Malaysia consists of two parts, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia, which are drained by 150 rivers system. Within these river systems is an estimated 1,800 rivers and major feeders, with a entire length transcending 38,000km. The longest river in Malaysia is Sg. Rajang with a catchment country of 51,000sqkm.
However, the H2O quality position of rivers in Malaysia has ever been a cause for concern for assorted local governments, authorities bureaus every bit good as the populace at big. Rivers in Malaya are by and large considered to be polluted with coherent.
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The statistical history of contaminated rivers in Malaysia remained at 14 as in the old old ages which are Dondang, Sg. Jurn and Sg. Jejawi in Penang ; Sg.Deralik and Sg. Raja Hitam in Perak ; Sg. Kelang, Sg. Buloh and Sg. Sepang in Selangor ; Sg. Tukang Batu, Sg. Pasir Gudang, Sg. Sedili Kecil, Sg. Kempas, Sg. Pontian Kechil and Sg. Rambahbah in Johor. Some of the Malaysia rivers are to a great extent polluted with average BOD degrees about six times the international criterion. The higher degree of BOD-related H2O pollution is due to the residential pollution, followed by agribusiness and industries. Of the 119 rivers monitored for effluent pollution, 34 rivers exceeded the criterions. The Numberss of affected rivers were nine in Johor, seven in Selangor, six in Sarawak, three in Terengganu, two each in Melaka, Pahang, Perak and Sabah and one in Negeri Sembilan.
From physical observation entirely, one thing that can infer that something is non right with the current H2O quality status of rivers. From a scientific position though, it is still necessary to quantify the grade of pollution, in order to pull off the pollution issues in a systematic and optimized manner.
The bing methodological analysis for river H2O quality categorization and monitoring is rather extended. In fact, the countryi??s current H2O quality monitoring web is at par, if non better, than many developed states. At the minute, Malaysia has over 1000 manual and automatic river H2O quality monitoring Stationss in 146 basins maintained by the Department of Environment ( DOE ) entirely. These exclude other Stationss maintained by other bureaus such as the Department of Irrigation and Drainage ( DID ) every bit good as the several province degree bureaus. There are two primary methods employed to sort the river H2O quality monitored ; the Water Quality Index ( WQI ) , which in bend is rooted on the Interim National Water Quality Standards ( INWQS ) , a set of criterions derived based on good utilizations of H2O.
1. For Malaysia, describe the chief beginnings of river taint and the options available to minimise their inauspicious impact on H2O resources.
Assorted beginnings of pollution occur in Malaysia, chiefly from agribusiness ( fertilisers, pesticides and deposits from dirt eroding ) , livestock agriculture ( carnal wastes ) , domestic places ( human wastes ) , urban countries ( gray Waterss and untreated effluents ) and industries ( industrial wastewater ) .
Malayan rivers are degraded by both Point and Non-point beginnings of pollution. The major point beginnings of pollution are sewage intervention workss, agro-based industries, fabricating industries, sullage or grey-water from commercial and residential premises, and hog farms. Non-point beginning ( or diffuse ) pollution is mostly due to ramp overflow after a cloudburst. Earthworks and land clearance activities contribute to siltation of rivers and can be both point and non-point beginnings of pollution.
Point beginnings are effluent that is discharged from known beginnings at an identifiable point or besides defined as stationary locations or fixed installations from which pollutants are really discharged. Normally found in a plume that has the highest concentrations of the pollutant nearest the beginning and decreasing concentrations further off from the beginning. They can be reduced or eliminated through proper effluent intervention prior to dispatch.
Non-point beginnings can be characterized by multiple discharge point such as urban and agricultural overflow. Much of non-point beginnings pollution occurs during rain storms. Reduction by and large requires alterations in land usage patterns.
The chief point beginnings being from:
I ) Fabrication
Dispatching of dissolver, crude oil merchandises and heavy metals into rivers. Approximate 4 litres of pure trichloroethane ( dissolver ) will pollute over 1 billion litres of H2O. The high temperature discharges will besides doing subsequent disintegrating organic affair in H2O. The most serious sort of river pollution in Malaysia is the pollution by heavy metals and risky chemical discharged from the 1000s of mills in industrial zones, particularly those located upstream of rivers. Denationalization of intervention of industrial wastes has made such intervention expensive, and there are a important figure of mills non handling their wastes. Some have even been caught dumping their wastes illicitly. The economic lag in recent old ages has exacerbated this job as there are more and more been incidents of illegal dumping of toxic wastes and escapes of waste merchandises from improperly constructed containers every bit good as inadvertent spillage. This has caused serious pollution, particularly to the rivers. Based on the current big volume ( which is increasing alarmingly ) of pollutants of all kinds, rivers can no longer execute their self-purification map. Consequently, river pollution monitoring by the Department of Environment ( DOE ) has shown a drastic diminution in H2O quality of rivers. For illustration, out of the 117 rivers monitored in 1997, 24 were rated as clean, 68 somewhat polluted and 25 polluted ( Table ) . The state of affairs improved somewhat in 1998 but the conditions of rivers deteriorated once more in 2002. In footings of heavy metal taint, 55 rivers haven been found to transcend the maximal bound of 0.001 mg/l for Cd, 44 rivers exceeded the Fe bound of 1.00 mg/l, 36 rivers exceeded the lead bound of 0.01 mg/l and 24 rivers exceeded the quicksilver bound of 0.0001 mg/l ( Hj Keizrul Bin Abdullah, 2002 ) .
Table 1.1: Quality of River Waters, 1987 i?? 2002
Year No. of Rivers Monitored Clean Slightly Polluted Very Contaminated
1987 91 43 45 3
1988 91 48 40 3
1989 91 45 43 3
1990 90 48 35 7
1991 87 37 44 6
1992 87 25 55 7
1993 116 30 75 11
1994 116 38 64 14
1995 115 48 53 14
1996 116 42 61 13
1997 117 24 68 25
1998 117 33 68 13
2002 120 30 68 22
( Beginning: Department of Environment Malaysia )
Installation of effluent intervention systems are needed to filtrate their H2O pollutants before being dumped into rivers. By implementing cleaner production, waste minimization and waste re-utilisation can cut down H2O pollution further.
two ) Livestock farming
They are largely pig agriculture. Animal eating and carnal waste intervention lagunas can transport foods, bacteriums, viruses, and O demanding substances that can pollute rivers and do major H2O quality issues. Aquatic life in rivers will be threatened. Once those pollutants discharge to rivers, it is hard, dearly-won, and sometimes even impossible to clean up.
We can cut down the pollution from farm animal agriculture by seting of lasting flora as buffer zone between farming area and rivers/lakes.
three ) Agro-based industries
The pesticides, antifungals and weedkillers that are used for killing plagues, are used extensively in Malaysia. Once these substances entered rivers, rivers will be contaminated and harmful to aquatic beings.
Fertilizers such as N, P and K are overly high degree of foods. They can rinse into the ecosystem in river and restrict recreational activities such as firedrake boat and kayak.
When air current or H2O run-off carries dirt atoms from farming Fieldss, deposit will happen. Deposit can do clouding of H2O in rivers which can diminish the sum of sunshine provided to aquatic life.
We can cut down fertilizer overflow by:
I. Not utilizing inordinate sum
two. Using none on steeply sloped land
three. Application of pesticides merely when needed
four. Reducing the use of fertilisers and pesticides on golf classs and public Parkss.
four ) Wastewater intervention workss
The effluent contains substance like human waste, nutrient garbages, oil, soaps and chemicals. By and large the sewerage flows through an extended web of belowground pipes to wastewater intervention works where the contaminated H2O is treated utilizing assorted methods to take the pollutants. If the contaminated H2O is fed straight in to the rivers lead H2O taint. The grounds behind the sewerage intervention are the scarce in natural H2O resources and the higher demand of clean H2O supply. Furthermore the higher volume of effluent back to natural H2O resources deteriorates quality of H2O in having organic structures. These affairs have emphasized technological development in H2O industry to supply advanced yet proven proficient solution. The chief end of any sewerage intervention works is to cut down or take organic affairs, solids, foods, disease-causing beings and other pollutants from effluent.
Sewage intervention workss go through several stairss in a intervention procedure in order to safely handle big measures of effluent. In add-on to that each sewerage intervention works must keep a license naming the allowable degrees of BOD5, suspended solids, and other pollutants. Presently the systems like infected armored combat vehicle, activated sludge, oxidization pools and aerated laguna are used to handle the contaminated effluent. These wastewater intervention workss are non really efficient in handling sewerage. The BioFilm effluent intervention system is more effectual than conventional effluent intervention system.
Options available to minimise the impact
Figure 1. In Malaysia, The Department of Environment has recorded 17,991 H2O pollution point beginnings in 2004.
I ) Squatters
Squatters are another major beginning of river pollution. Most of the towns and metropoliss in Malaysia grew from chunky colonies. Presently, squatter colonies line the Bankss of all the major rivers in the urban countries, with many such as along the Melaka River are built over the river itself. Since river Bankss are flood-prone, the land is rarely developed. Hence, these countries provide a inexpensive and convenient venue for the hapless. In recent old ages, immigrants from neighbouring states have literally i??floodedi?? these homesteader colonies, merely as the colonies themselves are afloat of all time so frequently. Chunky colonies are non provided with sanitation installations or rubbish disposal installations. Hence, the homesteaders use the rivers both as a beginning of H2O every bit good as a agency of waste disposal. It is non uncommon to happen lavatories constructed on piles in the river. Squatters are besides guilty of dumping all kinds of rubbish into rivers, including old furniture and interrupt down motor-cycles and autos. Along the Sg. Kelang entirely, it is estimated that about 40,000 households live in homesteader colonies. Hence the sum of pollution generated is tremendous.
Installations of waste trap are needed at drainage system and rivers around homesteaders.
When the impact of H2O or air current detaches and removes dirt atoms, dirt eroding will be occurred. Overland flow gives rise to dirty eroding when the shear emphasis aroused by the run-off H2O becomes sufficiently big to detach the surface soil atoms during heavy rain. The scoured atoms will be washed into the drainage which finally leads to the river.
Soil eroding will do the H2O to go really boggy, take downing the surface H2O quality. High degree of N and P along with the higher deposits in rivers will cut down H2O surface quality. Eutrophication occurs quickly due to the P and N enriched H2O, diminishing dissolved O degrees and visible radiation handiness which will impact aquatic life adversely.
Soil eroding can be decreased by seting flora along waterways. By making so, non merely reduces surface overflow and protects dirt surface eroding. Plant roots can keep the dirt along the river Bankss together steadfastly to forestall dirt eroding.
Other than seting flora, cemented Bankss and concrete walls besides can cut down dirt eroding along the river Bankss.
One of the picks to cut down dirt eroding is re-afforestation of logged forest to command dirt eroding.
two ) Domestic effluent
When we do certain family jobs like rinsing wash, wipe uping the floor or rinsing the auto, we dispose the dirty and saponaceous H2O such as detergent into the drainage system and pollute the waterways. It affects the quality of H2O and affects aquatic life.
Most of the people are typically non cognizant of the H2O quality effects of auto or wash lavation, and do non cognize the chemical content of the soaps and detergents they use. It is a really hard to alter this behaviour since it is difficult to bring forth a better option. .
Domestic sewerage discharge, in the signifier of treated sewerage and partly treated sewerage, remained the largest subscriber of organic pollution burden with an estimated biochemical O demand ( BOD ) burden of 883,391.08 kg/day. The estimated BOD burden contributed by other major sectors were agro-based and fabrication industries ( 76,790.77 kg/day ) and pig agriculture ( 213,215.00 kg/day ) . Table 1.2 indicates the entire BOD burden in kg/day discharged from sewerage intervention workss throughout Malaysia in 2006.
Options available to minimise the impact
Table 1.2 Malaya: Entire BOD Load ( kg/day ) from Sewage Treatment Plants
State No. of STP Total PE Flow
( m3/day ) BOD Load ( kg/day )
Selangor 2,563 5,908,450 1,329,401 332,350.31
Perak 1,343 1,300,430 292,597 73,149.19
Johor 1010 1,198,417 269,644 67,410.96
Negeri Sembilan 928 931,458 209,578 52,394.51
Kedah 755 556,637 125,243 31,310.83
Melaka 725 570,192 128,293 32,073.30
Pulau Pinang 650 2,149,001 483,525 120,881.31
Pahang 486 314,830 70,837 17,709.19
WP Kuala Lumpur 299 2,571,877 578,672 144,668.08
Terengganu 224 75,184 16,916 4,229.10
Perlis 36 16,156 3,635 908.78
WP Labuan 32 39,265 8,835 2,208.66
WP Putrajaya 9 72,833 16,387 4,096.86
Entire 9,060 15,704,730 3,533,563 883,391.08
Beginning: IWK Sdn. Bhd.
three ) Construction sites
During heavy rains, silt and deposits can acquire washed from building sites into the rivers and drains. Other pollutants include Diesel and oil, pigment, dissolvers, cleaners and other harmful chemicals. They are carried by the H2O into the rivers and cause pollution.
With more building sites emerging about Malaysia, building sites have become one of the chief subscribers to the pollution of rivers. Some of the contractors do non cognize how erosion occurs and how deposits behave and make the pollution occurred.
We can cut down the pollution by utilizing deposit basins or silt traps at building sites
2. Discourse the short-run and long-run effects of the pollution of river and groundwater systems.
Water pollution will give negative impacts to people, chiefly economic, environment and human wellness. Other than that, vegetations and zoologies will besides be threatened. The effects of the pollution of river and groundwater systems can be short-run and long-run.
Impact on economic
In Malaysia, Thei??fisheriesi??sector is an of import sub-sector ini??Malaysiai??and plays a important function in the national economy.i??Apart from lending to the national Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) , it is besides a beginning of employment, foreign exchange and a beginning of protein supply for the rural population in the state. Fish constitutes 60-70 % of the national animate being protein intake, with per caput ingestion of 47.8 kilograms per twelvemonth. The rate of demand for fish as the chief beginning of protein is expected to increase from the current one-year ingestion of 630 000 metric ton to over 1 579 800 metric ton by 2010.
If the rivers are polluted, seafood obtained from rivers will threatened peoplei??s wellness. If people denied eating seafood, the economic system in Malaysia will be affected earnestly. Most of the fishermen will besides lose their occupation and will seek aid from authorities. The GDP of Malaysia will besides be reduced.
The cleansing of contaminated groundwater systems and rivers is dearly-won. If the authorities decides to clean the rivers and groundwater systems, the costs of implementing devices and engaging clean-up bureaus can come up to 1000000s of Ringgit Malaysia. In the event of unfair hiring of bureaus due to corrupted authorities, the sum of money spent will be significant.
Impact on Tourism & A ; recreational activities
The rivers have become a tourer attractive force and this has prompted the building of hotels and resorts around the country. Some of the out-of-door H2O recreational activities such as Kayak and fishing would be affected. Hence, a clean and pollutant-free river is needed for them to transport out their activities without any healthy issues. Peoples will hold a bad feeling of the country due to the contaminated Waterss.
If rivers haven been polluted, this will give a negative image to tourers and the repute of the country will be damaged. Hence, the economic system of state will besides be affected.
Impact on ecosystem & A ; Eutrophication
With contaminated rivers, the turbidness and dross of the H2O would take to the disappearing of marine life. By the manner, land animali??s life will besides be threatened by imbibing contaminated H2O. Organic chemical such as oil, gasolene, plastic, pesticide, detergents and many H2O soluble and indissoluble chemicals are threatened aquatic life.
The salts from the contaminated H2O can do an unreal enrichment of salt degrees, which in bend provides a suited environment for the growing of micro-organisms, peculiarly the blue algae, ensuing to what is known as eutrophication. The algae flourish and cover the H2O surface ; since they respire anaerobically they require O. Their being consequences to oxygen depletion in the H2O and later, most of the aquatic workss and animate beings in such contaminated H2O die off. These dead beings so decompose, doing a farther lessening in O degrees.
Human wellness impact
Cleanliness of the country around the river would be disturbed, impacting the wellness of many people since hapless hygiene and sanitation would do the river and groundwater systems to go a genteelness land for many plagues and diseases. If the groundwater is non treated decently before providing it as imbibing H2O, it could besides take to many other unwellnesss like diarrhoea and toxic condition.
There are many cultural Aboriginal groups that still exist in Malaysia and the people depends on the rivers and watercourses to last. They depend on the river for nutrient, H2O supply for imbibing, bathing and for their harvests. The river happens to be the chief Centre of their support and without the rivers the whole folks can non last as their ascendants had done coevalss before them, all of them depending on the rivers.
Peoples in Malaysia like to eat seafood, one time the rivers contaminated, the seafood will be polluted at the same clip. Peoples can acquire Hepatitis B by eating contaminatedi??seafood.
Waterborne death in universe
The World Health Organization says that every twelvemonth more than 3.4 million people die as a consequence of H2O related diseases, doing it the taking cause of disease and decease around the universe. Killing more than 14,000 people each twenty-four hours and doing more than 80 % of all unwellness ( United Nations,2005 ) In developed states, the disease caused by utilizing insufficiently disinfected H2O, by implementing non-hygienic nutrient readying and by deficient personal hygiene.
The environment is everything that surrounds us and gives us life and wellness. Destroying the environment finally reduces the quality of our ain lives.
3. Describe approaches to rectify pollution of H2O supplies.
To rectify pollution of H2O supplies, consciousness has to be raised so that the populace will be able to make their portion. The most of import portion would be educating the populace. In Malaysia, the River Adoption Programme and River Watch Programme are among the consciousness programmes targeted to schools in the yesteryear. To guarantee continuity of this Education Programme, The Pencinta Sungai Club ( Love Our River Club ) , will be set up in Kedah Darul Aman by the Kedah State Education Department, whilst others are being encouraged to follow suit. In this respect, the engagement of the Ministry of Education course of study ( e.g Life Technic ) and co-curriculum of Kindergartens, schools and Institutions of Higher Learning.i??
Water quality direction by Legislation
Torahs are used as a signifier of direction response to environmental jobs in Malaysia. Amongst the Torahs relevant to H2O quality direction include the 1929 Mining Enactment, the 1930 Waters Enactment, the 1954 Drainage Works Ordinance and the 1974 Street, Drainage and Building Act.
These Torahs are mostly sectorial in character and focused on specific countries of activity. The progressively complex environmental jobs faced by Malaysia required a comprehensive piece of statute law which came in the signifier of the 1974 Environmental Quality Act. The Act came into force on 1 April 1974 for the suspension and control of pollution and sweetening of the environment. Three pieces of subordinate statute law were formed as an initial legislative attack to H2O quality direction. These were:
I. Environmental Quality ( Prescribed Premises ) ( Crude Palm Oil ) Regulations 1977 ;
two. Environmental Quality ( Prescribed Premises ) ( Raw Natural Rubber ) Regulations 1978 ; and
three. Environmental Quality ( Sewage and Industrial Effluents ) Regulations 1979.
The earlier post-independence old ages saw a proliferation of agro-based industries such as natural natural gum elastic mills and palm oil Millss which polluted our rivers. The control of pollution from these beginnings involved a combination of both economic and command-control instruments.
They were induced to put in effectual effluent intervention systems alternatively of paying the prohibitory effluent-related or pollution fees imposed under the licensing demands that came into force since 1977. The organic pollutant burden dumped into rivers has been greatly reduced by more than 90 per centum of the entire burden generated.
All fabrication industries are required to put in effluent intervention systems to collar their H2O pollutants before being dumped into rivers.
The fabrication industries are encouraged to implement alternate options such as cleaner production, waste minimization and waste re-utilisation in order to cut down H2O pollution farther. Such options could besides heighten production efficiency, cut down waste coevals and thereby its concluding disposal cost.
River quality monitoring
The Department of Environment ( DOE ) has established a river monitoring web since 1978 to set up the position of river H2O quality, to observe alterations in the H2O quality and wherever possible to place pollution beginnings of rivers. It besides serves to back up environmental direction and planning in the state.
Love Our River Campaign ( Kem Cintalah Sungai Kita )
The Love Our Rivers Campaign was foremost launched by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia ( DID ) in 1993, to educate the populace on the importance of rivers and the environment in our lives while accordingly foregrounding the critical province of pollution faced by our rivers.
Love Our River Campaign, is yet another attempt by DID aimed at promoting public consciousness, empathy and attention towards our rivers and the conjunct attempts undertaken to clean our rivers nationally. Apart from the uninterrupted educational and awareness plans, this yeari??s run which included River Cleaning, River Beautification, Pollution Rehabilitation, River Adoption and Education Programs marks persons, corporate organic structures and the public sector.
However, there are difficult attacks to cover with the group of people who are irresponsible and continue activities that pollute our H2O supplies. On the other manus, industrial activities which discharge big sum of effluents into our sewerage are being controlled purely. Merely a certain sum of pollutants or chemicals are allowed to be released into the sewerage and permission needed to be applied. Those who discharge more than the permitted degree will be fined. This manner, it restricts the sum of pollution, so it will be easier to handle the sewerage which will finally stop up in our waterbodies. We should guarantee our rivers are in the good status for the new coevals in future. If we fail to protect our rivers, the childs in the hereafter will non be able to savor delightful seafood and bask the natural and clean rivers.
Surface H2O pollution and its control ( 1989 )
Water: Asiai??s environmental jussive mood ( 1997 )
Water Contamination i?? from molecular to catchment graduated table ( 2006 )
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