Before I entered the National Institute of Education ( “ NIE ” ) to undergo my grade programme, I had worked in a diversion nine that catered to adolescents aged 11 to 17. The experience I got from working with adolescents was huge. I was no longer intimidated by the ‘bengs ‘ and ‘mats ‘ who frequent the nine.
I besides developed good friendly relationships with some of the young persons. I was near to a 12-years old male child named Redwan ( non his existent name ) . A member of the nine, Redwan goes the nine every twenty-four hours since his house is located nearby. He would on occasion assist me acquire the nine ready for opening by unlocking the nine ‘s Windowss. We would sometimes play UNO or billiard with the other club members during my breaktime.
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In the thick of acquiring to cognize Redwan better, I realised that he was non the kind of male child who looked frontward to analyzing – even when he knew he was taking the PSLE this twelvemonth. I started to measure the possible issues that led to his unmotivated learning behaviour.
“ I am in EM3. I ‘m stupid ” .
That was Redwan ‘s answer when I asked him to try a Math inquiry. I found his answer upseting because it was non normal for person to “ diss ” himself even if it is a signifier of alibi to avoid transporting out a undertaking. I realised that his behavioral response was more positive when asked to transport out an activity that was more to his capablenesss. For illustration, he would ne’er waver to hold playing UNO because he ALWAYS wins.
2.2 Family Support
Although Redwan was the youngest in his household, he was non the stereotyped “ mamma ‘s male child ” . He has two senior brothers – one aged 14, in META school and the other, aged 16 – presumptively in a secondary school. However, his brothers do non travel to school every twenty-four hours. I observed that at precisely 1pm when the nine opens, they would be at the nine, non in school uniforms.
Redwan was besides allowed to travel place tardily at dark – after 9pm, when the nine would shut. I had asked him before what he would make at place. He replied blandly ; “ Watch telecasting so sleep ” . I wondered if he had clip to analyze or finish his prep.
2.3 Peer Influence
Bing in EM3, Redwan is near to a group of friends that were in the same category as him. There was a period of clip when I held tuition categories for them and I realised that when his friends were non willing to larn, he would follow their behavior. There were a twosome of times when I overheard his friends noticing that Redwan had “ low IQ ” as if it was a fact. Redwan ne’er seemed to mind that statement. Again, that disturbed me. Redwan was besides near to his brother ‘s friends. I remembered that one of them, a school drop-out, poked merriment at those who were still schooling.
3. Impacts on Redwan ‘s Development
These issues impact Redwan ‘s development -in the cognitive and behavioral facets, hence impacting his overall learning experience.
3.1 Context of Development – Bronfenbrenner ‘s Bioecological Theory
This bioecological theory explains human development in the context of an ecological system that involves growing. The Microsystem includes the person ‘s direct interactions with the “ immediate environment[ 1 ]“ whereas the Mesosystem are the linkages found between the Microsystems. The Exosystem involves the linkages and procedures that do non straight affect the person but still influences his development. The Macrosystem comprises the adoptive attitudes and political orientations within the civilization that the single lives in. The Chronosystem involves the “ alterations or consistence overtime[ 2 ]“ of both the person and his environment.
The tabular array below illustrates the societal agents found in Redwan ‘s environmental systems: –
Redwan ‘s household
Redwan ‘s friends
Redwan ‘s school
Baseball club that Redwan attends about mundane
Relationship between Redwan ‘s household and school experiences
Relationship between Redwan ‘s friends and school experiences
Baseball club organisers
Principle of Meritocracy ( Singapore ‘s Education System )
Education ‘s system recent increasing focal point on developing pupils ‘ proficient accomplishments
The Microsystem has the closest propinquity to Redwan in footings of regular interaction. As such, processes that occur in the Microsystem have a more influential impact on Redwan ‘s developmental procedure. One illustration of procedures would be his parents non puting a curfew for the timing to when Redwan has to be at place. By leting Redwan to travel place tardily at dark indicates a deficiency of parental control in the Microsystem. This may impact Redwan ‘s cognitive development because he might hold the perceptual experience that his parents are inattentive of him.
The deficiency of household encouragement to analyze or complete school assignment, affects Redwan ‘s acquisition experiences in school. By non taking notice of Redwan ‘s school assignment, possibly indicates how his household topographic points school/education at a low precedence degree. Redwan ‘s brothers ‘ deficiency of involvement in school does non merely back up this premise but besides finally affects Redwan ‘s ain cognitive and behavioural development towards school. Redwan ‘s friends ‘ hapless attitude towards school besides contributes to both these developments and therefore, consequences in his negative acquisition experiences.
The Exosystem includes the nine in which Redwan is an active member in. The chief map of the nine is to recommend adolescents to take part in healthy activities such as association football competitions, as opposed to unsought activities such as drug-trafficking. It provides a ‘shelter ‘ for adolescents. The positive end of the nine may positively act upon Redwan ‘s development in footings of understanding his capablenesss and involvements when able to take part in assorted types of competitions. It besides deters Redwan from being involved in the unsought activities mentioned.
The rule of meritocracy has long been emphasised in Singapore ‘s instruction system. Redwan, being a participant in the instruction system is therefore developmentally affected. Although meritocracy is desired, it may hold a negative impact on Redwan ‘s development because he is less academic-inclined. He may hold developed the cognitive thought that he may ne’er be able to win academic-wise.
The alterations within the instruction system in Singapore influence Redwan ‘s development. Over the recent old ages, the addition focal point of supplying topics and faculties that are more suited to the less academic-inclined may positively act upon Redwan ‘s self-development. For illustration, it may alter his current perceptual experience that he will ne’er be able to win, hence actuating him to make good.
4. Self and Identity Development
4.1 Self-Concept and Self-Esteem
Self-concept refers to the cognitive thought that an person has over oneself. Harmonizing to Purkey ( 1988 ) , it is the “ entirety of a complex, organized, and dynamic system of scholar beliefs, attitudes and sentiments[ 3 ]“ that an single believes is true about himself. For illustration, if Sharukh Khan says “ My name is Khan, I am non a terrorist ” – this is a self-concept because it is a fact about himself.
Self-Esteem is a subset of self-concept. It is the ’emotional sentiment ‘ that one has of himself. Harmonizing to Frey and Carlock, it is the “ judgement placed on the emotional, rational and behavioral facets of the self-concept[ 4 ]“ . If Sharukh Khan says, “ My name is Khan, I am non a terrorist. I am a sweet individual ” – the accent of being sweet is a judgement of his self-concept ( i.e. self-pride ) . The degree of self-pride a individual has may be subjected to academic accomplishments ( Lockett and Harrell, 2003 ) . Good academic accomplishments links to higher self-pride. Another factor of self-pride is parental support ( Thomas et al. , 1974 ) . Parental heat and fondness additions self-esteem.
From these findings, I evaluated that Redwan has low self-prides. A self-concept of himself would be him stating ; “ I am in EM3 ” – which is a fact. I evaluated that he has hapless self-prides because he judged himself by stating “ I am stupid ” when asked to undertake a math inquiry. His low self-pride may be caused by his perceptual experience of his ‘poor academic accomplishment ‘ by being in an EM3 category. The school ‘s segregation of pupils based on academic-levels hence has a strong consequence on Redwan ‘s cognitive development of himself because the school is located in the Microsystem.
His low self-pride is besides due to miss of parental support. His parents, located in the Microsystem, non merely have a strong consequence on his cognitive development but besides behavioural development towards larning and school. This is because they are the ‘entity ‘ in the Microsystem that has the closest propinquity to Redwan.
Harmonizing to Albert Bandura, self-efficacy refers to one ‘s “ beliefs in one ‘s capablenesss to form and put to death the classs of action required pull offing prospective state of affairss[ 5 ]“ . It is a cardinal factor that influences an person ‘s motive, larning and accomplishments in the academic facets. Low self-efficacy is the inclination to move or confront troubles when confronted with a undertaking that they believe may non bring forth the coveted results.
Redwan has low self-efficacy in the academic facet. When asked to reply inquiries, he tries to avoid the inquiry by stating he is stupid. He believes that he is unable to execute the undertaking and supply the correct reply ( i.e. the coveted result ) .
In my sentiment, Redwan ‘s low self-efficacy is caused by the Macrosystem – rule of Meritocracy and its focal point on honoring based on good academic makings. He sees himself as being unable to bring forth the “ coveted results ” of the instruction system and therefore gives up even before seeking.
A more impactful factor for Redwan ‘s low self-efficacy would be his friends stating in forepart of him that he has low IQ. Located in the Microsystem, his friends have a stronger consequence on this cognitive development of himself.
Harmonizing to James Marcia ( 1991 ) , psychological individuality development in adolescence comes in four positions ; individuality diffusion, individuality foreclosure, individuality moratorium and individuality achieved.
The description of the positions is as follows:
Poor sense of way
Distant and withdrawn
Accepts individuality and values allocated since immature by society
No individuality crisis
Content with ego
Experiencing an individuality crisis
Resolved individuality crisis
Clearly stated personal values
Redwan is in the Identity-Foreclosure phase. I concluded this to be so because he seems to be ‘content ‘ to whom he has been defined by his household and friends to be. As mentioned, whenever his friends say he has low IQ, he accepted it without denial. I assume that another ground why he has latched on to this so called ‘less academic-inclined ‘ individuality was due to the segregation of academic achievement-levels in the instruction system ( Macrosystem ) .
4.4 Proposals for Self and individuality Development
As mentioned, parental support ( Microsystem ) is a cardinal factor to high self-pride. Therefore, as a instructor, I will prosecute his parents to a Meet-the-Parent Sessionss where I may inform them of Redwan ‘s good qualities and emphasise on his ability to make good. This may so take them to recognize Redwan ‘s possible and hence give Redwan the much needed support. An alternate manner is to delegate prep that requires his parents to be included in the acquisition. Sing that his parents are supportive will hike Redwan ‘s self-pride.
Although Redwan is presently non sing any individuality crisis, the fact that his acceptableness to his ‘negative individuality ‘ of being less-academic inclined affects his self-efficacy negatively. Therefore to increase Redwan ‘s self-efficacy in acquisition, I would assist him set up short-run ends that are specific as suggested by Schunk and Pajares ( 2002 ) . Although these ends may be disputing to him, it is still accomplishable. For illustration ; puting the grade of trouble of a math trial to one that suits his cognitive developmental demands.
Another manner to increase self-efficacy would be to compare his academic public presentation to his personal established ends. This is every bit opposed to academically-comparing him to other pupils. Harmonizing to Bandura ( 1994 ) , self-comparison raises a pupil ‘s perceptual experience of his capablenesss.
5. Moral Development
I recalled a state of affairs where I Redwan went up to the nine director to “ state on ” an older male child who had been misapplying the computing machine to surf indecorous web sites. Although he knew the male child was a bully ( therefore he might acquire into a personal struggle with this him ) and did non hold peculiar liking for the nine director – these facts did non discourage him from transporting out what was right.
Many theories have been put into topographic point to understand the cognitive moral development of kids. For the intent of this essay, I focused on Kohlberg ‘s theory of moral development. Harmonizing to Kohlberg, there are three cardinal degrees of moral development ; preconventional, conventional and post-conventional. A description of each degree is as follows: –
Based on self-interest – wagess and avoiding penalties
Will disobey regulations if know he will non acquire caught.
Egoistic – Own demand is a precedence
Based on laws/rules
Concern for the care of outlooks of a group of people irrespective of effects
Believe in the society ‘s guidelines for the ‘correct ‘ behavior – believe regulations are “ non intend to be broken ”
Based on personal moral criterions
Rules may be broken dependent on the state of affairs
Universal ethical rules
I recognized Redwan ‘s moral degree to be included under the Conventional degree because despite the factors that may discourage him from stating on the male child and knowing that he may non acquire profit but alternatively “ penalty ” from the older male child, he conformed to the nine regulations.
In my sentiment, the Microsystem is the chief factors that influences to Redwan ‘s cognitive and behavioural developments towards larning. I believe that his unmotivated behavior to analyze is non caused by ‘natural ‘ grounds but by the influence of the society. For illustration, as mentioned, he ne’er rejects when asked to play UNO. In a conjectural scenario, should UNO be the society ‘s judgmental factor to his academic qualities – I extremely uncertainty he would be as enthusiastic to play UNO as he presently does.