Introduction to psychoanalysis

Psychoanalysis began with the work of Sigmund Freud at the beginning of the 20th century and has continued to come on of all time since. Despite its comparative young person ( when compared to other subjects such as Philosophy or Biology ) the impact of psychoanalytical theory upon modern society has been considerable. For this ground it is both relevant and of import to inquire the inquiry: what is depth psychology?

This essay will turn to the inquiry of what depth psychology is by placing the nucleus constructs and unique characteristics which contribute to its map within modern-day society. This attack seems appropriate for if modern society is every bit instrumentalised as suggested by Adorno and Horkheimer ( 1994 ) so intending is derived from map.

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Psychoanalysis is a extremely specialized attack towards the comprehension and intervention of mental operation. Freud ‘s work indentified the complex nature of the human consciousness and introduced the construct of unconscious thrusts, ideas, and feelings, which may ne’er make witting consciousness. This construct has become common cognition and has helped to determine the modern-day apprehension about the construction of the head.

Psychoanalysis is distinguished from psychopathology and clinical psychological science by the fact that it does non use signifiers of intervention, such as drugs or behavioral techniques. Alternatively depth psychology maps in conformity with the rule that the patient is allowed the chance talk freely while the analyst listens. This therefore means that the undertaking of the analyst is to listen with involvement and without opinion, to the verbal and non-verbal communications of the patient. The purpose of which is to place and derive an apprehension of the patient ‘s unconscious emotional struggles. In this manner the patient will accomplish penetration into, and thereby alleviation from these internal struggles.

To some extent all human existences are psychologists, nevertheless this is non the instance for psychoanalysts. In order to be a psychoanalyst one must hold completed developing approved by the International Psychoanalytical Association. For the United Kingdom this preparation is in association with the British Psychoanalytical Society. The intent of this preparation is to supply theoretical and proficient cognition every bit good as cognition of the ego. This is achieved by the analyst themselves undergoing personal analysis. The ground for this is to guarantee that the analyst is able to accomplish the degree of cognition and expertness required to keep such a important place of duty over a patient. The procedure of depth psychology is complex and demands a long-run committedness from both the patient and analyst. It is of import to observe that this includes a important fiscal committedness on the portion of the patient. Nevertheless patients of depth psychology may come from all walks of life and their symptoms will be as specific to each patient as their cause.

The strength of psychoanalytic therapy can differ depending on the patient ‘s demands and capacity to profit from regular Sessionss. Full depth psychology involves five Sessionss per hebdomad with an analyst, which will frequently go on for several old ages. However less intense signifiers, such as psychoanalytic psychotherapeutics will hold two or three Sessionss per hebdomad ( Simply Psychology, 2009 ) and psychodynamic psychotherapeutics comprises of merely one session per hebdomad. Psychodynamic psychotherapeutics is by and large short-run and will typically last up to twelve months. Although the strength may differ between different therapies their method remains the same. Each session will last for 50 proceedingss and it is really of import that the analyst begins and ends on clip. This is because the regularity and dependability of the Sessionss can be good to the patient in itself. In add-on it is important that the Sessionss take topographic point in an appropriate environment which is contributing to relaxation and contemplation. The chief characteristics of this type of environment are comfy, quiet milieus and the traditional usage of a curative sofa. The analyst will sit at the caput of the sofa but remain out of position in order to cut down distraction and suppressions which may be induced by facial looks.

A cardinal tool for depth psychology is the usage of free association, whereby the patient speaks freely about whatever is on their head. This could be in response to a inquiry provided by the analyst. It is this procedure that has led depth psychology to be known as the ‘talking remedy ‘ . Free association can be a peculiarly hard undertaking to carry through as the patient may frequently experience unwilling to portion information or might even see a mental space. These experiences in themselves are utile as they are illustrations of oppositions which could be hints to the implicit in issues. In the instance of kid analysis, drama will take the topographic point of free association and the analyst will detect the kid ‘s behavior. Other tools of depth psychology include dream analysis and slips. Dream analysis is the geographic expedition of unconscious ideas which enter the patient ‘s consciousness during sleep, normally in cloaked or symbolic signifier. These signifiers frequently take the form of mental images or sounds that can supply hints as to the patients implicit in struggles. Parapraxes, besides known as Freudian faux pass, are inadvertent errors which may uncover unconscious purposes. An illustration of such an mistake may be the inappropriate usage of the word bar in a sentence, when the talker is experiencing hungry.

In order to better understand what depth psychology is, it is of import to look at the theories behind it. Freud noted the importance of the relationship formed between the patient and the analyst, wherein the patient unsuitably redirects emotions from past experiences onto the analyst in the present scene. This is called transference and provides a alone chance to derive apprehension of, and control over, unconscious issues. Equally of import is counter-transference, which is concerned with what the analyst feels they have to become- in the presences of the patient. These experiences are besides of import because the analyst is able to place forms of behavior, which the patient has encouraged the analyst to take part in.

Freud identified three degrees of consciousness which can be explained utilizing the metaphor of an iceberg ( AllPsych ONLINE, 2009 ) . Ten per cent of the iceberg is above the H2O ‘s surface and the remainder of the iceberg is submerged. The tip of the iceberg is the witting component, which contains all the ideas and feelings that a individual is cognizant of at any given minute. The first 10 per cent of the iceberg, that is merely below the surface is the preconscious, which refers to things that a individual is non presently cognizant of, but can easy convey into consciousness. The last 90 per cent which is further below the surface is the unconscious which includes things that are non easy brought into consciousness. Furthermore the unconscious is where a individual ‘s motivations and desires are located but the lone entree to them is in cloaked signifier.

In add-on to the three degrees of consciousness Freud saw the construction of the head being governed by the Id, Ego, and Superego. The Id is the beginning of all thrusts including the life and decease inherent aptitudes, besides known as Eros and Thanatos. This facet of the head works on the pleasance rule which creates instinctual impulses that demand immediate satisfaction. Freudians would see an baby to be about wholly Id orientated. This creative activity of desires from demands is known as primary procedure thought. The Ego on the other manus maps in relation to the world rule, which struggles to happen appropriate objects with which to fulfill the demands of the Id. This type of job resolution is known as secondary procedure thought. Last the Superego is separated into two elements which represent both parental and social values. The first is the scruples which is concerned with the possible negative results. The 2nd is the Ego ideal which refers to the positive possible results. Both communicate with the Ego with feelings such as shame or pride.

The Ego has to equilibrate the demands of world against both the demands of society- as represented by the Superego- and the demands of biological science, as represented by the Id. This is a complicated procedure and may do the Ego to go overwhelmed. When this happens it will make a feeling of anxiousness. Realistic anxiousness refers to the esthesis of fright that may be felt when in the presence of an external physical menace. Moral anxiousness on the other manus, consists of esthesiss like shame and guilt which are internal frights of penalty from society. Last, neurotic anxiousness is the fright of being overwhelmed and relates to minutes of ‘losing it ‘ , such as losing one ‘s pique.

If degrees of anxiousness become excessively great so the Ego utilises defense mechanism mechanisms, which unconsciously block urges or falsify them into more manageable signifiers. There are several types of defense mechanism mechanisms which may even happen in combination with one another. Denial is the refusal to see an external event and therefore blocks the event from witting consciousness.

Repression creates an inability to remember a distressing event from memory but may still let feelings of anxiousness about the event. Isolation or intellectualization involves the remotion of emotion from a hard memory, impulse or state of affairs. Displacement redirects a individual ‘s ideas or feelings onto a replacement mark. Projection is when a individual places their ain unacceptable desires into person else. Reaction formation alterations an unacceptable emotion into its antonym so for illustration love becomes hatred. Arrested development is when a individual retreats, psychologically, back to the last clip they felt safe and secure which is frequently childhood. Rationalisation involves a deformation of the facts in order to warrant emotions or an event. Last, sublimation is the transmutation of an unacceptable desire into a socially acceptable or productive signifier.

Freud produced a psychosexual phase theory to explicate human development. The unwritten phase is from birth, until about 18 months. During this clip the focal point is the oral cavity. The anal phase is following, and lasts until around three or four old ages. At this clip the focal point is on lavatory behavior. After this and up to approximately the age of six or seven old ages is the phallic phase. This phase involves an involvement in genital organs and may besides include onanism. Then there is the latent phase which lasts until pubescence. During this phase there is a neutrality in the opposite sex. However the concluding phase begins at pubescence and involves a revival of sexual urges and is known as the venereal phase.

The Oedipal Complex may happen during the phallic phase of development and is frequently an facet of Freud ‘s theory which people find disagreeable. Freud states that a kid ‘s first love-object is their female parent since she provides attending and fondness. However there is a rival for the female parent ‘s fondness which is their male parent. As a kid around the age of six or seven it is understood that the difference between the genders is the phallus. The position at this age is that holding something is better than non, which takes the signifier of emasculation anxiousness for male childs and phallus enviousness for misss. A boy whilst fearing emasculation by his male parent will displace his feelings for his female parent onto other adult females. As with a male child, a miss ‘s first love is her female parent. However a miss will gain that she can non hold a phallus and so settees for a replacement, such as a babe. In order to hold a babe, a miss needs a male parent but since her ain is already taken she displaces onto other work forces.

Psychoanalytical theory has made important parts to the apprehension of mental operation and human relationships and is as relevant today as when it began a century ago. For case, the traumatic effects of drawn-out separation, between an baby and its female parent, have prompted alterations in the direction of kids in infirmaries. In decision depth psychology is a set of premises which include a belief that psychological jobs are rooted in the unconscious head. Physically manifested symptoms are caused by unsolved issues or repressed injury and the intervention of these issues is to convey pent-up struggles into consciousness, where the patient is able to utilize this penetration to do alterations.

Bibliography

  • ADORNO, T and HORKHEIMER, M. ( 1994 ) . Dialectic of Enlightenment. New York: Continuum.
  • AllPsych ONLINE. ( 2009 ) . Freud ‘s Structural and Topographical Models of Personality [ online ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //allpsych.com/psychology101/ego.html. [ Accessed 2 December 2009 ] .

Mentions

  • ADORNO, T and HORKHEIMER, M. ( 1994 ) . Dialectic of Enlightenment. New York: Continuum.
  • AllPsych ONLINE. ( 2009 ) . Freud ‘s Structural and Topographical Models of Personality [ online ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //allpsych.com/psychology101/ego.html. [ Accessed 2 December 2009 ] .
  • BARBOUR, S. ( 2009 ) . Introduction to Psychoanalysis and Psychoanalytic Therapies [ online ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.teachpsychoanalysis.com/portals/4/docs/Barbour_Myths % 20 % 20Misc1.pdf. [ Accessed 2 December 2009 ] .
  • FONAGY, P. ( 2000 ) . Grasping the Nettle: Or Why Psychoanalytical Research is Such an Irritant [ online ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.psychoanalysis.org.uk/fonagy1.htm. [ Accessed 2 December 2009 ] .
  • FOUCAULT, M. ( 1967 ) . Madness and Civilisation. London: Tavistock.
  • HABERMAS, J. ( 1983 ) . ‘Modernity – an unfinished undertaking ‘ , in H. Foster ( ed. ) . Postmodernist Culture. London: Pluto Press.
  • JAMES, O. ( 2007 ) . Affluenza. London: Scarlet.
  • KLEIN, M. ( 1997 ) .Envy and Gratitude and Other Works 1946-1963. London: Vintage.
  • Simply Psychology. ( 2009 ) . What is Psychoanalysis? [ online ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/What % 20is % 20Psychoanalysis.pdf. [ Accessed 2 December 2009 ] .
  • The Institute of Psychoanalysis. ( 2009 ) . What is depth psychology? [ online ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.psychoanalysis.org.uk/frontpage.htm. [ Accessed 2 December 2009 ] .
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