Investigatory Project

November 24, 2017 Construction

Managing, the teacher, thank you for giving the researchers a chance to experience this undertaking and for the encouragement. To the researchers’ friends, especially those who lent their time and skills in imaginations what the researchers lack, thank you. They are so blessed to have you in their lives. And most of all to God Almighty who made all these things possible. Without you, everything would Just be nothing. The researchers want to thank each and everyone. Eating bread has always been a part of our routines, we eat it for breakfast and even for Marianne in the afternoon.

But nowadays, a very small bread is not as cheap as before, it has rapidly increased its price. As a way of finding a solution, the researchers used pounded Terminal catalpa or Tallish seeds as an alternative to immemorial bread flour since Terminal catalpa or Tallish is readily available in one of the researchers’ residences. The study was conducted with two treatments, Treatment A which was the bread made from commercial bread flour and Treatment B which was the bread made from pounded and finely-strained Terminal catalpa or Tallish seeds.

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Treatment A contained 200 grams of first class flour, 50 grams of third class flour, 4 grams of lard, 40 grams of sugar, 25 grams of salt, 3 small packs of yeast, and 30 ml of water. Treatment B contained the same ingredients of the same measurements except for the flour. After baking, the researchers asked 10 randomly selected respondents to taste and rate both commercial and Tallish breads with a range of 1 to 5 with 1 as the lowest and 5 as the highest. Using one-way analysis of variance (NOVA) for data interpretation, the researchers found out that Treatment B had a higher mean rating of 2. 5 compared to that of Treatment A which is 0. 40556. The researchers were able to conclude that the pounded Tallish seeds could be an alternative source of commercial bread flour. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Flour is one of the most important and commonly used ingredient in making the luscious bread you eat every morning and every afternoon or snacks with your hot creamy coffee. Flour is also used in making pastries and some other products. But as the demand of flour increases especially in bakery and pastry houses, the costs also raises.

And as costs raises, problems of bakers and pastry chefs on not being able to afford in buying expensive flours will also arise. And if these bakers and pastry chefs would take the risk in making bread out of expensive flour, the cost of each piece of bread would probably be higher than the usual price. Due to this, bread sales would cost likely deteriorate and flour manufacturers would stop making flour that they intend to process and Just store those because nobody would dare to buy such expensive flour.

If bakers would also continue selling bread, there is a less or no assurance if their bread would be sold out. The next scenario would be this, if the bakers will take the risk and buy and make breads out of expensive flour, not only the cost of each piece of bread would be affected. The quality and size of the bread may also be disturbed. The quality of bread will decline and the size will lessen because bakers would start to think about heir business status, that if they would not do that, they may not gain profit and eventually become bankrupted.

So come to think of it. Given that the bread nowadays would become expensive, do you think you would still buy those? Of course not, right? So the researchers of this study came up with an idea to perform a study regarding these problems that will possibly arise, not only to help economically but also to help out bakers and pastry chefs, the government and the society but also to lessen the worries of the people in buying such expensive yet low quality breads.

The researchers aim to do or execute an experiment to check if they would be able to come up with edible flour from dried and pounded Tallish (Terminal catalpa) seeds. If the study would lead to success then we could sell the produced flour with cheaper price compared to bakeries and pastry houses. Tallish (Terminal catalpa) tree is a native tree in the regions of Asia, Africa, and Australia and is also popular in the researchers’ places so they don’t need to search for it anymore. Tallish is a large, deciduous tree, reaching a height of 20 to 25 meters, smooth or nearly so.

Branches are horizontally whorled. Pericardia is fibrous and fleshy, the endeavor hard. The seeds of this tree are edible and tastes like almond when it’s fully ripe. The seeds will also be the main ingredient to the success of this study. Hopefully, the researchers can turn this study out into a solution on problems of economic crisis due to possible shortage of flour. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM This study tried and aimed to test the feasibility of the dried and pounded Tallish seeds as an alternative source of flour.

Bakery owners/Bakers Bakery owners and bakers can lessen their expenses spent on buying flour for their product. Flour Manufacturers Flour manufacturers can now have a new source of flour without o many expenses. This study only focuses on the use of Tallish seeds as an alternative source of making flour. It only copes up with the use of this plant in making only flour and no other products. Basically, Tallish seeds are the primary things to be used in making the said product. The study will be conducted at the researchers’ homes within one to two weeks.

Terminal catalpa – Terminal catalpa is an Asiatic tree widely cultivated and naturalized in the tropics and having fruit with edible seeds; also called normally, tropical almond Flour Flour is a fine, powdery foodstuff obtained by grinding and sifting the meal of a grain, especially wheat, used chiefly in baking Edible Combaters Edible means fit to be eaten, especially by humans Combaters is family of tropical trees and shrubs of the order Myrtles Tallish Tree Terminal catalpa Lion (Combaters) is found in the warmer parts of India.

It is also known as Indian almond, Malabar Almond, and Tropical Almond. The various extracts of leaves and bark of the plant have been reported to be anticancer, antioxidant, anti-HIVE reverse transcripts, hypervelocity, anti inflammatory, anti- apatite’s, and aphrodisiac. The photochemical of this plant include tannins (panicking, penicillin, terrestrial A and B, deregulating, terrain, achievable acid, agreeing, gratin B, corralling), floodplains (sovereign, vitamin, shortening, rutting) and trepidations (resource acid, 20, 3џ, 23-Thursday’s-12-en-28 OIC acid).

Tannins have been reported to posses anti-diabetic activity. (http://www. Billion. Org. BRB/PDF? Peptide) Tallish is a large, deciduous tree, reaching a height of 20 to 25 meters, smooth or nearly so. Branches are horizontally whorled. Leaves are shiny, ovate, 10 o 25 centimeters long, tapering below to a narrow and heart-shaped base with an expanded rounded apex. Leaf stalks are short and stout. Flowers are white, small, and borne on spikes in the axial of the leaves, 6 to 18 centimeters long. Fruit is smooth and ellipsoid, 3 to 6 centimeters long, and prominently bi-ridged or keeled down to the sides.

Pericardia is fibrous and fleshy, the endeavor hard. Its seed contains 51. 2 percent fixed oil, Catalpa oil, with 54% Olin, painting, and 46 % steering. Its bark contains tannin. Its photochemical analysis yielded spoon, spoon glycoside, terror, cardiac glycoside, tannins, volatile oils, phenols and balsam (gum). Its physiochemical analysis of sun dried massacre of fruits revealed about 12. 65% ash, 84. 93% carbohydrate, 0. 37% oil, 316 MGM/g glucose, 0. 1% protein, 1. 30 MGM/g tannin, 1. 95% moisture, with 3434. 5 kcal/keg calorific value. Its seeds yield 4. 3% moisture, 23. 78% crude protein, 4. 27% ash, 4. 94% crude fiber, 51. 80% fat, 16. 02% carbohydrate and 548. 78 Kcal calorific value. It is classified in the ILEC-linoleum acid group; oil contains high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, especially ILEC (up to 31. 8%) and linoleum (up to 28. 93%). (http://www. Extravagance. Economical. HTML) Indian almond (Terminal catalpa) extracts from the leaves and bark of the plant have proven anthropogenic, anti-HIVE and hypervelocity properties (liver regenerating effects), including anti-diabetic effects.

The leaves and bark have been used traditionally in the South Pacific, for fungal related conditions. It may be potentially beneficial for overall immune support, liver detoxification and antioxidant support. The leaves contain agents for chemo-prevention of cancer and probably have anthropogenic attention. They also have an anticoagulation effect (a process which causes breaks in chromosomes) due to their antioxidant properties.

The kernel of Indian almond has shown aphrodisiac activity; it can probably be used in treatment of some forms of sexual inadequacies (premature ejaculation). Ethanol extract of the leaves show potential in the treatment of sickle cell disorders. It appears as an anti-suckling agent for those that suffer from sickle cell. It has been shown to be of benefit for microbial balancing; as an aid to lowering high blood pressure and stress; as a treatment for mom forms of liver disorders; as an aid in reducing the effect of several heart conditions.

In Asia it has long been known that the leaves of contain a toxic, secondary metabolite, which has antibacterial properties. From other countries: the leaves, bark and fruits are used for dysentery in Southeast Asia; dressing for rheumatic Joints in Indonesia and India; the fruits and bark are a remedy for coughs in Samoa) and asthma in Mexico; the fruits treat leprosy and headaches in India and motion sickness in Mexico; the leaves eliminate intestinal parasites in the Philippines and treat eye problems, rheumatism and wounds in

Samoa while they’re used to stop bleeding during teeth extraction in Mexico; fallen leaves are used to treat liver diseases in Taiwan, and young leaves for colic in South America; the Juice of the leaves is used for scabies, skin diseases and leprosy in India and Pakistan; the bark is a remedy for throat and mouth problems, stomach upsets and diarrhea in Samoa and for fever and dysentery in Brazil. Air-dried Tallish kernels contain 52. 0% fat, 25. 4% protein, 14. 6% fiber, 6% glucose and a small percentage of ash. Indian almond oil contains glycoside of palmists acid 34. 4%, ILEC acid 32. %, online acid 27. 5% and Stearns acid 6%; it closely resembles sweet almond, cotton seed, kapok and groundnut oils and could substitute for them for dietetic and industrial uses (Morton, 1985). Oilcans used as pig feed. Kernel oil used for making soap but its industrial use is limited by the difficulty in extracting the kernel. Oil is also used medicinally as are also the leaves and bark. Leaves and bark astringent and variously used medicinally; leaves also codifier if taken internally. Bark is a source of dye; bark (25% tannin), roots and green fruits (known as moorlands) are used for tanning.

Timber tough and fairly hard, durable in water although not durable in the ground, susceptible to dry wood termites; used for construction, furniture, carpentry, carts, boats, plywood and pulp. It is cultivated as an ornamental and shade tree (Excel, 1954; FAA, 1982; Originates, 1984; Burial, 1985; Morton, 1985). (http://www. FAA. Org/decree/behave/v8929e06. HTML) Bread Flour Bread flour is formulated to have a medium gluten content of around 12 percent or so. This makes it good middle-of-the-road flour that can be used for a whole range of baking, from crusty breads to fine cakes and pastries.

Even so, most professional bakers don’t use all-purpose flour but instead use bread flour, cake flour or pastry flour, depending on what they are baking. (http://exclusionary. About. Com/odd/ abstractedness/p/Wheatstone. HTML) Bread flour contains a high proportion of starches, which are a subset of complex carbohydrates also known as polysaccharides. The kinds of flour used in cooking include all-purpose flour, self-rising flour (known as self-raising outside North America), and cake flour including bleached flour.

The higher the protein content the harder and stronger the flour, and the more it will reduce crusty or chewy breads. The lower the protein, the softer the flour, which is better for cakes, cookies, and pie crusts. (http://en. Wisped. Org/wick/ Flour#Composition) Bread flour is a blend of hard and soft wheat; it may be bleached or unbleached. Bread flour is high protein flour that is intended to be used in yeast breads and designed to give you a better result in those breads than you would get with another type of flour. The high protein content means that the flour has more gluten in it.

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