INTERNATIONAL OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACTS

By March 7, 2019 Geography

INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SARAJEVO
2017-2018 SPRING SEMESTER
HISTORY OF DESIGN
ASSINGMENT 1
PROFESSOR CARL HADDRELL
ESSENTIAL ANALYSIS OF RESULTS OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AND ITS IMPACTS
OMER SOYER 130301031
SEMIH BURAK EKSIOGLU 130301050
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
-Agricultural Revolution
-Migration from rural areas to urban forms
– Natural Resources( mining and raw materials)
– Improvement Transportation ( network of distrubition)
-Easy access to goods ( lowering prices )
– Change of Financial Classes
CONSEQUENCES OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
-Division Of Labour
– Production
-Reliable source of Enegry
-Specialization of Craftsmanship ( emerges of new professions)
IMPACTS TO PRODUCT DESIGN
-Mass Production
-Division of Labour
-Reliable Source of Energy
-Specialization of Craftsmanship
-Machine Assisted Crafstmanship
BENEFITS TO PRODUCT DESIGN
-Serial Manufacture
-Variety
-Standardization
-Function and Quality
-Price
NEGATIVE EFFECTS TO SOCIETY
-Division of labour
-Energy Sources
INTRODUCTION
Industrial revolution is a historical time period that is the process of change regarding production from hand-made oriented to machine- assisted production system. This period began in Britain from 18th century and lasted till 20th century.
Industrial revolution had changed many fields in life from socio-economical, industrial, educational, political, architectural, agricultural and technological understanding. New social order had changed in regards to settlements of people such as migration of numbers from countryside to urban forms. Therefore, social classes had become more and more rigid and determined as being upper-class, upper-middle, middle-class and lower class all because of the economic form that is naturally shaped by industrial revolution. The immense industrial shift from hand-made production to machine assisted production changed the approach to the consumption of goods and standardization. In reference to these developments, social chain of people had categorized as emergence of specialization of craftsmanship, getting expert at specific part of production line. Therefore, modern understanding of industrial line formed.

CAUSES OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

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The agricultural revolution in developing countries has changed to ways of planting and harvesting goods by the means of new inventions that accelerated the process. Therefore, the line of production to the distribution had shortened and in this way consumption got cheaper. Eventually, this transformation lead to change the urban structure of society and therefore life standards changed as well. The major change regarding society was the change of social classes.
Improved soil fertility also led to increasing arable output, and the structural reordering of farming around individual farms also produced an increase in labour efficiency on the land, which was further improved by the introduction of machinery in mid-Victorian England. Taken together these developments led to an increase in output which, together with imports (notably from Ireland) enabled farmers to produce sufficient food to provide for the growing towns of 18th and 19th century England. This was a success story, because it was achieved without recourse to new land – hence the belief that it was nothing short of a revolutionasses.

The inevitable shift from organic materials to inorganic materials and also expenditure of resources of power was another major impact that shifts the growth of industrial revolution to further level. Steam powered engine for instance was a invention that changes the production line from the process of manufacturing to the transportation that shortened process, quality and quantity simultaneously. Instead of transporting goods internationally, discovery of new manufacturing techniques and natural sources that were needed found in internal lines such as coal minings.

The decisive technological change which freed so many industries from dependence upon organic raw materials was the discovery of a way of using coal where once wood had been essential. The timing of the change varied agreat deal between the several industries. It came earliest in industries like the boiling of salt in which the use of coal presented no problem of undesired chemical change in the product because the source of heat was separated from the object by a sheet of metal. Industries like iron smelting and hop drying in which contact was more intimate presented greater problems in a period when chemical knowledge was slight.

CONSEQUENCES OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
Division of labour, the separation of a work process into a number of tasks, with each task performed by a separate person or group of persons. It is most often applied to systems of mass production and is one of the basic organizing principles of the assembly line. Breaking down work into simple repetitive tasks eliminates unnecessary motion and limits the handling of different tools and parts. The consequent reduction in production time and the ability to replace craftsmen with lower-paid unskilled workers result in lower production costs and a less expensive final product. Contrary to popular belief, however, division of labour does not necessarily lead to a decrease in skills—known as proletarianization—among the working population. The Scottish economist Adam Smith saw this splitting of tasks as a key to economic progress by providing a cheaper and more efficient means of producing goods.

Since the specialization of craftsmanship occurred, Practice makes a man perfect; under division of labour, the worker repeats his task. By constant repetition, he is bound to become expert in his task. He will be able to turn our better goods. There is an increase in the skill and craftsmanship. All in all, machine assisted manufacturing, specialization of craftsmanship and standardization of methodology and techniques regarding production line makes good affordable for large amount classes. Also, manufacturing techniques and new formula enables engineers to shorten process that made it possible to have more time to focus on other segments of the life.
BENEFITS TO PRODUCT DESIGN
Serial Manufacture
Serial manufacture and mass production enables to have immadiate changes regarding product design that helps to minimize mistakes, further improves the features of product as to have maximumim product in shorter time period
Variety
Since the possiblity to use the new raw materials and specification on manufacturing techniques, different variation of products emerged.

Standardization
New sets of manufacturing methods by mass production led the industry to have specific standardization as having determined and absolute formulas and techniques. Specific dimensions, colours and regulations etc.

Function and Quality
Also new production techniques and materials influenced designers to upgrade the durability of products as being long lasted to use. In many fields, tools and products became more lighter and compact that makes them easy in terms of mobility.

Price
Since the methodology of manufacturing changed, by means of new materials and faster industrial techniques, production became cheaper and easy that makes products more accessible by different social classes
NEGATIVE EFFECTS TO SOCIETY
He negative effects of industrialization were numerous. For the working class, an estimated 80% of society, they saw and felt the direct impact of the industrialization with respect to the negatives. The wealthy and the business owners only had knowledge or interest in all of the benefits that came from the dramatic change in industry and society as a whole. The follow are just a few of the less than humane effects of industrialization.

Child labor – Factory owners turn to unskilled children to work in their factories. Children were easier to control and would work at a fraction of the wage their adult counterparts would. Children were also able to complete jobs where a worker needed to get into small or confined spaces too small for adults.

Wage slavery – Workers were subjected to wages that were less than fair. Unfortunately, due to the need for work, they became slaves to both their jobs and the minimal wages they earned.

Slums – Neighborhoods for the working class were less than ideal. The working class lived in overcrowded areas that were dirty and typically filled with pollution.

Terrible working conditions – At the start of the industrialization workers were subject to horrible if not dangerous working conditions. The working class worked as much as six days a week and 10 to 14 hours was a very common shift per day. There were safety hazards including excessive heat especially for ironworkers. Accidents were a common occurrence. Equipment and machinery had dangerous parts exposed, contributing to the number of injuries.

Industrialization brought with it countless positive and negative effects. Products were cheaper, cities flourished, and more jobs were available. On the flipside, child labor and poor working conditions were two very real issues courtesy of industrialization. Some of the more negative aspects to industrialization were changed for the betterment of all involved.

REFERENCES
https://www.victoriacountyhistory.ac.uk/explore/themes/agriculture/agricultural-revolutionTHE ECONOMIC HISTORY REVI7EW SECOND SERIES, VOLUME XV, No. I, I 962 The Supply of Raw Materials in the Industrial Revolution BY E. A. WRIGLEY page 4.

https://www.britannica.com/topic/division-of-labourhttp://www.geography-papers.com/positive-and-negative-effects-of-industrialization.html

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