Into the Land of Bones
Alexander the Greats end of assailing Persia was to penalize it for its onslaughts on Greeks and Macedonia and to convey a permanent peace between the two civilizations. Throughout history, free societies have had to contend barbarian societies in order to keep that freedom and peace. This normally requires that the society under onslaught to be more barbarian to repress their barbarian oppressors.
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After Alexander had entered Bactria, he pasted by the holy metropolis of Bactra where Frank Holt described his soldiers as seeing the scene as “Decaying organic structures and faded human castanetss lay scattered in the streets. Alexander’s work forces reported seeing battalions of Canis familiariss gnawing at the dead, while a few pedunculate and snapped at freshman repasts still alive but helpless against the hounds.”1This was a common pattern of the people of Bactria as a manner to acquire rid of the old, ill, dead, deceasing, and otherwise helpless. Even though Alexander’s work forces had witnessed much worse than this on the battleground, this pattern of killing guiltless people was excessively barbarian for Alexander and his work forces to stomach. This was an indicant of what was in shop for Alexander and his work forces.
The whole run in Bactria was marked by barbarian abattoir on both sides. Along the invasion path into Bactria, Alexander left military forts to adult male settlements established to keep order in the country conquered and to distribute Grecian civilization amongst the autochthonal people. The people rebelled against this subjection and slaughtered all the Grecian dwellers of the settlements. In requital, Alexander had his work forces attacked the overrun settlements:
“Without clemency, the angry Greeks and Macedonians slaughtered the males and reduced the adult females to slavery. Barely guiltless, the Sogdians besides proved unreliable, renegue oning on pledges and enticing the encroachers into an ambuscade under a flag of truce”2
Alexander had no clemency on Greeks that were displaced from Ionia to Bactria during the Iranian invasion of Greece and Macedonia. He had all the people of the colony butchered and so plundered the town because he viewed them as being treasonists and felons for their ascendants non standing up to the Persians.
After several efforts to repress his enemy with these barbarous tactics, Alexander attempted to win over his enemies after get the better ofing them on the battleground by winning over their Black Marias and heads by leting the local people to maintain their ain civilizations and practiced spiritual tolerance. After the Battle of the Hydaspes River in India, Alexander treated the defeated captain with regard. Harmonizing to Alexander’s antediluvian biographer, he asked the captain, Porus, ““What do you wish that I should make with you? ” To which Porus replied “Treat me as a male monarch ought.””3To this answer, Alexander restored Porus to the leading over his people. Alexander besides set up local leaders as the satraps over his ain Grecian commanding officers to seek to pacify the local people and maintain the peace. He and some of his commanding officers married local chieftain’s girls in hopes of maintaining the peace and going Alliess with the warlords. This would merely last for one combat season before the autochthonal people got fed up with the policies of the Greeks and assail them once more. After Alexander’s decease, his ain generals viciously killed his married woman Roxane, who was of Bactrian ascendant, and his boy Alexander IV in order to maintain him from inheriting the throne.
Alexander figured out that the lone manner to repress the conquered people of Bactria was to utilize barbarous tactics to transfuse fear into them so that they would be hesitating to assail his forts. He replaced many of the satraps, local or Grecian, with commanding officers that he could swear. Most of the replaced satraps fled for their lives cognizing the Alexander would hold them put to decease when he removed them from office.
Another universe conquer that used barbarous tactics to repress his enemies was Genghis Khan. Genghis Khan united several Mongolian kins into an ground forces that defeated everyone in its way by viciously butchering anyone who opposed him. “He one time said that there was nil better in life than killing one ‘s enemies, stealing their Equus caballuss and cowss, and taking their women.”4In making so, he created an imperium that stretched from Eastern China to the Caspian Sea. Like Alexander, but with more success, he tried repressing challenger folks after get the better ofing them by puting them under his protection and incorporating them into his ain folk.
Another illustration of ferociousness to repress an enemy is that used by the Celts against the Romans. In 390 B.C.E. , while the Celts were looking for new land to settle, contending broke out with the Romans near the river Allia. The subsequent licking of the Romans led to the bagging of Rome by the Celts. It was said of the Celts as they sacked Rome that “When their oppositions fall they cut off their caputs and bind them around their horses’ cervixs. They manus over to their attenders the blood-covered weaponries their enemies, and transport them off as loot, sing vocals of victory.”5These trophies were so taken place and nailed to the side of their house to demo off to visitants their great workss in combat.
In our ain state every bit late as the American Civil War from 1861 to 1865, the Armies of The United States used savageness to repress their enemies. The battlers of the Southern ground forces were known to hold slaughtered the prisoners of Northern Negro Troops and their white commanding officers. During the Union army’s run through Georgia, General Sherman’s scheme was to “make Georgia howl.”6Sherman’s ground forces burned and looted a 60 stat mi broad swath across northern Georgia. “Sherman believed that devastation or arrogation of Southern belongings was necessary to stultify Confederate logistics and morale.”7Sherman burned Atlanta to deny its usage to the Southern cause and that it “infringed on civilians but denied them any opportunity to help the Confederate Army.”8The devastation of personal belongings and the crippling of the economic system forced a alteration in position and willingness of the people of Georgia to back up the war attempt.
Throughout history one civilization has tried to suppress another barbarian civilization to keep their freedom by utilizing barbarian tactics. These tactics may repress or maintain them at bay for a piece out of fright from the oppressor. But sooner or later they will pall from these barbarian persecutions and lift up against their oppressor to throw off the ironss of dictatorship. This occurred throughout Alexander’s business of Bactria ensuing in him holding to utilize a combination of schemes to keep a “shaky” at best control of the people.
1. Frank L. Holt,Into the Land of Bones: Alexander the Great in Afghanistan, ( Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006 ) , 24.
2. Frank L. Holt,Into the Land of Bones: Alexander the Great in Afghanistan, ( Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006 ) , 49.
3. Jackson J. Spielvogel,Western Civilization: A Brief History, Volume I: To 1715, Seventh Edition, ( Boston: Wadsworth CENGAGE Learning, 2011 ) , 70.
4.World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras, s.v. “ Genghis Khan, ” accessed October 26, 2014. hypertext transfer protocol: //ancienthistory2.abc-clio.com/ .
5. D. Brendon Nagle,The Ancient World: A Social and Cultural History, ( Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. , 2014 ) , 185.
6. David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler.“ Sherman ‘s March to the Sea. ”InAmerican History. ABC-CLIO, 2010- . Accessed October 26, 2014. hypertext transfer protocol: //americanhistory2.abc-clio.com/ .
7. David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler.“ Sherman ‘s March to the Sea. ”InAmerican History. ABC-CLIO, 2010- . Accessed October 26, 2014. hypertext transfer protocol: //americanhistory2.abc-clio.com/ .
8.World History: The Modern Era, s.v. “ William T. Sherman, ” accessed October 27, 2014. hypertext transfer protocol: //worldhistory2.abc-clio.com/ .