Data is raw facts and fugues that may not make much sense on their own, such as a series of digits entered into a computer. Information is usable result you get after data has been processed, such as when the digits that were entered have been processed into a table you can read. Information processing describes the many ways that data is gathered and interpreted. The output depends on the interpretation of the input. For example: An alarm system uses sensors to detect movement in a room.
If there is movement, this data is processed to set Off siren. Benefits of Information Processing It makes a lot of tasks easier and faster. For example – you are able to pay bills online. A lot of data is stored during information processing. It results in automation. It enables sharing and analysis of information. It is often easy to maintain. Disadvantages of Information Processing It can be very expensive to set up initially because of the hardware, software and technical requirements. It can be expensive to maintain depending on the system.
Hardware and software must be replaced and kept up to date and specialists are needed to operate these systems. When they fail or do not work properly, it can cause disruption and disorder. For example, if an automatic teller machine (ATM) is not working, people will be unable to withdraw money and complete other transactions. Forms of Information Processing Automation Multiple tasks are performed without you even knowing about them. These tasks require little or no control by humans. Process Control Control systems regulate themselves or other devices; they are widely used in our everyday lives.
Commercial data processing In business and commerce, information processing is important to keep track of orientations and records. Shops use point-of-sale (POS) systems and bar code scanners to read prices on items and keep track of stock. Businesses use databases to store records about customers, employees and suppliers. Payroll systems are used to calculate employees’ salaries and print paisleys. You can do banking at ATOMS without entering a bank. Electronic banking allows you to conduct transactions from your bank account over the Internet.
Electronic funds transfer(FT) allows you to transfer money from one account to another without using cash or cheeses. Industrial data processing Manufacturing and production industries. Computers automate tasks and do them more efficiently and effectively than humans. They control robots to package products or assemble cars and electronics. Electronic circuit boards are often assembled using computer systems. Scientific data processing Expert systems help scientists process data. Weather forecasting systems collect weather data all over the world and use data to predict weather patterns.
Health-care professionals use automated processing systems to keep track of patient records. They also use robots to perform heart and eye surgery. Laboratories have machines that can read and process data from samples. For example, a machine can analyze a blood sample and find its blood type. Sources of data To create useful information from data, you must get that data from a suitable source. Data can be captured using machine-readable or human-readable documents. Machine-readable documents are documents that a computer can read.
Human-readable documents are documents that a human can read. Source document A source document is a document used to capture information by writing it down. Source documents are human-readable, which means that a person will read and enter information into that document. E. G. A form (hardcopy-printed copy or softy – electronic copy)that contains spaces and blocks that allow a person to enter relevant information. The data is then entered into the computer. Turnaround A turnaround document is human-readable and machine-readable.
A machine creates it and a human adds more data or uses it as input for something else. The document is then read by a computer, which updates or processes records with the new data. This means that a machine creates it as output, which you modify, and the machine uses that modified document as input again. . G. Utility bills such as water bills, with the perforated section that is completed by the customer and then used as input. Information retrieval and management Data from source and turnaround documents are entered into the computer using direct methods or indirect methods.
Direct methods of data capture are when a computer uses sensors or peripherals to capture the data directly from the document. Turnaround documents are designed for direct data capture. For example, data can be captured in the following ways: optical mark recognition, magnetic ink character recognition, bar codes and optical character recognition. Indirect methods of data capture are when data has to be taken from a source document and physically entered into a computer. A person called a data capturer, or data entry clerk, types everything on the document into a computer.
It does not require direct input technology but it is error-prone and quite time-consuming. Validation and Verification You cannot assume that all data entered and used by computers is accurate. Software and hardware can cause data errors. If the software is faulty, it may corrupt or delete data. If hardware is not working properly, it may cause a computer to malfunction. Computers, electrical faults and faulty cabling can cause transmission errors, which is when the data received by a computer is not the same as what was sent by another computer.
A human error during data input can be: (1) Accidental – are errors that are not made on purpose. The incorrect birth year on the passport was an accidental error. (2) Deliberate – are errors made on purpose, usually for gain or to cause disorder. To get bigger loan, someone may enter false information about their salary on a loan application. Data Verification Data verification ensures that data entered into a computer contains no errors at all. Two methods of data verification are: (1)Double-entry (2)Proofreading Double-entry is where the same data is entered twice, sometimes by different people.
It can be expensive and time consuming to use this method. For example, when a program asks you to retype a password Proofreading checks the data entered against the data on the original source document. The person entering the data reads the source document and checks that it matches what he or she has entered into the computer. Sometimes a second person will check the entered data. This can be very time consuming. Data Validation Data validation uses a variety of checks to ensure that data is as accurate and complete as possible.
It does not check the complete accuracy of data, but it does help ensure that fewer mistakes are made. The checks compare the user-entered data against a rule. Types of Checks 1) Range checks 2) Reasonableness checks 3) Data type checks 4) Consistency checks 5) Presence checks 6) Length checks 7) Parity checks 8) Check digit A range check ensures that numbers entered fall within a specific range. For example, if you are entering times of the day, you may need to check that the values for hours cannot go higher than 24. Reasonableness checks ensure that data is reasonable – not completely unrealistic.
For example, if you are entering salary information into a payroll system, this check will ensure that you do not enter extra zeros by mistake. Data type checks or character checks, ensure that the right type of data has been entered. For example, a field that captures the age of a person may have a character check that rejects the input of letters or symbols. Consistency checks compare data you have entered against other data you have entered. For example, if you enter a person’s year of birth and their age in separate fields, this check will ensure that the two fields correspond with each other.
A presence check is used to ensure that the required fields contain data. For example, documents and forms have required and optional fields. A required field is one that has to contain a value whereas an optional field can be left blank. In an application for a bank account, your identity number and address will be required fields and your cell phone number may be an optional field. A length check determines whether the entered data is the correct length that is the right number of digits. For example, area codes and phone numbers usually have a fixed length.
Data transmission sometimes corrupts Is and So by changing a 1 into a O or O too 1. One change can be detected by adding a parity bit. NOTE: In an odd parity system the parity bit is set so the total number of Is in a bit pattern is an odd number. In an even parity system the parity bit is set so the total number of Is in a bit pattern is an even number. E. G. Suppose you want to send 10011 using odd parity, here are three(3) Is , three is an odd number, so the parity bit is O. Therefore, you send 100110 which consist of data 10011 and parity bit O.
Now suppose that one data bit is corrupted during transmission so the receiver gets 100010, which consists of data 10001 and parity bit o. The received data contains two Is, so the parity bit should be 1. The parity check has detected that a data bit was corrupted during transmission. Barbados and other number sequences include a check digit calculated from all the other digits using an algorithm. For example, when the number sequence is entered in a field, the computer can operate the check digit from the other digits, use the algorithm to calculate a check digit and compare it with the entered check digit.