Joint Training In The 21st Century History Essay

‘Joint Operations ‘ and ‘operating jointly ‘ are possibly myths that have deluded us for every bit long as the Indian Armed Forces have been in being. However, of late, the yet unharnessed, huge potency of this doctrine is showing itself as an indispensible, formidable and cardinal aspect in military operations of any magnitude and strength. Jointness, in our context synonymous to ‘Synergy ‘ , is one mammoth force multiplier that needs desperately to be given form and substance.

2. Genesis. That Jointness owes its generation to the rumbles after the Second World War, and subsequently, the US Goldwater-Nicholas Act of 1986, is untrue. The demand for a joint attack was good appreciated by our military leading even at the morning of our independency. We had inherited a bid construction for the Services where we had integrity of bid, under a Commander-in-Chief ( C-in-C ) , 2nd merely to the Viceroy. We shortly set up a Joint Services Wing ( JSW ) for developing officer plebes, which subsequently became the National Defence Academy ( NDA ) . The Defence Services Staff College ( DSSC ) continues as a Prime Minister joint establishment as does the College of Defence Management. In 1964 we set up the National Defence College[ 2 ].

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3. Additionally, the mere fact that each of the three services was set up and structured to incorporate and present in their several dimensions merely, establishes clearly that they are meant to work in functions complimentary to each other. No war is of all time sole to one dimension, and this really kernel of ‘complimentary operation ‘ is what Jointness is all approximately. So where did the doubt arrive from?

4. Jointness Today. Despite our first-class start, approximately six decennaries subsequently, no existent advancement has been made towards accomplishing synergism amongst the three services. The state of affairs today is that the three services have become progressively compartmentalized. The sarcasm is, that even the joint constructions sought to be created after the Kargil War, were whittled down and diluted to such an extent that they are simply of superficial value now. The issue of Jointness is still looked through the prism of ‘surrender of control ‘ over operational forces and authorization, or even ‘reduced allotment of budget ‘ , by the highest echelons of our several Services.

5. The preparation and execution of the Joint Doctrine for the Indian Armed Forces in May 2006, has been a innovator endeavor by so Chairman COSC, Admiral Arun Prakash. Yet, four old ages since, the attack and drift imparted to Jointness leaves much to be desired.

7. The paper seeks to impute the true sense and import of ‘Jointness ‘ , particularly in visible radiation of the many versions that have come to overcast the construct. This will be followed by set uping its necessity in the present and emerging environment. The hindrances in the advancement of this facet would so be broached, followed by the actions envisaged at assorted Levels. In the terminal, the mode of accomplishing the coveted terminal province through Joint Training and Joint Functioning in this respect will be approached.


“ India ‘s Forces must fall in or die ”

Admiral ( Retd ) JG Nadkarni

8. ‘Jointness ‘ entails congratulating each other ‘s strengths and protecting each other ‘s weak points. Jointmanship does NOT intend fusion ; it alternatively leans towards profound integrating, under one ‘unified authorization ‘ .

9. Joint Operations, which tolerably is a subset of Jointness, is a construct which fundamentally implies diction of the ways and agencies of carry oning a conflict. The construct recognises that land, maritime and air forces, in a battle-space, signifier vital and symbiotic elements. Each of these forces, though separated by the several media of their operations is capable of act uponing the conflict in the other media.

10. Jointness is NOT Unification. The Canadian Armed Forces underwent a ‘unification procedure ‘ in 1968 – a procedure that took them six old ages – under which The Royal Canadian Army, Navy and Air Force were merged into a incorporate construction called the Unified Armed Forces of Canada. This, nevertheless, is NOT what jointness in our context seeks to set up. The primary function of Land, Naval and Air Forces, continues to be in relation to their ain medium. Therefore, they need separate individualities but should be willing, and be structured good to run together. The construct focuses on inter-service cooperation for orchestration of all constituents of military power to accomplish a common military purpose – non merely at Tactical, Operational or Strategic degrees, but besides at the Functional degree. It is characterised by trust and assurance, common regard for each other ‘s capableness and cooperation instead than competition.


11. Picture this. In the ‘Operation Enduring Freedom ‘ , the Saddam Headquarters in Iraq was identified for aiming, political clearance to onslaught was taken from the highest degree and 23 Tomahawk missiles were fired accurately from a waiting ship each, in the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, without any indirect harm. The infinite assets employed for mark designation and communicating to the Pentagon were with the US Strategic Forces Command, the reconnaissance of the country was achieved by the air arm to cut down the collateral harm. All of this took all of 15 proceedingss[ 3 ]. There can non be a better illustration of effectivity and synergism in the diverse forces involved.

12. In the words of Admiral Arun Prakash, COSC, “ Indeed, it has been practically seen and through empirical observation proved over and over once more, that in the national security matrix, integrating of the three Services is an index of non merely operational effectivity, but besides a force multiplier, and above all, a step of economic system and efficiency ” . Upon cogitative contemplation, possibly the Admiral was in some step, mentioning to the success of even the really limited effort at Joint Operations during the 1947 Ops, Liberation of Goa and 1971 Indo Pak War ; as against the gross failure of 1962 Indo China War, Op Pawan and the incoherency of the 1999 Kargil Conflict.

13. The insufficiencies that showed up in the examination undertaken by the Kargil Review Committee led to the fundamental law of a Group of Ministers and the commissioning of a Task Force to analyze inter alia our Higher Defence Organisation. The constitutional establishment of the joint constructions that exist today was a major necessary measure to aline the Indian Armed Forces to the worlds of twenty-first century warfare. But despite the foundations being adequately laid, what lacks grossly is the belief and more significantly, ‘attitude ‘ towards gaining the vision.

14. The challenges inherent in organizing non merely the activities, but besides mentalities, of disparate military forces to concentrate on a common aim require us to put out a clear set of rules and guidelines, which will ease Jointness.[ 4 ]These guidelines have been spelt out by the Joint Doctrine, and the substructure and establishments for effectual execution exist. What remains in for the Services to cast their cocoons walled by immature perceptual experiences, and follow this as their nucleus divinity and committedness.

The Present and Emerging Operational Environment Necessitating Jointness

15. Revolution in Military Affairs ( RMA ) . The RMA is driven by engineering, philosophy and administration. The manifestation of RMA, in footings of truth, deadliness, velocity and increasing authority of engineerings are impacting the state ‘s security.[ 5 ]The advantage has to be in a joint push at concentrating on advanced constructs critical for degrading the antagonist ‘s war engaging possible in a most effectual mode. Operational success would constantly depend upon effectual and coordinated usage of incorporate systems and processs.

16. Non-Conventional Operations. From a moderate point of view, even though the primary intent of atomic arms is to discourage their usage by others, the menace of their usage, peculiarly atomic escalation from instabilities in our part, needs to be factored into future operations. In the rare event of atomic arms being employed, the determination will basically be guided by political and strategic considerations. From our ‘no first usage philosophy ‘ , it is incumbent upon the Services to absorb the first work stoppage and still retain 2nd work stoppage capableness. This needfully entails widely dispersed locations and platforms of either Service that will necessitate to be under a individual point strategic bid. This calls for common processs, communications and sphere consciousness, good worked up and seamlessly interoperable inter-service maps that would merely come about close absolutely through the sustained pattern of Jointness.

17. International Perspective. India ‘s aspirations of a greater function in the Indian Ocean Region and lasting rank of the United Nation Security Council could ensue in more frequent usage of the Armed Forces under the UN authorization. These would affect engagement by constituents from each Service, all extremely dependent on each other for operational and logistic support. This would include Out of Area Contingencies, Humanitarian Ops, LIC, etc. Enhanced Jointmanship would be an indispensable ingredient for success in such operations.

18. Economic Discretion. Any developing state can ill afford duplicate and uneconomical outgo by the armed forces. Synergy, in his respect will besides take to development and procurance of military equipment, substructure, advanced logistics systems and preparation. There is a demand to use resources and systems jointly, and in an interoperable mode to cut down costs. Along with these operational jussive moods, military hardware has besides become highly dearly-won and it is indispensable that its initiation should follow critical analyses of inter-se precedences and cost benefit considerations which is possible merely under an integrated planning system.

19. Falling Behind. USA, UK, France, South Africa, Germany, Israel, Spain, Canada and Russia are some of the states that have adopted and all right tuned the ‘Joint Operations Concept ‘ . Why look far when so, our neighbors and ‘concerns ‘ in the part itself have formulated and accomplished Jointness in their ain sense.

( a ) In Pakistan, the theoretical account of COSC may sound similar to ours, but is significantly different, and in a mode that efficaciously integrates and unifies the military operations and working in all three dimensions. The primary difference being that the Chairman, COSC General Tariq Majid, is non one from among the three Chiefs of Staff. General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani is the Chief of Army Staff. The authorization of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee trades with all jobs bearing on the military facets of province security and is charged with incorporating and organizing the three services. In peacetime, its chief map is be aftering ; in clip of war, its president is the chief staff officer to the president in the supervising and behavior of the war.[ 6 ]

( B ) China has a construction we inherited after independency ( and imprudently discarded eight old ages subsequently )[ 7 ].The Chief of the General Staff is the apex remarkable military caput and all Service ‘s Chiefs are low-level to the General Staff. The Chief of the General Staff, General Huo Sho-yeh, ( who is once more non one from among the other Chiefs ) straight answers to the Minister of Defence and the President of the Republic of China[ 8 ].

20. Deteriorating Status of the Indian Armed Forces. It is evident that our civil order does non hold equal comprehension of Defence affairs. The ‘advisors ‘ to this civil order are either every bit nescient, or excessively haunted by the idea of being subverted by the Armed forces, the latter being more likely. The disturbingly deteriorating position of the Armed Forces apparent from the recent Warrant of Precedence ( now the Chiefs of Staffs are placed below the Judiciary, Auditors and even the Cabinet Secretary ) possibly confirm the old statement. But in times of national crisis this full set up will use miserably against the state. It may non be incorrect for our national leaders to profess that the national precedence today is economic security, but it is hoped they realise that economic security drives on a strong military anchor. Histories, and today ‘s advanced states with dramatic economic systems, USA and China to call a few, stand testimony to this statement.

21. This has been factored in to propose that a higher consolidative authorization, above all the three Chiefs of Staff, will non merely serve good to incorporate, optimise and organize the maps and operations of the three Services, but besides provide for a much needed higher representation in the military personal businesss of the State. This excessively, necessitates Jointness albeit at the highest degree.


The Evolution of Jointness in Other States.

22. The inter- Service construction handed down to us, was by and big, a reproduction of the organisation that had existed in Great Britain during the Second World War. Interestingly, despite their overpowering triumph in that War, and the experience of holding conducted several really large-scale tri-service military operations – for some of which they appointed Supreme Commanders like General Douglas MacArthur in the Pacific theater and General Dwight D. Eisenhower in Europe – the masters found serious defects in their higher defense mechanism organisations.

23. The USA Model. As a consequence, in the USA, a new dedicated authorization termed Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff ( CJCS ) , was constituted over and above the single Service Chiefs, as the chief military adviser. All operational duty was vested in incorporate theater bids which had constituents from the three military wings subordinated to them. The Chiefs of Services were members of the JCS but had no direct operational engagement in their constituents.[ 9 ]

24. The UK Model. In the United Kingdom, which had besides seen Admiral Mountbatten as the Supreme Commander in South-East Asia during the Second World War, it took some clip for the system to be reviewed. But by 1963, the UK had besides abandoned the old system. The central office of the Navy, Army and Air Force were integrated with the Ministry of Defence. A dedicated Chief of Defence Staff ( CDS ) was constituted, over and above the Chiefs of the Army, Navy and Air Force, as the chief military advisor. A dedicated and incorporate Joint Forces Headquarters ( JF HQ ) was created under the CDS to exert bid over all operations in which the British armed forces might be involved.[ 10 ]

25. Since so, about all states which operate believable military forces, e.g. , France, Russia, Australia, and Germany, South Africa, Israel, Spain, and Canada, have shifted to the incorporate form of higher defense mechanism direction with a chief military adviser. Even China, approximately as old an independent state as India, follows that system.

The Status of Jointness in Indian Context

26. The bing attempts at Jointness as have existed are the National Defence Academy ( NDA ) for developing officer plebes, the Defence Services Staff College ( DSSC ) and the College of Defence Management. In 1964 the National Defence College was set up. While other states matured and realised the insufficiencies of the COSC construction, including UK itself – from whom we inherited the construction – we continued to lose land from where we were handed over the wand, up until 1999, where at least the arrested development stalled.

27. If, for UK and USA, the ‘transformation accelerator ‘ was the Second World War, for India, it was possibly the 1999 Kargil Conflict, the analyses of which tendered the recommendations of the Arun Singh Committee and the Kargil Review Committee Reports.

28. The recent coming about of the Strategic Forces Command and the Unified A & A ; N Command are notable beginnings towards Jointness. A most important subscriber has been the announcement of the Joint Doctrine in May 2006. Yet, the immense nothingness between theory and pattern still looms big. One does n’t yet ‘gravitate ‘ towards this ‘body ‘ because the ‘mass ‘ of the nucleus, or the nucleus itself, is absent. This refers to the CDS.

29. The pattern of Joinmanship needs to precipitate downwards, and downwards entirely. There can be countless attempts at assorted facets of Jointness taken on at lower degrees, but if that be so, we shall stay where we are. This is particularly disposed in our context, since we need to get the better of the monolithic inactiveness of mentalities, military and otherwise. Unless there is that one consolidative component, like a manager to a squad, to orchestrate the strengths and failings of the participants to advantage, act as the ‘binding force ‘ , to supply for and even project the authority of a conjunct resource, the full attempt at Jointness would stay confused.


“ The lesson of the war in Afghanistan is that effectivity in combat will depend to a great extent on jointness and how good the different subdivisions of the military can pass on and organize their attempts on the battleground. Achieving that jointness in wartime requires edifice that jointness in peacetime. We need to develop like we fight and fight like we train and, excessively frequently, we do n’t. ”

– United states Secretary of Defence Donald Rumsfield[ 11 ]

30. Having established the kernel, demand, urgency and position of Jointness in our context, this subdivision shall be addressed by first placing the hindrances to Jointmanship and so proposing actions at assorted degrees to get the better of these issues and express inputs to explicate and maneuver some incorporate patterns.

Hindrances to Achieving Jointness

31. Ministry of Defence. The universe over, mature democracies have integrated Ministries or Departments of Defence, which are staffed by both civilian and military functionaries. India continues to be a apparently remarkable exclusion. Despite recent alterations effected in the MoD, as a consequence of the study of the GoM, the MoD remains mostly untasted. In fact, in certain countries, the supra nature of its powers have seemingly been enhanced.[ 12 ]This possibly is the largest disability to maturate behavior of Defence affairs, and the root cause of the immense apparent gulf between the civil order and the Armed Forces and the aspiration of Jointness.

32. Personal Perceptions. There is no meeting on the idea procedure even at really senior degrees in the Services. While the highest degree in the Services concerns about holding to portion with ‘autocratic authorization ‘ and ‘share of the budget pie ‘ , the lower degrees suffer from a instead narrowed vision from the everyday operation and inactiveness to go, even circumstantially, from the established norms and processs. Unless these immature apprehensivenesss of ‘fear of being dwarfed ‘ , and poise of ‘turf protection ‘ are shed and consonant rhyme on the foreparts of rational and physical Synergy is non achieved, the jointness pattern shall ever dawdle the construct.

33. Service Specific Compartmentalisation. It has so come about that the really kernel of determining three Services proficient in three distinguishable spheres, to finally back up and help each other at the clip of calculation, has been blatantly defeated. What is worse is that the hurt is self inflicted in most step. The recent gross disparity in the rank construction that has come about upon execution of the AVSC II, by the three services within the walls of their ‘shells ‘ , defeats non merely the kernel of Jointness, but besides puts to blow the really ground for holding trained officers together at initiation. This is a instead immense hindrance to effectual Joint Functioning. And, apparently once more, ours must be a remarkable illustration of a state ‘s Armed Forces that present such a flummoxed province to the universe.

34. In fact, unhappily it will non be wholly incorrect to province that the formidable undivided corporate exclusivity that one time our Armed Forces demonstrated is today, by design or default noticed to be dispersing. It will non be wrong to province that soon our Armed Forces by themselves lack the institutional will and vision to convey about any meaningful alteration. Therefore, unfortunately, we have to wait for some external bureau or personality to originate a political intercession in our instance, be it as respects rank construction or the institutionalisation of the CDS.

35. Bureaucracy. The civilian bureaucratism tightly controls the military budgeting and strategic planning, without any answerability for the effects of their determinations. The dichotomy prevalent within the Services today is merely possibly helping their fastness over affairs military.

Recommended Measures to Achieving Jointness

36. Common Ideology and Foundation. The gait on this forepart has already been set by the preparation and announcement of the Joint Doctrine. The of all time altering aspects of politico-military environment require that this start must retain its substance through changeless alteration and updating. This holding been said, the marrow of the construct needs to be cemented in a strong foundation that will forever digest the cogency of engineering and RMA.

37. Establishing the Post of CDS. Much has been discussed on this issue, in the preceding subdivisions. What remains to be done is to desperately re-establish the station and its business, station build uping it with powers at least fiting those of the JCS in the US theoretical account.

38. Joint Intelligence and Threat Perception. An effectual mode of siting the crests of a state of affairs is from thorough readying. An on-going articulation grasp of menaces in concert with the Ministries of Defence, External Affairs and Home will organize an informed footing for farther political and military response, even if so to a cold state of affairs. The intelligence procedure in the state today, is isolated, infested with the being of several bureaus, ensuing in overlapping maps and absence of incorporate control. This soon undermined aspect has possible to be a important force multiplier, if integrated and expeditiously structured. One does n’t hold to look excessively far West to grok the import of the statement.

39. Joint Communication and IW Procedures. ‘Information Dominance ‘ in the present age of warfare, and even peaceable coexistence, is one advantage no winning side can make without. Towards this, since the competition for control, usage and use of information to accomplish political, economic, military and other aims would be the cardinal attempt of information age warfare, the demand of the hr is to develop common communicating processs, codifications, encodings and other hardware to guarantee seamless integrating of all Services in a joint operation, irrespective of theater, location and timing.

40. Joint Logistics. With diverse forces being channelized to run in unison, and expeditionary deployments embedded strongly within the construct of joint Opss, this facet is expected to tune up to ample efficiency and proportions. Foreseeable tendencies suggest that the logistics burden would increase in footings of tunnage and complexness. Therefore, the demand to follow an incorporate logistics direction administration, to run into the demands of the three Servicess, at the national degree is paramount.

41. Further, factors like set uping Joint Forces Commands, realining / relocating the bing Command set ups of the three services to heighten common support, Technical Interoperability, Sharing / common pool of resources, programming of frequent joint degree exercisings of changing range and magnitude need small elaboration, but must be viewed critically, and given due happening.

Commiting Jointness through Joint Training

42. There is a distinguishable difference between ‘ Joint Training ‘ and ‘Training Jointly ‘ as we soon do. While the former is like a well-composed picture with no unsmooth borders, the latter is like an uncomplete saber saw mystifier in which the articulation participants are urgently seeking to suit in the pieces till the last minute. It needs really small imaginativeness to make up one’s mind which theoretical account needs to be followed.

43. Sound preparation is the bedrock of success during operations. The ability and success of Joint Operations is a direct manifestation of refined preparation and good evolved processs providing to the varied demands of any mission. Coordinated and formalised preparation involves survey of theoretical constructs, understanding of ain function in a mission followed by unrecorded articulation exercisings.

43. As Lieutenant General SRR Aiyengar, Commandant, Defence Services Staff College, said “ One method for come oning toward an evolutionary alteration is to concentrate on joint preparation with the hope that better quality of joint preparation would advance more intense interaction, facilitate greater transparence into each other ‘s operation and better grasp of common strengths and restrictions. Above all, it would assist in re-engineering of head sets and do them more conformable to accommodations and adjustment. ”[ 13 ]

44. Joint Training Institutions. Indian Armed Forces can tout of a big figure of joint preparation establishments providing to developing from pre-commissioning phase to the highest degrees of military operations. Additionally, institutes like the Colleges of Air / Naval warfare and college of Combat could profit from cross fond regards of officers of sister Services in the module, facets of joint operations in the course of study and networking/ picture conferencing to enable exchange of thoughts and information

45. Workshops. A deliberate and good prepared plan of joint workshops should be made a regular characteristic. Such workshops should concentrate on consequences of and lessons learnt from joint exercisings. Besides modern-day joint doctrinal idea could be encephalon stormed to obtain feedback from the field.

46. Wargames. Software based war gambling is an first-class tool to come on jointmanship at the tactical degree. Integrated war gambling by the Services will assist valuable lessons to be learnt by the hereafter leaders. Despite the built-in restrictions of a computing machine game, an environment of joint planning of operations would supply for equal land being covered in the coveted way.

47. Joint Assessment. During and on completion of joint exercisings, the appraisal or analysis squads must consist of members of each Service to deduce meaningful lessons sing the effectivity of the system as a whole, without a prejudice towards a peculiar constituent or Service. This would function to implement improved criterions of joint preparation every bit good as expose failings in the processs and equipment.

48. Cross Attachments. A system of fond regard of junior officers with sister Servicess for a short continuance would travel a long manner in set uping common apprehension. In add-on to professional value add-on this would be priceless in furthering interpersonal relationship. However, to accomplish full benefits from such exchanges, sufficient follow up fond regards would be required. This is where the committedness of the several Service would come into drama. Supplying exposure to forces by manner of cross posters and staffing them to the working of other Servicess may besides significantly contribute towards the consequence desired.


49. Jointness is based on integrity of purpose and attempt, and seeks to concentrate and synergise all the energy of the Armed Forces across the full scope of military operations in the Strategic, Operational and Tactical degrees. The synergism therefore achieved under one joint commanding officer would far excel single attempts by any one Service. Jointness urges the Armed Forces to cast their narrow, parochial involvements and develop positions shaped by national security considerations.

50. The demand of the hr is to collar the impairment and dissociation being brought about in the Armed Forces, and take the chance afforded by the emerging construct of Jointness, to present us into a kingdom of compounded power and influence.

51. While the paper brings out the demand and orchestration of Jointness at the degree of the Armed Forces, it is every bit imperative to see Jointness at the national degree where it would include assorted other bureaus like the intelligence bureaus, paramilitary forces and authorities machinery apart from the three Servicess.

52. The Indian Armed Forces have an advantage in the handiness of joint preparation establishments and joint administrations in many Fieldss of operations and combat support. This could lead on us into believing that we have an equal degree of jointmanship. The demand, nevertheless, is to continuously concentrate on the indispensable elements for joint operations which are equal preparation, accurate intelligence, interoperability, equipment interface, feasible joint philosophy and interpersonal dealingss.

53. Successful jointness can come about merely when professionals understand and appreciate the deductions of their ain positions and those of their opposite numbers. Merely after such an apprehension is achieved is at that place existent hope of synthesizing the single Service combat power.


We need to look beyond mere budgetary allotments and control of assorted bids, and embracing jointness with velocity and a ‘spirit of give and take ‘ . This is possible merely if we adopt a parallel attack of undertaking organizational alterations from

the top and originating coincident alterations in preparation forms from the ‘bottom ‘ . Jointness has to be accepted as world. We are traveling excessively easy in modernizing the preparation and engineering used in joint missions.

55. In short, the clip has come to take the bull by the horns. For this, it

will be necessary to reconvene a fresh GOM, served by a group of

experts, and travel further down the route already taken. The Indian

armed forces of the twenty-first century must be equipped to get by with the challenges

with which it is likely to be confronted, non merely with hardware and

work force of the coveted measure and quality but every bit with constructions

which will work these capablenesss in the most efficient and economical

manner. Integrated force development along with operations under unified

bid, is the manner frontward. That is the existent significance of jointness,

non what passes for it today



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