Tourism is an activity that generate income to millions of people globally and also improves people’s standard of living (Benea, 2014). “Tourism comprises the activities of persons travelling and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes.” (United Nation World Tourism Organization, 2013). Tourism is an industry that need other sectors to prosper therefore hospitality one of them. Skripak (2016) defines hospitality as “the business of helping people to feel welcome and relaxed and to enjoy themselves.” UK Essays (2013) states that tourism and hospitality are considered as a single industry. In addition, hospitality is the main driver of services to the tourism sector (Samurai, 2018). Samurai, (2018) further note that ”hospitality offer services like accommodation, transportation, food and beverage, recreation and leisure.” Political stability is very important factors when it comes to tourism and hospitality industry in Botswana as well as around the world because it attracts more visitors as they feel free and safe hence contribute positively to the country’s economy. Tourism and hospitality sector go hand in hand as both play a vital role in both national and world economy (Khasanov I.Sh. 2015), for instance in Botswana, tourism has hugely contributed to the economy by creating 25 000 jobs directly in 2016 local people were employed to work on hotels, restaurants, travel agencies and airlines(World Travel Tourism Council, 2017).Therefore, this report explain tourism and hospitality industry in Botswana, how current market trends responsible for the growth and development & impacts of tourism and hospitality industry in Botswana.
BACKGROUND OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY IN BOTSWANA
Botswana was one of the poorest countries in the world before it gets full independence from Britain in 1966. After then, Botswana became one of developing country in Africa because of both mining and tourism sectors. Mother Nature Network, (2014) states that in 2000 tourism became second largest earner to the country’s economy. In addition, tourism in Botswana is more based on attractions and physical areas, wildlife is the top attraction and located on northern parts of the country the Okavango Delta ; Chobe National Park. These destinations include different wild animals, plants, and islands and wetlands (Kaynak ; Marandu 2006). MNN (2014) also describes the land of Botswana as a wild desert and wetlands plenty of fauna and flora which results to tourists choosing Botswana as the ideal destination choice. The hospitality industry is one of the growing sectors in Botswana (Bizcommunity, 2007). The hospitality industry in Botswana consists of different services these include; lodging, food and beverages, meetings and events, gaming, entertainment and leisure and tourism services (Knowbotswana.com, 2018). Botswana hotels and hospitality services are well-known for their high class and exclusivity. According to Africa Tourism Web Portal, (2014) Botswana offers tourists a choice of accommodation alternatives from various types of lodging such as high-quality hotels, popular lodges and affordable guesthouses, in addition these hotels ; restaurants serve travelers different kinds of foods from local favorites and game meat, to international dishes such as Asian dishes. Minister Kwerepe further noted that ”the hospitality business industry produced more results if it provided quality facilities such as hotels, lodges and camps to match the world class customers.” (Daily news, 2018).
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CURRENT MARKET TRENDS
There are many trends responsible for the growth and development of the hospitality and tourism industry in Botswana these include; safety and security- Goyal 2010 states that the threat of terrorist attacks it is a problem affecting the hospitality industry, these gives hotel administration more responsibility to protect their visitors on the other hand promoting tourism. However, in Botswana there is peace and harmony which attracts more international tourist to visit Botswana, some visitors turn into being investors and this grows the tourism and hospitality sectors. Technology- Rosdi, (2017) indicates that technology is a biggest trend in hospitality and tourism sector, technology has brought changes on business as it provides information on all services available around the world reaching customers, it also creates more marketing strategies. The author supports his views with the aid of an example which says hotels and restaurants now use wireless communication systems a way of interaction between management ; guests. Furthermore, nowadays hotels and restaurants are installed with improved and more rapidly Wi-Fi (internet wireless) which allows visitors to go online freely for business purpose or social media (Rosdi, 2017). Technology aid in attracting more tourists and it is also used as a tool for criticizing those service providers who offer poor service.
PROBLEMS FACING TOURISM ; HOSPITALITY IN BOTSWANA
Tourism and hospitality are faced with more challenges at the local and international evel. Mogalakwe and Nyamnjoh, (2017) point that lack of entrepreneurship and managerial skills among which would allow them to use tourism resources to growth their revenue is a serious problem in many developing countries such as Botswana, these countries mostly depend on developed countries for skills. Most senior management position in tourism and hospitality industry are dominated by foreigners using Botswana for instance. Lack of serviced land, Mmegi Newspaper, (2015) some tourism enterprises operating in distant areas have set their own electric power lines and generate water for instance, nevertheless do not get finance from government yet they pay the similar tax with that of other businesses operating better conditions.
IMPACTS OF TOURISM ; HOSPITAITY IN BOTSWANA
Tourism plays a major role to the country’s economy but also worldwide by creating employment either directly or indirectly (World Travel Tourism Council, 2017). WTTC, (2017) supports this point by providing evidence to the impact that in Botswana, tourism has hugely contributed to the economy by creating 25 000 jobs directly in 2016. UK Essays, (2013) also indicates that hospitality is highly labor-based industry with the aid of an example, In the United Kingdom hospitality sector has generated 10% jobs to 2.5 million people. For instance, local people are employed to work on hotels, restaurants, travel agencies and airlines. However, local people working in these industries are paid low wages since most of the senior management posts are held by foreigners. Sunday standard, (2010) also highlight that ”employees in the hospitality industry are generally overworked and underpaid and are, therefore, not eager to please the customer because they are annoyed by their work environment.” Tourism industry expands the economy of a country, for instance, the Botswana tourism industry is rapidly thriving. This means that Botswana will gain revenue from tourism industry without depending more on mining and beef industry (Africa Geography Blog, 2015). WTTC supports this view by providing evidence that Botswana in 2014 generated BWP10 ,132.20 million in visitor exports, these are money spent by international tourists’ arrivals and in 2015 it was predicted to grow by 4.0 % attracting more than 2 million international visitors, therefore it is expected to bring more revenue of over BWP16 000.00 million (Weekendpost.co.bw, 2015). Furthermore, tourism contributed to Gross Domestic Products (GDP) in 2016 worldwide by US$2 306.0 billion the revenue come from industries such as hospitality (hotels, lodges and restaurants) and transport (airlines) (Wttc.org, 2017). Tourism also plays huge to the preservation and conservation of wildlife and wilderness and further improves the natural beauty of the country which contribute a lot on wildlife and nature (Moswete and Mavondo, 2009). Tourism can also be used to inform people (inhabitants and travelers) about the significance of environment as well as preservation of animals and plants. For example, in Botswana this is has led to the formation of conservation organization by local communities such as Community Based Natural Resource Management Programmes, Community Based Organization and Wildlife Management Areas, Nata Bird Sanctuary and Khama Rhino Sanctuary.
On the other hand, tourism and hospitality industry has negative effects. Clearing of land to cater for developments such as construction of hotels, lodges, campsites and restaurants leads to soil erosion, pollution and damages to natural vegetation (Moswete and Mavondo, 2009), which affect the ozone layer. Africa Geography Blog, (2015) states that national parks and game reserves Botswana covers large share of land, “Although Botswana is a large country with a small population, and there is still a serious competition for land.”
FUTURE DIRECTION OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY BASED ON GLOBAL TRENDS
The future trends in the hospitality industry can be briefed as follows: More green and eco-lodgings, development of super hotels (conference facilities with casino, shops, cinema, recreational park, etc.), more boutique hotels, Smart hotels with advanced technology using the guest’s computer-generated fingerprint in order to accomplish all the procedures (check-in, charges, check-out, etc.), Improving employee wages in order to keep the existing staff and more prominence on the internet and technology (Kapiki, 2012).
Review of decent living wage policy, most tourism and hospitality jobs pay workers low wages therefore the governments should review the living wage policy this would help in the welfare of service providers it will even boost the industry beyond.Sustainable tourism advocates for the development of tourism policies that guarantee the conservation of social, cultural and natural resources and guarantee that these assets can meet the needs of current and future generation and tourists (Liu 2003).
In Botswana, ecotourism is stimulated to protect the country’s cultural and natural heritage, and to improve the active participation of all Batswana and the local communities in all surfaces of the industry’s growth and administration. Ecotourism in the nation is directed by the following values: diminishing negative social, cultural and environmental effects, maximizing the involvement in, and the reasonable circulation of economic benefits to local communities, exploiting revenues for re-investment in conservation, educating both tourists and local people as to the significance of preserving natural and cultural resources and providing a quality experience for tourists (Stevens & Jansen, 2002, The Ecotourism strategy and scheme of Botswana specifies that tourism planning and management is leaning toward the enduring vision. In this regard, the Government intentions is to grow tourism more while at the same time narrowing uncontrolled and damaging growth for the benefit of present and future generations. Some of the government’s planning initiatives aimed at achieving ecotourism include the Ecotourism certification of tourism facilities. Eco-certification is aimed at urging tourism facilities’ workers to improve their environmental management practices through a system of competitive benefits and plunders (Stone et al, 2017).
In conclusion, tourism and hospitality they cannot be separated because they need each other to thrive, in Botswana they are regarded as a single industry. Both sectors came as a solution to challenges facing human life therefore people are employed in hotels, restaurants, lodges, national park or wildlife safaris so that they can earn better living. However, most workers in this industry are paid low salaries and most senior management position are held by foreigners instead of local citizens who do have requirements and qualifications needed this means local people are affected negatively and affect the sector as service providers are not pleased makes the business not grow.
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