Introduction to Lab

April 19, 2018 Engineering

This laboratory manual is prepared by the department of chemical engineering for Chemical Engineering Laboratory-I (ChE-309). It is divided into three sections; namely, Fluid Mechanics, Heat Transfer and Mass Transfer. The purpose of this manual is to serve as instructional book for students, technical staff and instructors to assist in performing and understanding the experiments in Transport Phenomena.

In the second edition, two new experiments on kinematic viscosity and vapor pressure determinations have been included in Fluid Mechanics and Mass Transfer sections respectively. The old experiments have been revised to eliminate errors and induce clarity. This manual will be available in electronic form from department’s official website, http://www. kfupm. edu. sa/che/labcourses. htm. Acknowledgement This laboratory manual has evolved over a long period of time and we acknowledge many names of the earliest contributors, which have been lost in antiquity.

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Have I planned this experiment or exercise? 10. Do I know what to do, if there is an accident? 11. Do I know where the fire extinguishers are located? LABORATORY SAFETY RULES 1. 2. NO SMOKING IN THE LABORATORY: Safety glasses will be worn at all times where applicable during laboratory periods. These glasses will be kept between laboratory sessions in the racks provided. Wear apron (lab overall) in the lab when running apparatus and handling liquids. Wear rubber gloves when handling liquids. When dangerous chemicals are in use, a second person should be within call.

Find out the location of First Aid Box. Before operating any valve, switch, etc. , know precisely what the effect of your manipulation will be. Turn off all the valves on cylinders of compressed or liquefied gases when not in use. Students are not allowed to open gas cylinders. Ask the technician. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. (iii) 10. Report all injuries to instructor and to KFUPM doctor immediately. Dial 3333. Attach a label “Please leave on” on fittings, you need “on” for long time. Keep all inflammable liquids or gases away from open electrical equipment and other sources of ignition.

Gas cylinders must be kept in a stand or chained vertically to a bench. Avoid inhalation of gases or vapors of any kind, especially Methanol Benzene Aniline Carbon bisulfide Nitrobenzene Compounds Nitric acid of Cl, Br, I, Mercury Acetone Chlorine Bromine Chlorinated hydrocarbons Hydrogen sulfide (the higher the concentration, the lesser the order) Cyanides Metal Carbonyls Carbon monoxide Phosgene Arsenic Org: compounds 11. 12. 13. 14. NO2, NH2 & CN Benzene Oxalates 15. 16. Do not leave cables trailing across the floor of lab. Practice good housekeeping. Clean all spills at once.

Return all equipment to proper storage when not in use. Place all trash in appropriate receptacles. Avoid direct blasts of air on the skin from high-pressure compressed air lines. Never play with air hoses. Use special vacuum cleaner from laboratory for immediate removal of mercury spills. Arrangement should be made to contain mercury. Make sure any system being heated is properly vented. Know the location and use of all emergency, protective, and fire fighting equipment. Do not smell directly any chemical being heated. Remember that, if a lab smells, do not use it. Inform instructor/lab technician.

Do not leave lab while apparatus is on, always inform instructor if you are in a situation to leave the lab. (iv) 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. When working above others, be especially careful not to drop tools. Do not wear loose clothing or neckties when working with machinery. You will not be allowed to enter the lab if you are in loose dress or not wearing covered shoes. Report to the instructor any conditions that are safety hazards. All power wiring is to be installed by an approved electrician. All forms of asbestos should be treated as dangerous. Keep the lab tidy.

Always remember: SAFETY IS GOOD TECHNIQUE! 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. (v) Instructions for Preparing Laboratory Reports The report must be prepared and will be graded according to the following outline: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 Subject Title page Abstract Introduction Theoretical Background Procedure Results Discussion of Results Conclusions and Recommendations Literature Cited Nomenclature Appendices Marks 2 12 3 5 4 8 24 8 2 2 A1 A2 Raw Data Analysis of Calculation data & Sample 5 20 Organization & neatness Total: 5 100 1. Title Page The Title page should be separate from the rest of the report.

It should contain: a. b. c. d. The name of the experiment The number of course The date when the experiment was run The name of the writer and his co-workers, ID number, and his group number e. The name of the instructor to whom the report is submitted f. The date of submission of report (vi) 2. Abstract The abstract should be informative, and should be written in about three to five sentences. It should cover all phases of the investigation. It must include the following: a. b. c. d. An introductory statement about the subject matter Briefly describe what was done.

Present some selected result (numerical values, if possible). If possible, present some percentage errors in experimental results in comparison with theoretical values. While writing the abstract, it should be kept in mind that you should not refer to any graph or table. 3. Introduction This section should include few sentences discussing the physical and/or chemical principles involved in the experiment. 4. Theoretical Background This section should include the theory behind the experiment. It should also contain all those equations, which are used to acquire a certain result.

Theoretical correlatios, which are used for comparison with experimental results, should also be included. 5. Procedure Here, you should briefly describe the actual step-by-step procedure you followed in running the experiment. It should be written in your own words, e. g. the needle valve was manipulated in order to adjust the liquid flow rate. 6. Results The results should be presented in the form or Tables or graphs. The Table should contain the results obtain from experiments and from theoretical knowledge. Comparisons should be presented in terms, e. g. percent deviation. (vii) 7.

Discussion of Results In this section you should discuss you experimental results. Show how you make comparison with the values obtained theoretically. Also discuss the deviation of experimental results from theoretical values. The possible source of errors should also be mentioned. If the results are obtained in terms of graphs, then interpret them also. 8. Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusions are the series of numbered sentences which answer the questions posed in the end of each experiments. Conclusions should also include the errors between the experimental and theoretical values.

What you have learned from the experiment should be mentioned as well. Recommendations are the proposals for future work, e. g. suggested changes in equipment, study of new variables, or possible experiments in relative fields. Like the conclusions, the recommendations are usually listed by numbers, and each consists of only a sentence or two. 9. Literature Cited Here, you should list the books, Journal’s articles, etc. used in writing your report and analyzing the experiment. The reference should be completed (name of the book, author, volume, date of publication, pages, etc. . References should be arranged alphabetically by author. 10. Nomenclature The symbols, which are used in the report, should be defined in the nomenclature in alphabetical order. The accompanying definitions must include proper units. Appendices All appendices and graphs should be attached at the end of the report. A1. Raw Data: It should contain the data on which the experiment was done. A2. Analysis of Data and Sample Calculations: This shows how the data/manipulated data is transformed into experimental results by using the appropriate equations.

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