is to maintain the organisation productive and the people engaged. In certain cases, excessively much transmutation can be helter-skelter and lead nowhere.
In this film, Mandela was one of the few who can be categorized as a successful transformational leader. He was able to promote people to believe in themselves so that the administration can accomplish greater highs. For case, in his first meeting with Pienaar, Mandela explains that a leader ‘s occupation is to acquire followings to believe that they are capable of making more than they think possible. This believing so leads to the rugger squad ‘s triumph in winning the World Cup Championship.
Leaderships with these types of behavior and attitudes tend to pull followings as people are of course attracted to those who display strength and inspire belief in others. These magnetic qualities enable effectual leading.
6.0 Critically analyze each of the two and more incidents and see other options
the leaders could hold considered and made.
Participative leading, deputation and authorization
Participative leading manner, which is known to be the best type of corporate leading manner in administrations today, allows employees to acquire involved in decision-making procedure to a certain extent. This democratic manner of employee direction creates healthy relationship between direction and employees as both sides feel that their engagement is sought in the procedure of accomplishing the organisation ‘s ends and aims.
This leading technique besides promotes the development of future leaders via their engagement in finding a common end for the organisation. As engagement of squad members are required in determination devising, concealed endowments can be unearthed and their leading qualities polished further.
In the first incident, President Mandela asserts his determination to allow the Springboks maintain their individuality but at the same clip asks the commission members to reconsider their determination. Although he managed to carry a little minority ( 13 ballots ) to hold with him, the figure is sufficient and he looks upon it as a little win, non a entire licking. This displays his participative leading manner whereby alternatively of utilizing his power and influence to alter the commission ‘s determination, he asked them to rethink their determination and acquire them to vote once more.
For the 2nd incident affecting Pienaar, as captain of the squad he tried to carry the other members to sing along the national anthem. However, when the squad crushed the paper given to them, he did non censure them but went on to sing the anthem. He tried to take by illustration, trusting that the squad would follow suit once they see him making so. In promoting the squad to work harder towards accomplishing their end of winning the World Cup Championship, Pienaar was seen actuating his squad members so that they can all work towards one intent and execute their best in every lucifer. Pienaar besides uses participative leading to instill squad spirit and chumminess.
Power and influence
“ Power refers to the capacity a individual has to act upon the determination of another individual so that the individual acts harmonizing to his wants. The more power a individual has, the higher his influence on the whole system is. ”
Meanwhile, influence causes a alteration in the attitude or behavior of others and is more of a procedure which guides the people ‘s activities towards appropriate waies in run intoing direction aims that have been set.
As the President of the state, Mandela has both power and influence. However, he skilfully uses his power and influence to bring forth regard and support from the people.
Pienaar besides steadily works his manner up to derive trust and regard from his fellow teammates. By commanding their trust and regard, he was capable of transforming the perceptual experience of the rugger squad and transfuse pride and higher committedness from them.
Managerial traits and accomplishments
President Mandela and Pienaar both demonstrate high degree of direction accomplishments and leading traits which help them derive support from a population which are ab initio plagued by centuries of racial divide. Mandela inspirational leading motivates Pienaar to execute better than he of all time thought he could. Through Mandela ‘s quiet assurance and personal appeal, Pienaar was overwhelmed and personally look upon him as a great leader. Based on this motive, Pienaar encouraged his rugger squad to work harder and strive for triumph.
Mandela ‘s first meeting with Francois Pienaar displays some of import leading lessons. When Piennar was asked by Mandela on his leading doctrine, he answers that he believes in taking by illustration. Mandela concurs with him that taking by illustration is important. In response to another inquiry on how Pienaar inspires people, he affirms that people are inspired through the bosom and by what they see.
Strategic leading refers to leaders who successfully act upon big groups of people in administrations to move as required based on established organizational construction, allocated resources and communicated aims and vision. They are by and large functional in a extremely complex environment which is influenced by external factors beyond their control.
Strategic leaders have to digest information rapidly and do correct determinations based on whatever is available to them at the point in clip. As such, effects of their determination impact more people in the administration and tend to perpetrate more resources. Sometimes, the determinations and enterprises can merely implicate long-run programs and may take old ages to fix and put to death.
In this film, President Mandela transforms the perceptual experience of the black indigens on rugger which has ever been a white athletics. Traditionally, the black indigens despise the Springboks which they perceive as stand foring apartheid. By altering the values through this game, Mandela productively changed the tradition of the population as all of them showed great unison in back uping the rugger squad as they made their manner to triumph.
Another illustration of good value that is displayed in this film is when President Mandela took over the office of President. Although the white Afrikaner staff thought that they will be asked to go forth their occupations when a black leader becomes president of the state, they are surprised when President Mandela asked them to go on working as usual and maintain them as portion of his administrative squad. Although Mandela was subjected to a batch of grudges during the apartheid epoch, he shows strength of character when he does non expose vengefulness towards the white population. Yet he is able to forgive them and concentrate on unifying the racial divide.
In drumhead, the film Invictus is full of great illustrations of leading accomplishments and values. President Mandela exhibited first-class leading and direction accomplishments in conveying integrity to the state through athleticss and Pienaar successfully executed his portion to earn the state ‘s support to an overpowering triumph.
Clearly, participative leading and authorization through consensus and general audience brings better consequences compared to effort of power and influence to travel a population. The first-class illustrations depicted throughout the film indicate the strength of characters of both President Nelson Mandela and Francois Pienaar. Their strengths shone through when presented by challenges upon challenges as they work their manner to gaining a united South African population.
Charismatic leaders with strong committedness and high assurance can transform the impossible into a possibility and make immense success for the administration. President Mandela displays his personal appeal as he successfully attracts followings, who ab initio disagree with his rules, into take parting in activities towards accomplishing his vision. He efficaciously nurtures their emotions and encourages their Black Marias to work towards constructing the integrity and accept differences among them as strengths and think positively for a better South Africa.